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1.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian-Americans are one of the most understudied racial/ethnic minority populations. To increase representation of Asian subgroups, researchers have traditionally relied on data collection at community venues and events. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has created serious challenges for in-person data collection. In this case study, we describe multi-modal strategies for online recruitment of U.S. Vietnamese parents, compare response rates and participant characteristics among strategies, and discuss lessons learned. METHODS: We recruited 408 participants from community-based organizations (CBOs) (n = 68), Facebook groups (n = 97), listservs (n = 4), personal network (n = 42), and snowball sampling (n = 197). Using chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance, we compared participants recruited through different strategies regarding sociodemographic characteristics, acculturation-related characteristics, and mobile health usage. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71.8% (range: 51.5% for Vietnamese CBOs to 86.6% for Facebook groups). Significant differences exist for all sociodemographic and almost all acculturation-related characteristics among recruitment strategies. Notably, CBO-recruited participants were the oldest, had lived in the U.S. for the longest duration, and had the lowest Vietnamese language ability. We found some similarities between Facebook-recruited participants and those referred by Facebook-recruited participants. Mobile health usage was high and did not vary based on recruitment strategies. Challenges included encountering fraudulent responses (e.g., non-Vietnamese). Perceived benefits and trust appeared to facilitate recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Facebook and snowball sampling may be feasible strategies to recruit U.S. Vietnamese. Findings suggest the potential for mobile-based research implementation. Perceived benefits and trust could encourage participation and may be related to cultural ties. Attention should be paid to recruitment with CBOs and handling fraudulent responses.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Internet , Patient Selection , Adult , Asian Americans/psychology , Cultural Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Selection Bias , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
Epidemiology ; 33(3): 379-382, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778955
3.
Health Promot Pract ; 23(2): 289-295, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770130

ABSTRACT

Through Our Eyes, Hear Our Voices is a virtual photovoice project that documents the impact of COVID-19 on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities. Quantitative studies on the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 are still emerging, but they do not reveal qualitative experiences of a racialized pandemic exacerbated by political leaders labeling it "China virus." As a qualitative participatory action research approach, photovoice is an ideal archival and pedagogical tool to capture the lived experience of AAPI communities. However, we had to adapt photovoice to a virtual research environment. We did so by adopting a variety of digital learning and information sharing platforms. In addition, we enlisted community-based organizations who are providing essential services for underrepresented communities to serve as research mentors for university student researchers. Finally, given the historic nature of the pandemic and the underrepresentation of AAPI experiences in mainstream archives, we emphasized the importance of students as co-producers of archival knowledge.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , COVID-19 , China , Humans
4.
Am J Public Health ; 112(4): 646-649, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760046

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To illustrate the spatiotemporal distribution of geolocated tweets that contain anti-Asian hate language in the contiguous United States during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. We used a data set of geolocated tweets that match with keywords reflecting COVID-19 and anti-Asian hate and identified geographical clusters using the space-time scan statistic with Bernoulli model. Results. Anti-Asian hate language surged between January and March 2020. We found clusters of hate across the contiguous United States. The strongest cluster consisted of a single county (Ross County, Ohio), where the proportion of hateful tweets was 312.13 times higher than for the rest of the country. Conclusions. Anti-Asian hate on Twitter exhibits a significantly clustered spatiotemporal distribution. Clusters vary in size, duration, strength, and location and are scattered across the entire contiguous United States. Public Health Implications. Our results can inform decision-makers in public health and safety for allocating resources for place-based preparedness and response for pandemic-induced racism as a public health threat. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(4):646-649. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306653.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asian Americans , Hate , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , United States/epidemiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753501

ABSTRACT

Evidence-based intervention and policy strategies to address the recent surge of race-motivated hate crimes and other forms of racism against Asian Americans are essential; however, such efforts have been impeded by a lack of empirical knowledge, e.g., about racism, specifically aimed at the Asian American population. Our qualitative descriptive study sought to fill this gap by using a data-mining approach to examine the contents of tweets having the hashtag #StopAsianHate. We collected tweets during a two-week time frame starting on 20 May 2021, when President Joe Biden signed the COVID-19 Hate Crimes Act. Screening of the 31,665 tweets collected revealed that a total of 904 tweets were eligible for thematic analysis. Our analysis revealed five themes: "Asian hate is not new", "Address the harm of racism", "Get involved in #StopAsianHate", "Appreciate the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community's culture, history, and contributions" and "Increase the visibility of the AAPI community." Lessons learned from our findings can serve as a foundation for evidence-based strategies to address racism against Asian Americans both locally and globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Social Media , Asian Americans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hate , Humans , Racism/prevention & control
6.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 296-303, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686117

ABSTRACT

The Asian American health narrative reflects a long history of structural racism in the US and the complex interplay of racialized history, immigrant patterns, and policies regarding Asians in the US. Yet owing to systematic issues in data collection including missing or misclassified data for Asian Americans and practices that lead to indiscriminate grouping of unlike individuals (for example, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Bangladeshi) together in data systems and pervasive stereotypes of Asian Americans, the drivers and experiences of health disparities experienced by these diverse groups remain unclear. The perpetual exclusion and misrepresentation of Asian American experiences in health research is exacerbated by three racialized stereotypes-the model minority, healthy immigrant effect, and perpetual foreigner-that fuel scientific and societal perceptions that Asian Americans do not experience health disparities. This codifies racist biases against the Asian American population in a mutually reinforcing cycle. In this article we describe the poor-quality data infrastructure and biases on the part of researchers and public health professionals, and we highlight examples from the health disparities literature. We provide recommendations on how to implement systems-level change and educational reform to infuse racial equity in future policy and practice for Asian American communities.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , Emigrants and Immigrants , Data Accuracy , Humans , Minority Groups
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 764681, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662635

ABSTRACT

Social media has been crucial for seeking and communicating COVID-19 information. However, social media has also promulgated misinformation, which is particularly concerning among Asian Americans who may rely on in-language information and utilize social media platforms to connect to Asia-based networks. There is limited literature examining social media use for COVID-19 information and the subsequent impact of misinformation on health behaviors among Asian Americans. This perspective reviews recent research, news, and gray literature to examine the dissemination of COVID-19 misinformation on social media platforms to Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, and South Asian Americans. We discuss the linkage of COVID-19 misinformation to health behaviors, with emphasis on COVID-19 vaccine misinformation and vaccine decision-making in Asian American communities. We then discuss community- and research-driven responses to investigate misinformation during the pandemic. Lastly, we propose recommendations to mitigate misinformation and address the COVID-19 infodemic among Asian Americans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Asian Americans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625813

ABSTRACT

Reports of escalated discrimination among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) due to COVID-19 are alarming, making this a public health priority. However, there are limited empirical studies on the scope and impact of COVID-19-related discrimination among AAPIs. Using the COVID-19 Effects on the Mental and Physical Health of AAPI Survey Study (COMPASS) data (N = 4971; survey period: October 2020-February 2021), which is a U.S.-wide multi-lingual survey, we examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with discrimination experiences attributable to being an AAPI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, 60.7% reported experiencing discrimination; the group prevalence ranged from 80.0% (Hmong) to 40.5% (Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders). Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that COVID-19-related factors were associated with many discrimination experiences: having a shelter-in-place order of ≥1 month, living in areas with perceived similar/higher COVID-19 severity, and negative impact in family income/employment due to COVID-19. Additionally, being Asian American (versus Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders), females, non-heterosexuals, younger, more severe effect on family income, living in the non-West, and poorer health were significantly correlated with discrimination experiences. Findings may assist in formulating anti-AAPI-discrimination policies and programs at the local, state, and federal levels. Culturally appropriate programs and policies to combat this are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asian Americans , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
11.
12.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 317-325, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Data on the health burden of COVID-19 among Asian American people of various ethnic subgroups remain limited. We examined COVID-19 outcomes of people of various Asian ethnic subgroups and other racial and ethnic groups in an urban safety net hospital system. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 85 328 adults aged ≥18 tested for COVID-19 at New York City's public hospital system from March 1 through May 31, 2020. We examined COVID-19 positivity, hospitalization, and mortality, as well as demographic characteristics and comorbidities known to worsen COVID-19 outcomes. We conducted adjusted multivariable regression analyses examining racial and ethnic disparities in mortality. RESULTS: Of 9971 Asian patients (11.7% of patients overall), 48.2% were South Asian, 22.2% were Chinese, and 29.6% were in other Asian ethnic groups. South Asian patients had the highest rates of COVID-19 positivity (30.8%) and hospitalization (51.6%) among Asian patients, second overall only to Hispanic (32.1% and 45.8%, respectively) and non-Hispanic Black (27.5% and 57.5%, respectively) patients. Chinese patients had a mortality rate of 35.7%, highest of all racial and ethnic groups. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities, only Chinese patients had significantly higher odds of mortality than non-Hispanic White patients (odds ratio = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04-2.01). CONCLUSIONS: Asian American people, particularly those of South Asian and Chinese descent, bear a substantial and disproportionate health burden of COVID-19. These findings underscore the need for improved data collection and reporting and public health efforts to mitigate disparities in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among these groups.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety-net Providers , Young Adult
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1949, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While previous studies have examined the relationships between social support and health care accessibility among ethnic minority populations, studies on Korean Americans remain scarce. Therefore, this study aims to assess the relationship between Korean Americans' mental health, accessibility to health care, and how they perceive the level of social support during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD/RESULT: We distributed online surveys to Korean Americans from May 24, 2020, to June 14, 2020, generating 790 responses from participants residing in 42 states. Binary Logistic and Ordinary Least Square regression analyses revealed that poor mental health was associated with language barriers inhibiting Korean Americans' access to COVID-19-related information. Their perceived social support from family members and close friends was positively associated with mental health. CONCLUSION: Our findings recommend that equipping community health care services with translators or interpreters is necessary. Additionally, health practitioners and staff should be trained to utilize telehealth tools to effectively treat individuals with mental health problems. American policymakers and health care professionals need to understand and address the unique hardships Korean Americans experience amid COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Asian Americans , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status , Humans , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Social Work , United States/epidemiology
14.
Am Surg ; 87(11): 1701-1703, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556614

ABSTRACT

Inequities in society and health care combined with underlying structural and systemic racism have demonstrated significant consequences which have resulted in a renewed focus on the current state of diversity in health care and the field of surgery. However, efforts to combat racism and increase diversity and inclusion at all levels in the field of surgery require a comprehensive review, significant commitment, and purposeful action to achieve. These actions must include increasing diversity within training program recruitment, improving retention of minority and under-represented trainees, and implementing inclusive, transparent pathways to promotion, leadership, and involvement in scientific inquiry. This symposium brings together experts in surgery, health equity and policy to address antiracism, diversity, equity, and inclusion in a comprehensive manner ranging from workforce diversity and promotion, pipeline diversity, scholarly pursuits, social and political determinants of health.


Subject(s)
Cultural Diversity , Health Equity , Healthcare Disparities , Minority Groups , Social Inclusion , African Americans , Asian Americans , COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Personnel Selection , Personnel Turnover , SARS-CoV-2 , Specialties, Surgical , Violence/trends , Workforce
15.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 47(2): 71-76, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541601

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the wellbeing, pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum experiences of Asian American women who gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative exploratory design. METHODS: Using convenience and snowball sampling, we recruited Asian American women who gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic via social media. Participants completed sociodemographic and depressive symptom questionnaires and took part in a virtual semistructured interview where they were asked to describe their pregnancy, birth, and postpartum experiences in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative content analysis methods were used to identify themes from participant narratives. RESULTS: Thirty-eight Asian American women representing several racial ethnic subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Laotian, Vietnamese) participated in our study. Participants were on average 34 (SD = 3.5) years of age; the majority were married and lived in California. At the time of data collection, participants were 3.7 (SD = 2.07) months postpartum and 5.3 to 10.5 months into the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative content analysis revealed two main themes: 1) unexpected perinatal journey, and 2) the emotional and psychological consequences of COVID-19. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our findings are not unique to Asian American women, but they offer insight for nurses taking care of all childbearing women. Nurses can provide individually tailored anticipatory guidance to help women navigate perinatal changes and manage expectations during future public health crises. Nurses can also encourage and help perinatal women identify ways to increase their own social support networks during the pregnancy and postpartum period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asian Americans/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3545-3549, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525605

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has underscored the structural inequities facing communities of color and its consequences in lives lost. However, little is known about the COVID-related disparities facing Asian Americans amidst the heightened racism and violence against this community. We analyze the mortality toll of COVID-19 on Asian Americans using multiple measures. In 2020, one in seven Asian American deaths was attributable to COVID-19. We find that while Asian Americans make up a small proportion of COVID-19 deaths in the USA, they experience significantly higher excess all-cause mortality (3.1 times higher), case fatality rate (as high as 53% higher), and percentage of deaths attributed to COVID-19 (2.1 times higher) compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Mounting evidence suggest that disproportionately low testing rates, greater disease severity at care presentation, socioeconomic factors, and racial discrimination contribute to the observed disparities. Improving data reporting and uniformly confronting racism are key components to addressing health inequities facing communities of color.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Asian Americans , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
17.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E998-E1004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian Canadians and Asian Americans face COVID-19-related discrimination. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Asian health care workers dealing with discrimination, with a focus on racial micro-agressions, in Canada and the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We adopted a qualitative descriptive approach. We used convenience and snowball sampling strategies to recruit participants. We conducted individual, in-depth semistructured interviews with Asian health care workers in Canada and the US via videoconferencing between May and September 2020. Eligible participants had to self-identify as Asian and be currently employed as a health care worker with at least 1 year of full-time employment. We used an inductive thematic approach to analyze the data. RESULTS: Thirty participants were recruited. Fifteen (50%) were Canadians and 15 (50%) were Americans; there were 18 women (60%), 11 men (37%) and 1 nonbinary person. Most of the participants were aged 25-29 years (n = 16, 53%). More than half were nurses (n = 16, 53%); the other participants were attending physicians (n = 5), physiotherapists (n = 3), resident physicians (n = 2), a midwife, a paramedic, a pharmacist and a physician assistant. Two themes emerged from the data: a surge of racial microaggressions related to COVID-19 and a lack of institutional and public acknowledgement. Participants noted that they have experienced an increase in racial microaggressions during the COVID-19 pandemic. They have also experienced threats of violence and actual violence. The largely silent organizational response to the challenges being faced by people of Asian descent and the use of disparaging terms such as "China virus" in the early stages of the pandemic were a substantial source of frustration. INTERPRETATION: Asian health care workers have experienced challenges in dealing with racial microaggressions related to COVID-19 in the US and Canada. More research should be done on the experiences of Asian Americans and Asian Canadians, both during and after the pandemic, and supportive measures should be put in place to protect Asian health care workers.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Racism/psychology , Adult , Canada , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Workplace Violence/psychology , Xenophobia/psychology
19.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 24(1): 38-47, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469740

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, there has been a surge of discrimination against Asians across the globe. However, there is a knowledge gap of COVID-19 related racial discrimination against Asians in smaller Asian populations. A total of 221 adults living in Florida completed an online survey between June-July 2020. Adjusted logistic regression assessed associations between sociodemographic factors and experienced discrimination, hypervigilance of safety, nervousness in public, and anticipated discrimination. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Asian respondents were more likely than non-Asians to experience discrimination during COVID-19 (AOR = 12.58; 95% CI 4.74, 33.38; p ≤ 0.001). Asians were more likely to anticipate discrimination after the pandemic ends (AOR = 4.35, 95% CI 1.33, 14.17; p < 0.05). We found that Asians in smaller Asian populations suffer from a disproportionate level of discrimination due to COVID-19, relative to non-Asians. Our findings support previous research that racial discrimination exists on a continuum of violence and can have severe negative health consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Adult , Asian Americans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1327-1328, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464000
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