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1.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E998-E1004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian Canadians and Asian Americans face COVID-19-related discrimination. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Asian health care workers dealing with discrimination, with a focus on racial micro-agressions, in Canada and the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We adopted a qualitative descriptive approach. We used convenience and snowball sampling strategies to recruit participants. We conducted individual, in-depth semistructured interviews with Asian health care workers in Canada and the US via videoconferencing between May and September 2020. Eligible participants had to self-identify as Asian and be currently employed as a health care worker with at least 1 year of full-time employment. We used an inductive thematic approach to analyze the data. RESULTS: Thirty participants were recruited. Fifteen (50%) were Canadians and 15 (50%) were Americans; there were 18 women (60%), 11 men (37%) and 1 nonbinary person. Most of the participants were aged 25-29 years (n = 16, 53%). More than half were nurses (n = 16, 53%); the other participants were attending physicians (n = 5), physiotherapists (n = 3), resident physicians (n = 2), a midwife, a paramedic, a pharmacist and a physician assistant. Two themes emerged from the data: a surge of racial microaggressions related to COVID-19 and a lack of institutional and public acknowledgement. Participants noted that they have experienced an increase in racial microaggressions during the COVID-19 pandemic. They have also experienced threats of violence and actual violence. The largely silent organizational response to the challenges being faced by people of Asian descent and the use of disparaging terms such as "China virus" in the early stages of the pandemic were a substantial source of frustration. INTERPRETATION: Asian health care workers have experienced challenges in dealing with racial microaggressions related to COVID-19 in the US and Canada. More research should be done on the experiences of Asian Americans and Asian Canadians, both during and after the pandemic, and supportive measures should be put in place to protect Asian health care workers.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Racism/psychology , Adult , Canada , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Workplace Violence/psychology , Xenophobia/psychology
2.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 693-700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428767

ABSTRACT

In the midst of a global pandemic and movements for racial justice, there is an opportunity to (re)imagine an Asian Americanist psychology that can bring about a more just society. The authors describe the contours of an Asian Americanist psychology that is grounded in historical context, an intersectional analysis, and representational ethics while focusing on community strengths and structural change. The article concludes with calls to action for Asian American psychologists, other psychologists of color, and White psychologists to envision a new era that centers Asian Americans in the multiracial pursuit of social justice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , Psychology , Social Justice/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Racism , Xenophobia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379372

ABSTRACT

Mounting reports in the media suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified prejudice and discrimination against racial/ethnic minorities, especially Asians. Existing research has focused on discrimination against Asians and is primarily based on self-reported incidents or nonrepresentative samples. We investigate the extent to which COVID-19 has fueled prejudice and discrimination against multiple racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States by examining nationally representative survey data with an embedded vignette experiment about roommate selection (collected in August 2020; n = 5,000). We find that priming COVID-19 salience has an immediate, statistically significant impact: compared to the control group, respondents in the treatment group exhibited increased prejudice and discriminatory intent against East Asian, South Asian, and Hispanic hypothetical room-seekers. The treatment effect is more pronounced in increasing extreme negative attitudes toward the three minority groups than decreasing extreme positive attitudes toward them. This is partly due to the treatment increasing the proportion of respondents who perceive these minority groups as extremely culturally incompatible (Asians and Hispanics) and extremely irresponsible (Asians). Sociopolitical factors did not moderate the treatment effects on attitudes toward Asians, but prior social contact with Hispanics mitigated prejudices against them. These findings suggest that COVID-19-fueled prejudice and discrimination have not been limited to East Asians but are part of a broader phenomenon that has affected Asians generally and Hispanics as well.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Prejudice , Attitude , COVID-19/ethnology , Humans , Intention , Minority Groups/psychology , Pandemics , Prejudice/ethnology , Racism/ethnology , Racism/psychology , United States
4.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 627-642, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364573

ABSTRACT

Anti-Asian racism has spiked since the outbreak of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, creating compounded threats to Asian Americans' psychological wellbeing on top of other pandemic stressors (e.g., fears of infection, financial insecurity, or quarantine isolation). COVID-19 anti-Asian racism signifies the relevance of race and racism during public health crises and highlights the importance of examining the psychological impacts of racialized stress and avenues for resilience during a pandemic. This article describes a conceptual model that emphasizes the importance of rechanneling the experience of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism toward resilience. Specifically, the proposed model identifies a tripartite process of collective psychosocial resilience, comprised of (a) critical consciousness of discrimination as a common fate, (b) critical consciousness-informed racial/ethnic identity, and (c) advocacy, for empowering Asian Americans and protecting them against the harmful effects of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism during and beyond the pandemic. Theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the proposed tripartite process for cultivating resilience against COVID-19 anti-Asian racism are delineated. Practice implications and future research directions, as informed and revealed by the conceptual model, are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Racism , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Models, Psychological , Racism/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , United States/epidemiology
5.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 643-657, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364572

ABSTRACT

This study examines adjustment patterns among a group neglected in developmental science-Asian American students in high-achieving schools. National reports have declared such schools to connote risk for elevated problems among teens. Asian American students are commonly referred to as model minorities, but little is known about adjustment issues within academically competitive settings, specifically. Guided by past research on culturally salient issues, multiple U.S. high schools were examined to (a) determine areas of relative strength versus weakness in adjustment of Asian Americans compared with Whites, and (b) more importantly, to illuminate salient within-group processes related to Asian Americans' well-being. Risk modifiers examined were perceptions of ethnic discrimination, parent perfectionism, internalized achievement pressure, authenticity in self-presentation, and closeness to school adults. Outcome variables included depression, anxiety, and isolation at school. Results demonstrated that Asian Americans fared better than Whites on anxiety and school isolation, but with low effect sizes. By contrast, they fared more poorly on almost all risk modifiers, with a large effect size on discrimination. Regression results showed that among Asian Americans the most consistent associations, across cohorts and outcomes, were for discrimination and authenticity. Findings underscore the need for greater recognition that discrimination could be inimical for students not typically thought of as vulnerable-Asian Americans in high-achieving schools; these issues are especially pressing in light of increased racism following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results also suggest that feelings of inauthenticity could be a marker of generalized vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Implications for future theory and interventions are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , COVID-19 , Racism , Resilience, Psychological , Self Concept , Adolescent , Asian Americans/psychology , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Racism/psychology , Risk , Schools , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian-Americans are one of the most understudied racial/ethnic minority populations. To increase representation of Asian subgroups, researchers have traditionally relied on data collection at community venues and events. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has created serious challenges for in-person data collection. In this case study, we describe multi-modal strategies for online recruitment of U.S. Vietnamese parents, compare response rates and participant characteristics among strategies, and discuss lessons learned. METHODS: We recruited 408 participants from community-based organizations (CBOs) (n = 68), Facebook groups (n = 97), listservs (n = 4), personal network (n = 42), and snowball sampling (n = 197). Using chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance, we compared participants recruited through different strategies regarding sociodemographic characteristics, acculturation-related characteristics, and mobile health usage. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71.8% (range: 51.5% for Vietnamese CBOs to 86.6% for Facebook groups). Significant differences exist for all sociodemographic and almost all acculturation-related characteristics among recruitment strategies. Notably, CBO-recruited participants were the oldest, had lived in the U.S. for the longest duration, and had the lowest Vietnamese language ability. We found some similarities between Facebook-recruited participants and those referred by Facebook-recruited participants. Mobile health usage was high and did not vary based on recruitment strategies. Challenges included encountering fraudulent responses (e.g., non-Vietnamese). Perceived benefits and trust appeared to facilitate recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Facebook and snowball sampling may be feasible strategies to recruit U.S. Vietnamese. Findings suggest the potential for mobile-based research implementation. Perceived benefits and trust could encourage participation and may be related to cultural ties. Attention should be paid to recruitment with CBOs and handling fraudulent responses.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Internet , Patient Selection , Adult , Asian Americans/psychology , Cultural Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Selection Bias , Socioeconomic Factors
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(8): 1455-1458, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301742

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, Asian Americans have been subjected to rising overt discrimination and violent hate crimes, highlighting the health implications of racism toward Asian Americans. As Asian Americans are the only group for whom cancer is the leading cause of death, these manifestations of anti-Asian racism provoke the question of the impact of racism across the cancer continuum for Asian Americans. In this Commentary, we describe how the myth of the "model minority" overlooks the diversity of Asian Americans. Ignoring such diversity in sociocultural trends, immigration patterns, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and barriers to care masks disparities in cancer risk, access to care, and outcomes across Asian American populations. We recommend cancer epidemiologists, population science researchers, and oncology providers direct attention toward: (i) studying the impacts of structural and personally mediated racism on cancer risk and outcomes; (ii) ensuring studies reflect the uniqueness of individual ethnic groups, including intersectionality, and uncover underlying disparities; and (iii) applying a critical race theory approach that considers the unique lived experiences of each group. A more nuanced understanding of cancer health disparities, and how drivers of these disparities are associated with race and differ across Asian American ethnicities, may elucidate means through which these disparities can be alleviated.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Ethics, Research/education , Healthcare Disparities , Neoplasms/therapy , Racism/prevention & control , Asian Americans/psychology , Health Behavior , Humans , Racism/ethnology , Racism/psychology , Social Class
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e23976, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diverse Asian American population has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but due to limited data and other factors, disparities experienced by this population are hidden. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the Asian American community's experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, California, and to better inform a Federally Qualified Health Center's (FQHC) health care services and response to challenges faced by the community. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey between May 20 and June 23, 2020, using a multipronged recruitment approach, including word-of-mouth, FQHC patient appointments, and social media posts. The survey was self-administered online or administered over the phone by FQHC staff in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, and Vietnamese. Survey question topics included COVID-19 testing and preventative behaviors, economic impacts of COVID-19, experience with perceived mistreatment due to their race/ethnicity, and mental health challenges. RESULTS: Among 1297 Asian American respondents, only 3.1% (39/1273) had previously been tested for COVID-19, and 46.6% (392/841) stated that they could not find a place to get tested. In addition, about two-thirds of respondents (477/707) reported feeling stressed, and 22.6% (160/707) reported feeling depressed. Furthermore, 5.6% (72/1275) of respondents reported being treated unfairly because of their race/ethnicity. Among respondents who experienced economic impacts from COVID-19, 32.2% (246/763) had lost their regular jobs and 22.5% (172/763) had reduced hours or reduced income. Additionally, 70.1% (890/1269) of respondents shared that they avoid leaving their home to go to public places (eg, grocery stores, church, and school). CONCLUSIONS: We found that Asian Americans had lower levels of COVID-19 testing and limited access to testing, a high prevalence of mental health issues and economic impacts, and a high prevalence of risk-avoidant behaviors (eg, not leaving the house) in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings provide preliminary insights into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Asian American communities served by an FQHC and underscore the longstanding need for culturally and linguistically appropriate approaches to providing mental health, outreach, and education services. These findings led to the establishment of the first Asian multilingual and multicultural COVID-19 testing sites in the local area where the study was conducted, and laid the groundwork for subsequent COVID-19 programs, specifically contact tracing and vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Mental Disorders/ethnology , Pandemics , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , San Francisco/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251960, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243846

ABSTRACT

Social distancing prescribed by policy makers in response to COVID-19 raises important questions as to how effectively people of color can distance. Due to inequalities from residential segregation, Hispanic and Black populations have challenges in meeting health expectations. However, segregated neighborhoods also support the formation of social bonds that relate to healthy behaviors. We evaluate the question of non-White distancing using social mobility data from Google on three sites: workplaces, grocery stores, and recreational locations. Employing hierarchical linear modeling and geographically weighted regression, we find the relation of race/ethnicity to COVID-19 distancing is varied across the United States. The HLM models show that compared to Black populations, Hispanic populations overall more effectively distance from recreation sites and grocery stores: each point increase in percent Hispanic was related to residents being 0.092 percent less likely (p< 0.05) to visit recreational sites and 0.127 percent less likely (p< 0.01) to visit grocery stores since the onset of COVID-19. However, the GWR models show there are places where the percent Black is locally related to recreation distancing while percent Hispanic is not. Further, these models show the association of percent Black to recreation and grocery distancing can be locally as strong as 1.057 percent (p< 0.05) and 0.989 percent (p< 0.05), respectively. Next, the HLM models identified that Black/White residential isolation was related to less distancing, with each point of isolation residents were 11.476 percent more likely (p< 0.01) to go to recreational sites and 7.493 percent more likely (p< 0.05) to visit grocery stores compared to before COVID-19. These models did not find a measurable advantage/disadvantage for Black populations in these places compared to White populations. COVID-19 policy should not assume disadvantage in achieving social distancing accrue equally to different racial/ethnic minorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , African Americans/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Supermarkets , United States/epidemiology , Workplace
11.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 508-517, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Experiences of vicarious racism-hearing about racism directed toward one's racial group or racist acts committed against other racial group members-and vigilance about racial discrimination have been salient during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined vicarious racism and vigilance in relation to symptoms of depression and anxiety among Asian and Black Americans. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional study of 604 Asian American and 844 Black American adults aged ≥18 in the United States recruited from 5 US cities from May 21 through July 15, 2020. Multivariable linear regression models examined levels of depression and anxiety by self-reported vicarious racism and vigilance. RESULTS: Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, among both Asian and Black Americans, greater self-reported vicarious racism was associated with more symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.92 [95% CI, 0.97-2.87]; Black: ß = 1.72 [95% CI, 0.95-2.49]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 2.40 [95% CI, 1.48-3.32]; Black: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.17-2.78]). Vigilance was also positively related to symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.54 [95% CI, 0.58-2.50]; Black: ß = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.12-1.67]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.05-2.91]; Black: ß = 1.64 [95% CI, 0.82-2.45]). CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems are a pressing concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results from our study suggest that heightened racist sentiment, harassment, and violence against Asian and Black Americans contribute to increased risk of depression and anxiety via vicarious racism and vigilance. Public health efforts during this period should address endemic racism as well as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , Anxiety/ethnology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/ethnology , Racism/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Racism/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
12.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(2): 169-184, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169378

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of COVID-19, there have been growing reports of racial harassment targeting Asian Americans. We study one such manifestation of racial harassment that Asian employees may face in the workplace: Leaders' use of stigmatizing labels for COVID-19 such as the "Chinese Virus" and "Kung Flu." Integrating organizational justice theories with research on racial harassment in the workplace, we theorize that leaders' use of stigmatizing COVID-19 labels reduces employees' perceptions of interpersonal justice, which subsequently impact employees' emotional exhaustion and work engagement. We further theorize that while such effects will be stronger among Asian employees who experience both moral anger and reduced public collective self-esteem, that the effects will also be present among non-Asian employees who experience moral anger. Using one survey (Study 1) and one experiment (Study 2), we find support for our predictions. We find that leaders' use of stigmatizing language to depict COVID-19 leads to deleterious workplace experiences for employees, and especially for Asian employees. The current research thus deepens our understanding of the relatively understudied work experiences of Asian Americans and brings to light the underlying psychological mechanisms linking racial harassment and employee work outcomes for both targeted employees and employees not targeted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , Communication , Leadership , Racism/psychology , Workplace/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morals , Organizational Culture , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Ethn Health ; 26(1): 94-109, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with the stigmatization of people of Asian descent during COVID-19 in the United States and factors that can mitigate or prevent stigmatization. DESIGN: A national sample survey of adults (N = 842) was conducted online between May 11 and May 19, 2020. Outcome variables were two dimensions of stigmatization, responsibility and persons as risk. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Racial prejudice, maladaptive coping, and biased media use each explained stigmatization. Racial prejudice, comprising stereotypical beliefs and emotion toward Asian Americans, was a stronger predictor of stigmatization than maladaptive coping or biased media use. Fear concerning the ongoing COVID-19 situation and the use of social media and partisan cable TV also predicted stigmatization. Low self-efficacy in dealing with COVID-19, when associated with high estimated harm of COVID-19, increased stigmatization. High perceived institutional efficacy in the handling of COVID-19 increased stigmatization when linked to high estimated harm of COVID-19. On the other hand, high perceived collective efficacy in coping with COVID-19 was associated with low stigmatization. More indirect contacts with Asians via the media predicted less stigmatization. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to reduce stigmatization should address racial stereotypes and emotions, maladaptive coping, and biased media use by providing education and resources to the public. Fostering collective efficacy and media-based contacts with Asian Americans can facilitate these efforts.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/ethnology , Racism/psychology , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Stereotyping , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
16.
Int J Psychol ; 56(4): 522-531, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1018033

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of xenophobic and racist incidents directed at Chinese Americans have escalated. The present study adds further understanding to potential psychosocial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing self-reported questionnaire data from two groups of Chinese students attending a public university in western United States: the group who participated in the study before the outbreak of COVID-19 (Pre-COVID, N = 134), and the group who participated at the beginning (during-COVID, N = 64). The aim of the study was to: (a) compare mean differences in perceived discrimination and anxiety between the two groups, (b) test whether COVID-19 moderated the link between perceived discrimination and anxiety, and (c) examine whether media exposure portraying Chinese individuals negatively mediated relations between COVID-19 and discrimination. Results showed that the During-COVID group reported higher perceived discrimination and anxiety than the Pre-COVID group. The link between perceived discrimination and anxiety was stronger for the During-COVID group. Mediation analyses suggested that negative Chinese media exposure partly accounted for the group difference in perceived discrimination. Results suggest that future studies on the psychosocial implications of the COVID-19 pandemic should consider the role of discrimination in understanding the mental health of Chinese American college students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Xenophobia/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Universities/trends , Xenophobia/trends , Young Adult
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e21684, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Media coverage and scholarly research have reported that Asian people who reside in the United States have been the targets of racially motivated incidents during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the types of discrimination and worries experienced by Asians and Asian Americans living in the United States during the pandemic, as well as factors that were associated with everyday discrimination experience and concerns about future discrimination that the Asian community may face. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted. A total of 235 people who identified themselves as Asian or Asian American and resided in the United States completed the questionnaire. RESULTS: Our study suggested that up to a third of Asians surveyed had experienced some type of discrimination. Pooling the responses "very often," "often," and "sometimes," the percentages for each experienced discrimination type ranged between 14%-34%. In total, 49%-58% of respondents expressed concerns about discrimination in the future. The most frequently experienced discrimination types, as indicated by responses "very often" and "often," were "people act as if they think you are dangerous" (25/235, 11%) and "being treated with less courtesy or respect" (24/235, 10%). About 14% (32/235) of individuals reported very often, often, or sometimes being threatened or harassed. In addition, social media use was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing discrimination (ß=.18, P=.01) and having concerns about future episodes of discrimination the community may face (ß=.20, P=.005). Use of print media was also positively associated with experiencing discrimination (ß=.31, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided important empirical evidence regarding the various types of discrimination Asians residing in the United States experienced or worried about during the COVID-19 pandemic. The relationship between media sources and the perception of racial biases in this group was also identified. We noted the role of social media in reinforcing the perception of discrimination experience and concerns about future discrimination among Asians during this outbreak. Our results indicate several practical implications for public health agencies. To reduce discrimination against Asians during the pandemic, official sources and public health professionals should be cognizant of the possible impacts of stigmatizing cues in media reports on activating racial biases. Furthermore, Asians or Asian Americans could also be informed that using social media to obtain COVID-19 information is associated with an increase in concerns about future discrimination, and thus they may consider approaching this media source with caution.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mass Media/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Racism/psychology , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Public Health , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has fueled xenophobia against Chinese Americans. We examined the rates of 6 types of COVID-19 racism and racial discrimination experienced by Chinese American parents and youth and the associations with their mental health. METHODS: We recruited a population-based sample of Chinese American families to participate in this self-reported survey study conducted from March 14, 2020, to May 31, 2020. Eligible parent participants identified as ethnically/racially Chinese, lived in the United States, and had a 4- to 18-year-old child; their eligible children were 10 to 18 years old. RESULTS: The sample included 543 Chinese American parents (mean [SD] age, 43.44 [6.47] years; 425 mothers [78.3%]), and their children (N = 230; mean [SD] age, 13.83 [2.53] years; 111 girls [48.3%]). Nearly half of parents and youth reported being directly targeted by COVID-19 racial discrimination online (parents: 172 [31.7%]; youth: 105 [45.7%]) and/or in person (parents: 276 [50.9%]; youth: 115 [50.2%]). A total of 417 (76.8%) parents and 176 (76.5%) youth reported at least 1 incident of COVID-19 vicarious racial discrimination online and/or in person (parents: 481 [88.5%]; youth: 211 [91.9%]). A total of 267 (49.1%) parents and 164 (71.1%) youth perceived health-related Sinophobia in America, and 274 (50.4%) parents and 129 (56.0%) youth perceived media-perpetuated Sinophobia. Higher levels of parent- and youth-perceived racism and racial discrimination were associated with their poorer mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Health care professionals must attend to the racism-related experiences and mental health needs of Chinese Americans parents and their children throughout the COVID-19 pandemic via education and making appropriate mental health referrals.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Racism/psychology , Xenophobia/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Self Report , Social Perception , United States , Xenophobia/statistics & numerical data
19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(2): 340-343, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723778

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine how immigrant status and family relationships are associated with advance care planning (ACP) engagement and end-of-life (EOL) preference in burial planning among older Chinese Americans, the largest subgroup of Asian Americans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Communities in Honolulu, Hawai'i. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 430 older Chinese Americans aged 55 years and older. MEASURES: Measures included ACP contemplation, ACP discussion, and EOL preference in burial planning, immigrant status, family cohesion, family conflict, demographic information, and health status. RESULTS: Results show that in comparison to foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans were more likely to have ACP contemplation [odds ratio (OR) 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-5.63], ACP discussion (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.50-6.08), and preferences for burial plans at the end of life (OR 4.56, 95% CI 2.04-10.18). Family conflict increased the possibility of having ACP contemplation (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.38), ACP discussion (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.39), and EOL preference in burial planning (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.42), whereas family cohesion was not associated with these study outcomes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This study suggests that ACP should be adapted to be more culturally appropriate, especially in a time of coronavirus and xenophobia, such as framing ACP as a tool to help families reduce stress while fulfilling filial obligations, in order to ensure equitable access to ACP.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning , Asian Americans/psychology , Burial/methods , Decision Making , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Family Relations , Aged , China/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hawaii , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(12): 865-870, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696977

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, Asians and Asian Americans have been experiencing an uptick of discrimination. With most people experiencing months of lockdowns, social media may become a particularly important tool in Asian people's coping with discrimination. Grounded in the multiactivity framework of social media use, this study explored whether experience with discrimination was associated with more social media use among Asian people and how adaptive social media use was for their well-being during COVID-19. A sample of 242 Asians/Asian Americans residing in the United States (Mage = 32.88, SD = 11.13; 48 percent female) completed an online survey. Results showed that more experience of discrimination during COVID-19 was associated with more engagement in social media private messaging, posting/commenting, and browsing, but the activities yielded different implications for subjective well-being. Both social media private messaging and posting/commenting were associated with more perceived social support, which contributed to better subjective well-being. Social media posting/commenting was also related to better subjective well-being through lower worry about discrimination. In contrast, social media browsing was associated with poorer subjective well-being through more worry about discrimination.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19 , Quarantine/psychology , Social Discrimination/ethnology , Social Media , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
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