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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e23976, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diverse Asian American population has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but due to limited data and other factors, disparities experienced by this population are hidden. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the Asian American community's experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, California, and to better inform a Federally Qualified Health Center's (FQHC) health care services and response to challenges faced by the community. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey between May 20 and June 23, 2020, using a multipronged recruitment approach, including word-of-mouth, FQHC patient appointments, and social media posts. The survey was self-administered online or administered over the phone by FQHC staff in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, and Vietnamese. Survey question topics included COVID-19 testing and preventative behaviors, economic impacts of COVID-19, experience with perceived mistreatment due to their race/ethnicity, and mental health challenges. RESULTS: Among 1297 Asian American respondents, only 3.1% (39/1273) had previously been tested for COVID-19, and 46.6% (392/841) stated that they could not find a place to get tested. In addition, about two-thirds of respondents (477/707) reported feeling stressed, and 22.6% (160/707) reported feeling depressed. Furthermore, 5.6% (72/1275) of respondents reported being treated unfairly because of their race/ethnicity. Among respondents who experienced economic impacts from COVID-19, 32.2% (246/763) had lost their regular jobs and 22.5% (172/763) had reduced hours or reduced income. Additionally, 70.1% (890/1269) of respondents shared that they avoid leaving their home to go to public places (eg, grocery stores, church, and school). CONCLUSIONS: We found that Asian Americans had lower levels of COVID-19 testing and limited access to testing, a high prevalence of mental health issues and economic impacts, and a high prevalence of risk-avoidant behaviors (eg, not leaving the house) in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings provide preliminary insights into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Asian American communities served by an FQHC and underscore the longstanding need for culturally and linguistically appropriate approaches to providing mental health, outreach, and education services. These findings led to the establishment of the first Asian multilingual and multicultural COVID-19 testing sites in the local area where the study was conducted, and laid the groundwork for subsequent COVID-19 programs, specifically contact tracing and vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Mental Disorders/ethnology , Pandemics , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , San Francisco/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2212183119, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119279

ABSTRACT

About one in six Asian Americans have fallen victim to anti-Asian racism during the COVID-19 pandemic [J. Lee, K. Ramakrishnan, aapidata.com/blog/discrimination-survey-2022/]. By examining anti-Asian racism in the United States primarily as a domestic issue, most prior studies have overlooked the connections between shifting US-China relations and Americans' prejudices against the Chinese in China and, by extension, East Asian Americans. This study investigates the patterns and perceptual bases of nationality-based prejudices against Chinese amid the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Our nationally representative online survey experiment reveals that Americans assess a hypothetical Chinese person in China as inferior in multiple social and psychological characteristics to an otherwise identical Japanese person in Japan or East Asian American. Furthermore, subjects who perceive China as more threatening to America's national interests assess Chinese more negatively, especially in terms of trustworthiness and morality, suggesting that perceived China threats propel Americans' negative stereotypes about Chinese. A contextual analysis further indicates that counties with a higher share of Trump voters in 2016 tend to perceive all East Asian-origin groups similarly as a racial outgroup. By contrast, residents in predominantly Democrat-voting counties tend to perceive Chinese in China more negatively relative to Asian Americans, despite broadly viewing East Asians more favorably. Overall, this study underscores the often-overlooked relationships between the prevailing anti-Asian sentiments in the United States and the US-China geopolitical tensions and America's domestic political polarization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prejudice , Racism/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , Morals , China
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 958999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119875

ABSTRACT

Racism against people of Asian descent increased by over 300% after the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in the United States, with one in five Asian Americans reporting direct experiences with overt discrimination. Large-scale efforts and resources initially, and quite understandably, prioritized investigating the physiological impact of the coronavirus, which has partially delayed research studies targeting the psychological effects of the pandemic. Currently, two studies tracked the unique relationships between psychosocial factors, such as experiencing everyday racism, and the self-reported wellbeing of Asian Americans in the United States and compared these associations with Latinx Americans. Study 1 (April 2020-April 2021) examined how Asian and Latinx Americans varied in their levels of wellbeing, fear of the coronavirus, internalized racism, and everyday experiences with racism. Study 2 (September 2021-April 2022) included the same variables with additional assessments for victimization distress. We used the CDC Museum COVID-19 Timeline to pair collected data from our studies with specific moments in the pandemic-from its known origins to springtime 2022. Results highlighted how slow and deleterious forms of racist violence could wear and tear at the wellbeing of targeted people of color. Overall, this research underscores the possible hidden harms associated with slow-moving forms of racism, as well as some of the unseen stressors experienced by people of color living in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Racism/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Violence
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 961215, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109876

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, anti-Asian racism has surged, yet little is known about Asian Americans' experiences of social support. Therefore, we designed a qualitative, intrinsic, revelatory case study to examine the nature and quality of social support for Asian Americans during the first 6 months of the pandemic. Our sample consisted of 193 Asian Americans (from over 32 U.S. states) disclosing their experiences of inadequate social support. They described their support network as (1) Being unable to relate, (2) Encouraging their silence, (3) Minimizing anti-Asian racism, (4) Denying anti-Asian racism, and (5) Victim-blaming. Regarding our participants' recommendations for increasing social support for Asian Americans, a total of seven recommendations emerged: (1) Legitimize anti-Asian racism, (2) Teach Asian American history, (3) Destigmatize mental health resources to make them accessible for Asian American families (4) Promote bystander intervention trainings, (5) Build solidarity with and beyond Asian Americans to dismantle racism, (6) Increase media attention on anti-Asian racism, and (7) Elect political leaders who will advocate for Asian Americans. Altogether, our findings underscore the need for systemic forms of advocacy to combat anti-Asian racism, and shed light on the injurious nature of social support for Asian American victims of racism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Humans , Asian Americans/psychology , Racism/psychology , Pandemics , Social Support
5.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 31(4): 745-763, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048994

ABSTRACT

This article explores the ways East Asian American (EAA) children and adolescents have experienced disparities in the United States throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The history of racism toward Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) and the complexities of acculturation are reflected through this contemporary lens. Traditional East Asian (EA) values were disrupted during this period. Implications for children and families are discussed. Persistent underlying xenophobia and racism, such as the model minority myth or perpetual foreigner stereotype, rose to new prominence, furthering emotional distress in EA and EAA youths beyond those already experienced universally by AAPI families during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Acculturation , Adolescent , Asian Americans/psychology , Child , Humans , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , United States
6.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 64: 103459, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042054

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to explore the thoughts and feelings of Asian American nursing students regarding Anti-Asian racism that they might anticipate or experience during their clinical training. BACKGROUND: Asian Americans have long been viewed as perpetual foreigners and coronavirus disease 2019 has reinforced that negative view. Asian American nursing students may anticipate and experience racial discrimination during their clinical training, which could negatively affect their mental health. DESIGN: This is a qualitative research study using focus group discussions. METHOD: Focus group discussions were conducted over Zoom and audiotaped. The audiotapes were transcribed and validated for accuracy. A thematic analysis was performed using NVivo10. Emerging themes and subthemes were compared and discussed until agreements were made. RESULTS: Nineteen students participated in four focus group meetings, of which, 13 (68 %) had clinical training and six (32 %) were preclinical students. Four major themes emerged: (a) looking forward to hands-on learning opportunities, (b) enduring racial microaggressions, (c) maintaining professionalism in the face of racial microaggressions and (d) standing up for oneself and other Asian American healthcare workers. Preclinical students were anxiously waiting for clinical training so that they could have hands-on learning experiences. They anticipated that anti-Asian racism in clinical settings would be similar to what they had experienced on the streets and therefore, they were not afraid of it. Students who had clinical training reported experiencing a variety of racial microaggressions that varied from "side-eyes" to "verbal assault" and occurred at three levels: patients, nurses and clinical instructors. They reported that most of the microaggressions were familiar to them, but some, especially coming from their clinical instructors, were unique to clinical settings. CONCLUSION: Asian American nursing students experienced racial microaggressions during their clinical training which came from patients, nurses on the unit and their clinical instructors. Nevertheless, the students strove to maintain professionalism and stand up for themselves and other Asian healthcare workers as they gained confidence in clinical knowledge and skills.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Students, Nursing , Aggression/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , Focus Groups , Humans , Microaggression , Pandemics , Racism/psychology
7.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 41(7): 1653-1663, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992768

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Before COVID-19, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NH/PI) endured a heavy burden of alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) use in prior US data. Responding to reports that many NH/PI communities experienced severe COVID-19 disparities that could exacerbate their ATOD burden, we partnered with NH/PI communities to assess the substance use patterns and treatment needs of diverse NH/PIs during COVID-19. METHODS: Collaborating with NH/PI community organisations across five states with large NH/PI populations, we conducted a large-scale investigation of NH/PI ATOD use, mental health and treatment need during COVID-19. Between April and November 2021, NH/PI-heritage research staff from our community partners collected data involving 306 NH/PI adults using several community-based recruitment methods (e-mail, telephone, in-person) and two survey approaches: online and paper-and-pencil. Multivariate regressions were conducted to examine potential predictors of NH/PI alcohol use disorder and need for behavioural health treatment. RESULTS: During COVID-19, 47% and 22% of NH/PI adults reported current alcohol and cigarette use, while 35% reported lifetime illicit substance use (e.g., cannabis, opioid). Depression and anxiety were high, and alcohol use disorder, major depression and generalised anxiety disorder prevalence were 27%, 27% and 19%, respectively. One-third of participants reported past-year treatment need with lifetime illicit substance use, COVID-19 distress and major depression respectively associating with 3.0, 1.2, and 5.3 times greater adjusted odds for needing treatment. CONCLUSIONS: NH/PI adults reported heavy ATOD use, depression, anxiety and treatment need during COVID-19. Targeted research and treatment services may be warranted to mitigate COVID-19's negative behavioural health impact on NH/PI communities.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Tobacco Products , Adult , United States , Humans , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Tobacco , Asian Americans/psychology , Mental Health , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Hawaii , Prevalence
8.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 24(4): 970-976, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971770

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine how perceived racial discrimination is associated with mental distress among diverse Asian Americans and to explore the potential moderators in the relationship. Based on the 2015 Asian American Quality of Life (AAQoL) survey (n = 2609), direct influences were tested of the contextual (demographic, health-related, and immigration-related) variables and perceived racial discrimination on mental distress, as well as their interactions. About 30% of the sample reported perceived racial discrimination, and 44% fell into the category of having mental distress. Perceived racial discrimination was associated with 1.90 times higher odds of mental distress and had significant interactions with age, education, and ethnicity. The association of mental distress with perceived racial discrimination was higher among those who were 60 or older, less educated, and Vietnamese than among their respective counterparts. Findings can guide strategic and targeted interventions for high-risk groups.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , Racism , Asian Americans/psychology , Ethnicity , Humans , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Racism/psychology
9.
LGBT Health ; 9(6): 418-425, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908718

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study examined differences in self-reported physical violence and psychological distress among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) sexual minority men (SMM) before and during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic (2019 vs. 2020). Methods: We used data from 1127 AAPI SMM who completed the 2019 (August 2019-December 2019) and 2020 (August 2020-January 2021) cycles of the American Men's Internet Survey (AMIS). We assessed differences in experiencing physical violence and serious psychological distress by year of survey completion. We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to examine whether physical violence was associated with serious psychological distress before and during COVID-19. Multivariate analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and the interaction between year and violence. Results: A greater percentage of AAPI SMM had serious psychological distress in 2020 during the pandemic relative to 2019 before the pandemic (56.6% vs. 35.64%, p < 0.001). AAPI SMM who experienced physical violence in the last 6 months were more likely to experience serious psychological distress than those who never experienced physical violence. The association between violence and psychological distress among AAPI SMM was not significantly different before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: Violence against AAPI SMM in the United States is widespread. Although we did not find significant differences in exposure to physical violence among AAPI SMM before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, the increase in serious psychological distress during the pandemic among AAPI SMM may indicate heightened need of mental health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Asian Americans/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Physical Abuse , United States/epidemiology
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian-Americans are one of the most understudied racial/ethnic minority populations. To increase representation of Asian subgroups, researchers have traditionally relied on data collection at community venues and events. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has created serious challenges for in-person data collection. In this case study, we describe multi-modal strategies for online recruitment of U.S. Vietnamese parents, compare response rates and participant characteristics among strategies, and discuss lessons learned. METHODS: We recruited 408 participants from community-based organizations (CBOs) (n = 68), Facebook groups (n = 97), listservs (n = 4), personal network (n = 42), and snowball sampling (n = 197). Using chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance, we compared participants recruited through different strategies regarding sociodemographic characteristics, acculturation-related characteristics, and mobile health usage. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71.8% (range: 51.5% for Vietnamese CBOs to 86.6% for Facebook groups). Significant differences exist for all sociodemographic and almost all acculturation-related characteristics among recruitment strategies. Notably, CBO-recruited participants were the oldest, had lived in the U.S. for the longest duration, and had the lowest Vietnamese language ability. We found some similarities between Facebook-recruited participants and those referred by Facebook-recruited participants. Mobile health usage was high and did not vary based on recruitment strategies. Challenges included encountering fraudulent responses (e.g., non-Vietnamese). Perceived benefits and trust appeared to facilitate recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Facebook and snowball sampling may be feasible strategies to recruit U.S. Vietnamese. Findings suggest the potential for mobile-based research implementation. Perceived benefits and trust could encourage participation and may be related to cultural ties. Attention should be paid to recruitment with CBOs and handling fraudulent responses.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Internet , Patient Selection , Adult , Asian Americans/psychology , Cultural Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Selection Bias , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 47(2): 71-76, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541601

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the wellbeing, pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum experiences of Asian American women who gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative exploratory design. METHODS: Using convenience and snowball sampling, we recruited Asian American women who gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic via social media. Participants completed sociodemographic and depressive symptom questionnaires and took part in a virtual semistructured interview where they were asked to describe their pregnancy, birth, and postpartum experiences in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative content analysis methods were used to identify themes from participant narratives. RESULTS: Thirty-eight Asian American women representing several racial ethnic subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Laotian, Vietnamese) participated in our study. Participants were on average 34 (SD = 3.5) years of age; the majority were married and lived in California. At the time of data collection, participants were 3.7 (SD = 2.07) months postpartum and 5.3 to 10.5 months into the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative content analysis revealed two main themes: 1) unexpected perinatal journey, and 2) the emotional and psychological consequences of COVID-19. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our findings are not unique to Asian American women, but they offer insight for nurses taking care of all childbearing women. Nurses can provide individually tailored anticipatory guidance to help women navigate perinatal changes and manage expectations during future public health crises. Nurses can also encourage and help perinatal women identify ways to increase their own social support networks during the pregnancy and postpartum period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asian Americans/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E998-E1004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian Canadians and Asian Americans face COVID-19-related discrimination. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Asian health care workers dealing with discrimination, with a focus on racial micro-agressions, in Canada and the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We adopted a qualitative descriptive approach. We used convenience and snowball sampling strategies to recruit participants. We conducted individual, in-depth semistructured interviews with Asian health care workers in Canada and the US via videoconferencing between May and September 2020. Eligible participants had to self-identify as Asian and be currently employed as a health care worker with at least 1 year of full-time employment. We used an inductive thematic approach to analyze the data. RESULTS: Thirty participants were recruited. Fifteen (50%) were Canadians and 15 (50%) were Americans; there were 18 women (60%), 11 men (37%) and 1 nonbinary person. Most of the participants were aged 25-29 years (n = 16, 53%). More than half were nurses (n = 16, 53%); the other participants were attending physicians (n = 5), physiotherapists (n = 3), resident physicians (n = 2), a midwife, a paramedic, a pharmacist and a physician assistant. Two themes emerged from the data: a surge of racial microaggressions related to COVID-19 and a lack of institutional and public acknowledgement. Participants noted that they have experienced an increase in racial microaggressions during the COVID-19 pandemic. They have also experienced threats of violence and actual violence. The largely silent organizational response to the challenges being faced by people of Asian descent and the use of disparaging terms such as "China virus" in the early stages of the pandemic were a substantial source of frustration. INTERPRETATION: Asian health care workers have experienced challenges in dealing with racial microaggressions related to COVID-19 in the US and Canada. More research should be done on the experiences of Asian Americans and Asian Canadians, both during and after the pandemic, and supportive measures should be put in place to protect Asian health care workers.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Racism/psychology , Adult , Canada , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Workplace Violence/psychology , Xenophobia/psychology
13.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 24(4): 909-917, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465887

ABSTRACT

Asian Americans have experienced compounding stressors during the pandemic as a result of racial discrimination. We aim of to investigate the prevalence of depression symptoms among Asian Americans before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and examine differences based on socio-demographic factors. Data are from a cross-sectional study (N = 636) among Chinese and South Asian adults in Chicago collected between February and May 2020. One cohort of participants were surveyed from each ethnic group before the pandemic and a second cohort of participants were surveyed during the pandemic. Depression symptoms increased more than two-fold, from 9% pre-pandemic to 21% during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found an increase in depression symptoms during the pandemic for South Asians, men and adults older than 30 years. These findings call for public health education that effectively addresses anti-Asian harassment and violence and ensure that culturally competent mental health services are provided to Asian Americans from diverse ethnic backgrounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Asian Americans/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Ethnicity , Humans , Male , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
14.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 693-700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428767

ABSTRACT

In the midst of a global pandemic and movements for racial justice, there is an opportunity to (re)imagine an Asian Americanist psychology that can bring about a more just society. The authors describe the contours of an Asian Americanist psychology that is grounded in historical context, an intersectional analysis, and representational ethics while focusing on community strengths and structural change. The article concludes with calls to action for Asian American psychologists, other psychologists of color, and White psychologists to envision a new era that centers Asian Americans in the multiracial pursuit of social justice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , Psychology , Social Justice/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Racism , Xenophobia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379372

ABSTRACT

Mounting reports in the media suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified prejudice and discrimination against racial/ethnic minorities, especially Asians. Existing research has focused on discrimination against Asians and is primarily based on self-reported incidents or nonrepresentative samples. We investigate the extent to which COVID-19 has fueled prejudice and discrimination against multiple racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States by examining nationally representative survey data with an embedded vignette experiment about roommate selection (collected in August 2020; n = 5,000). We find that priming COVID-19 salience has an immediate, statistically significant impact: compared to the control group, respondents in the treatment group exhibited increased prejudice and discriminatory intent against East Asian, South Asian, and Hispanic hypothetical room-seekers. The treatment effect is more pronounced in increasing extreme negative attitudes toward the three minority groups than decreasing extreme positive attitudes toward them. This is partly due to the treatment increasing the proportion of respondents who perceive these minority groups as extremely culturally incompatible (Asians and Hispanics) and extremely irresponsible (Asians). Sociopolitical factors did not moderate the treatment effects on attitudes toward Asians, but prior social contact with Hispanics mitigated prejudices against them. These findings suggest that COVID-19-fueled prejudice and discrimination have not been limited to East Asians but are part of a broader phenomenon that has affected Asians generally and Hispanics as well.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Prejudice , Attitude , COVID-19/ethnology , Humans , Intention , Minority Groups/psychology , Pandemics , Prejudice/ethnology , Racism/ethnology , Racism/psychology , United States
16.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 627-642, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364573

ABSTRACT

Anti-Asian racism has spiked since the outbreak of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, creating compounded threats to Asian Americans' psychological wellbeing on top of other pandemic stressors (e.g., fears of infection, financial insecurity, or quarantine isolation). COVID-19 anti-Asian racism signifies the relevance of race and racism during public health crises and highlights the importance of examining the psychological impacts of racialized stress and avenues for resilience during a pandemic. This article describes a conceptual model that emphasizes the importance of rechanneling the experience of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism toward resilience. Specifically, the proposed model identifies a tripartite process of collective psychosocial resilience, comprised of (a) critical consciousness of discrimination as a common fate, (b) critical consciousness-informed racial/ethnic identity, and (c) advocacy, for empowering Asian Americans and protecting them against the harmful effects of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism during and beyond the pandemic. Theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the proposed tripartite process for cultivating resilience against COVID-19 anti-Asian racism are delineated. Practice implications and future research directions, as informed and revealed by the conceptual model, are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Racism , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Models, Psychological , Racism/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , United States/epidemiology
17.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 643-657, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364572

ABSTRACT

This study examines adjustment patterns among a group neglected in developmental science-Asian American students in high-achieving schools. National reports have declared such schools to connote risk for elevated problems among teens. Asian American students are commonly referred to as model minorities, but little is known about adjustment issues within academically competitive settings, specifically. Guided by past research on culturally salient issues, multiple U.S. high schools were examined to (a) determine areas of relative strength versus weakness in adjustment of Asian Americans compared with Whites, and (b) more importantly, to illuminate salient within-group processes related to Asian Americans' well-being. Risk modifiers examined were perceptions of ethnic discrimination, parent perfectionism, internalized achievement pressure, authenticity in self-presentation, and closeness to school adults. Outcome variables included depression, anxiety, and isolation at school. Results demonstrated that Asian Americans fared better than Whites on anxiety and school isolation, but with low effect sizes. By contrast, they fared more poorly on almost all risk modifiers, with a large effect size on discrimination. Regression results showed that among Asian Americans the most consistent associations, across cohorts and outcomes, were for discrimination and authenticity. Findings underscore the need for greater recognition that discrimination could be inimical for students not typically thought of as vulnerable-Asian Americans in high-achieving schools; these issues are especially pressing in light of increased racism following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results also suggest that feelings of inauthenticity could be a marker of generalized vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Implications for future theory and interventions are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , COVID-19 , Racism , Resilience, Psychological , Self Concept , Adolescent , Asian Americans/psychology , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Racism/psychology , Risk , Schools , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(8): 1455-1458, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301742

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, Asian Americans have been subjected to rising overt discrimination and violent hate crimes, highlighting the health implications of racism toward Asian Americans. As Asian Americans are the only group for whom cancer is the leading cause of death, these manifestations of anti-Asian racism provoke the question of the impact of racism across the cancer continuum for Asian Americans. In this Commentary, we describe how the myth of the "model minority" overlooks the diversity of Asian Americans. Ignoring such diversity in sociocultural trends, immigration patterns, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and barriers to care masks disparities in cancer risk, access to care, and outcomes across Asian American populations. We recommend cancer epidemiologists, population science researchers, and oncology providers direct attention toward: (i) studying the impacts of structural and personally mediated racism on cancer risk and outcomes; (ii) ensuring studies reflect the uniqueness of individual ethnic groups, including intersectionality, and uncover underlying disparities; and (iii) applying a critical race theory approach that considers the unique lived experiences of each group. A more nuanced understanding of cancer health disparities, and how drivers of these disparities are associated with race and differ across Asian American ethnicities, may elucidate means through which these disparities can be alleviated.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Ethics, Research/education , Healthcare Disparities , Neoplasms/therapy , Racism/prevention & control , Asian Americans/psychology , Health Behavior , Humans , Racism/ethnology , Racism/psychology , Social Class
20.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 508-517, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Experiences of vicarious racism-hearing about racism directed toward one's racial group or racist acts committed against other racial group members-and vigilance about racial discrimination have been salient during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined vicarious racism and vigilance in relation to symptoms of depression and anxiety among Asian and Black Americans. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional study of 604 Asian American and 844 Black American adults aged ≥18 in the United States recruited from 5 US cities from May 21 through July 15, 2020. Multivariable linear regression models examined levels of depression and anxiety by self-reported vicarious racism and vigilance. RESULTS: Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, among both Asian and Black Americans, greater self-reported vicarious racism was associated with more symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.92 [95% CI, 0.97-2.87]; Black: ß = 1.72 [95% CI, 0.95-2.49]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 2.40 [95% CI, 1.48-3.32]; Black: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.17-2.78]). Vigilance was also positively related to symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.54 [95% CI, 0.58-2.50]; Black: ß = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.12-1.67]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.05-2.91]; Black: ß = 1.64 [95% CI, 0.82-2.45]). CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems are a pressing concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results from our study suggest that heightened racist sentiment, harassment, and violence against Asian and Black Americans contribute to increased risk of depression and anxiety via vicarious racism and vigilance. Public health efforts during this period should address endemic racism as well as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , Anxiety/ethnology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/ethnology , Racism/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Racism/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
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