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1.
Public Health Rep ; 136(6): 774-781, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about COVID-19 vaccination intentions among refugee communities in the United States. The objective of this study was to measure COVID-19 vaccination intentions among a sample of refugees in the United States and the reasons for their vaccine acceptance or hesitancy. METHODS: From December 2020 through January 2021, we emailed or text messaged anonymous online surveys to 12 bilingual leaders in the Afghan, Bhutanese, Somali, South Sudanese, and Burmese refugee communities in the United States. We asked community leaders to complete the survey and share the link with community members who met the inclusion criteria (arrived in the United States as refugees, were aged ≥18, and currently lived in the United States). We compared the characteristics of respondents who intended to receive the COVID-19 vaccine with those of respondents who did not intend to receive the vaccine or were unsure. We then conducted crude and adjusted logistic regression analysis to measure the association between employment as an essential worker and COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: Of 435 respondents, 306 (70.3%) indicated that they planned to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Being an essential worker (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.37; 95% CI, 1.44-3.90) and male sex (aOR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.12) were significantly associated with higher odds of intending to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Among respondents who intended to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, wanting to protect themselves (68.6%), family members (65.0%), and other people (54.3%) were the main reasons. CONCLUSION: Many refugees who responded to the survey, especially those who worked in essential industries, intended to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Community organizations, health care providers, and public health agencies should work together to ensure that vaccine registration and vaccination sites are accessible to refugees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Refugees/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Africa/ethnology , Asia/ethnology , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(4): 632.e1-632.e5, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174164

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare the main clinical characteristics and outcome measures in hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) according to geographical area of origin. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 at a referral centre in Madrid, Spain, during March-May 2020 was performed. Recorded variables (age, gender, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, outcome), and geographical area of origin were compared for Europeans and non-Europeans (Latin Americans, Asians and Africans). RESULTS: In total, 2345 patients with confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized during the study period were included in the study. Of these, 1956 (83.4%) were European and 389 (16.6%) were non-European (of whom over 90%, 354/389, were Latin American). Non-Europeans were significantly younger than Europeans (mean 54 (SD 13.5) versus 70.4 (SD 15.1) years, p < 0.001); the majority were male (1420/2345, 60.6%), with no significant differences in gender between Europeans and non-Europeans (1197/1956 (61.2%) male in the European group versus 223/389 (57.3%) male in the non-European group, p 0.15). In-hospital mortality overall was higher in Europeans (443/1956, 22.7%) than in non-Europeans (40/389, 10.3%) (p < 0.001), but there were no significant differences when adjusted for age/gender (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.86-1.88). Non-Europeans were more frequently admitted to ICU (71/389, 18.3%) compared with Europeans (187/1956, 9.6%) (p < 0.001) and a difference in ICU admission rate was also found when adjusted for age/gender (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03-1.98). CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences in mortality were observed between Europeans and non-Europeans (mainly Latin Americans), but an increase in ICU admission rate was found in non-Europeans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Africa/ethnology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asia/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Latin America/ethnology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Young Adult
3.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(4): 632.e1-632.e5, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare the main clinical characteristics and outcome measures in hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) according to geographical area of origin. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 at a referral centre in Madrid, Spain, during March-May 2020 was performed. Recorded variables (age, gender, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, outcome), and geographical area of origin were compared for Europeans and non-Europeans (Latin Americans, Asians and Africans). RESULTS: In total, 2345 patients with confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized during the study period were included in the study. Of these, 1956 (83.4%) were European and 389 (16.6%) were non-European (of whom over 90%, 354/389, were Latin American). Non-Europeans were significantly younger than Europeans (mean 54 (SD 13.5) versus 70.4 (SD 15.1) years, p < 0.001); the majority were male (1420/2345, 60.6%), with no significant differences in gender between Europeans and non-Europeans (1197/1956 (61.2%) male in the European group versus 223/389 (57.3%) male in the non-European group, p 0.15). In-hospital mortality overall was higher in Europeans (443/1956, 22.7%) than in non-Europeans (40/389, 10.3%) (p < 0.001), but there were no significant differences when adjusted for age/gender (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.86-1.88). Non-Europeans were more frequently admitted to ICU (71/389, 18.3%) compared with Europeans (187/1956, 9.6%) (p < 0.001) and a difference in ICU admission rate was also found when adjusted for age/gender (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03-1.98). CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences in mortality were observed between Europeans and non-Europeans (mainly Latin Americans), but an increase in ICU admission rate was found in non-Europeans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Africa/ethnology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asia/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Latin America/ethnology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Young Adult
4.
Nature ; 587(7835): 610-612, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808357

ABSTRACT

A recent genetic association study1 identified a gene cluster on chromosome 3 as a risk locus for respiratory failure after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A separate study (COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative)2 comprising 3,199 hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and control individuals showed that this cluster is the major genetic risk factor for severe symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization. Here we show that the risk is conferred by a genomic segment of around 50 kilobases in size that is inherited from Neanderthals and is carried by around 50% of people in south Asia and around 16% of people in Europe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Neanderthals/genetics , Animals , Asia/ethnology , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3/genetics , Europe/ethnology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Haplotypes/genetics , Hospitalization , Humans , Linkage Disequilibrium/genetics , Multigene Family/genetics , Phylogeny , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology
5.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(4): 304-307, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-776941

ABSTRACT

It has been hypothesized that bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the anti-tuberculosis vaccine, can be protective against Covid-19. Using data of performed swabs and RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in the Reggio Emilia province (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy) from March 6th to March 26th, 2020, we computed age, gender, and place of birth (Italy or abroad) specific risk of being tested, prevalence of positive tests, and probability of testing positive given that a swab has been taken during the epidemic peak. We report that immigrants resident in Reggio Emilia province, mostly coming from Countries with high BCG vaccination coverage, and Italians had a similar prevalence of infection (odds ratio - OR 0.99; 95%CI 0.82-1.20) and similar probability of being tested (OR 0.93; 95%CI 0.81-1.10). Our data do not support the hypothesis that immigrants from Countries where BCG vaccination is recommended have a lower risk of Covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Africa/ethnology , Aged , Asia/ethnology , BCG Vaccine , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poland/ethnology , Prevalence , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage
7.
Gene ; 758: 144944, 2020 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627935

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The relentless spread and pathogenicity of the virus have become a global public health emergency. One of the striking features of this pandemic is the pronounced impact on specific regions and ethnic groups. In particular, compared with East Asia, where the virus first emerged, SARS-CoV-2 has caused high rates of morbidity and mortality in Europe. This has not been experienced in past global viral infections, such as influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and is unique to SARS-CoV-2. For this reason, we investigated the involvement of genetic factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection with a focus on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-related genes, because ACE2 is a receptor for SARS-CoV-2. We found that the ACE1 II genotype frequency in a population was significantly negatively correlated with the number of SARS-CoV-2 cases. Similarly, the ACE1 II genotype was negatively correlated with the number of deaths due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data suggest that the ACE1 II genotype may influence the prevalence and clinical outcome of COVID-19 and serve as a predictive marker for COVID-19 risk and severity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Asia/epidemiology , Asia/ethnology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Europe/ethnology , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Risk , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 529(2): 263-269, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617705

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization recently announced that pandemic status has been achieved for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Exponential increases in patient numbers have been reported around the world, along with proportional increases in the number of COVID-19-related deaths. The SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in a population is expected to be influenced by social practices, availability of vaccines or prophylactics, and the prevalence of susceptibility genes in the population. Previous work revealed that cellular uptake of SARS-CoV-2 requires Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and a cellular protease. The spike (S) protein on SARS-CoV-2 binds ACE-2, which functions as an entry receptor. Following receptor binding, transmembrane protease serine 2 (encoded by TMPRSS2) primes the S protein to allow cellular uptake. Therefore, individual expression of TMPRSS2 may be a crucial determinant of SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility. Here, we utilized multiple large genome databases, including the GTEx portal, SNP nexus, and Ensembl genome project, to identify gene expression profiles for TMPRSS2 and its important expression quantitative trait loci. Our results show that four variants (rs464397, rs469390, rs2070788 and rs383510) affect expression of TMPRSS2 in lung tissue. The allele frequency of each variant was then assessed in regional populations, including African, American, European, and three Asian cohorts (China, Japan and Taiwan). Interestingly, our data shows that TMPRSS2-upregulating variants are at higher frequencies in European and American populations than in the Asian populations, which implies that these populations might be relatively susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Internationality , Lung/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Asia/ethnology , Cohort Studies , Europe/ethnology , Gene Frequency , Genetics, Population , Geographic Mapping , Humans , Organ Specificity/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/ethnology , Up-Regulation/genetics
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