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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 640644, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133916

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 can lead to Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and result in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent reports indicate an increased rate of fungal coinfections during COVID-19. With incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and without any causative therapy available, secondary infections may be detrimental to the prognosis. We monitored 11 COVID-19 patients with ARDS for their immune phenotype, plasma cytokines, and clinical parameters on the day of ICU admission and on day 4 and day 7 of their ICU stay. Whole blood stimulation assays with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM), Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida albicans were used to mimic secondary infections, and changes in immune phenotype and cytokine release were assessed. COVID-19 patients displayed an immune phenotype characterized by increased HLA-DR+CD38+ and PD-1+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and elevated CD8+CD244+ lymphocytes, compared to healthy controls. Monocyte activation markers and cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF, IL-10, and sIL2Rα were elevated, corresponding to monocyte activation syndrome, while IL-1ß levels were low. LPS, HKLM and Aspergillus fumigatus antigen stimulation provoked an immune response that did not differ between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, while COVID-19 patients showed an attenuated monocyte CD80 upregulation and abrogated release of IL-6, TNF, IL-1α, and IL-1ß toward Candida albicans. This study adds further detail to the characterization of the immune response in critically ill COVID-19 patients and hints at an increased susceptibility for Candida albicans infection.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Candida albicans/immunology , Listeria monocytogenes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Male , Middle Aged , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome
2.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 33(4): 290-297, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641651

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although clinical outcomes in the treatment of aspergillosis have markedly improved with the availability of newer triazoles, the development of resistance to these antifungals, especially in Aspergillus fumigatus, is a growing concern. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on azole resistance mechanisms and their epidemiology in A. fumigatus, the clinical implications of azole resistance, and to discuss future treatment options against azole-resistant aspergillosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Resistance may develop through either patient or environmental azole exposure. Environmental exposure is the most prevalent means of resistance development, and these isolates can cause disease in various at-risk groups, which now include those with influenza, and potentially COVID-19. Although current treatment options are limited, newer therapies are in clinical development. These include agents with novel mechanisms of action which have in vitro and in vivo activity against azole-resistant A. fumigatus. SUMMARY: Azole-resistant A. fumigatus is an emerging threat that hampers our ability to successfully treat patients with aspergillosis. Certain geographic regions and patient populations appear to be at increased risk for this pathogen. As new patient groups are increasingly recognized to be at increased risk for invasive aspergillosis, studies to define the epidemiology and management of azole-resistant A. fumigatus are critically needed. While treatment options are currently limited, new agents under clinical development may offer hope.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillosis/immunology , Aspergillus fumigatus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Triazoles/therapeutic use
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