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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884188

ABSTRACT

Aspergillosis is a disease caused by Aspergillus, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is the most common invasive fungal infection leading to death in severely immuno-compromised patients. The literature reports Aspergillus co-infections in patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). Diagnosing CAPA clinically is complex since the symptoms are non-specific, and performing a bronchoscopy is difficult. Generally, the microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis is based on cultural methods and on searching for the circulating antigens galactomannan and 1,3-ß-D-glucan in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (bGM) or serum (sGM). In this study, to verify whether the COVID-19 period has stimulated clinicians to pay greater attention to IPA in patients with respiratory tract infections, we evaluated the number of requests for GM-Ag research and the number of positive tests found during the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Our data show a significant upward trend in GM-Ag requests and positivity from the pre-COVID to COVID period, which is attributable in particular to the increase in IPA risk factors as a complication of COVID-19. In the COVID period, parallel to the increase in requests, the number of positive tests for GM-Ag also increased, going from 2.5% in the first period of 2020 to 12.3% in the first period of 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Mycoses ; 65(8): 824-833, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of lung biopsy, there are various algorithms for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in critically ill patients that rely on clinical signs, underlying conditions, radiological features and mycology. The aim of the present study was to compare four diagnostic algorithms in their ability to differentiate between probable IPA (i.e., requiring treatment) and colonisation. METHODS: For this diagnostic accuracy study, we included a mixed ICU population with a positive Aspergillus culture from respiratory secretions and applied four different diagnostic algorithms to them. We compared agreement among the four algorithms. In a subgroup of patients with lung tissue histopathology available, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of the single algorithms. RESULTS: A total number of 684 critically ill patients (69% medical/31% surgical) were included between 2005 and 2020. Overall, 79% (n = 543) of patients fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to at least one diagnostic algorithm. Only 4% of patients (n = 29) fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to all four algorithms. Agreement among the four diagnostic criteria was low (Cohen's kappa 0.07-0.29). From 85 patients with histopathological examination of lung tissue, 40% (n = 34) had confirmed IPA. The new EORTC/MSGERC ICU working group criteria had high specificity (0.59 [0.41-0.75]) and sensitivity (0.73 [0.59-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of mixed ICU patients, the agreement among four algorithms for the diagnosis of IPA was low. Although improved by the latest diagnostic criteria, the discrimination of invasive fungal infection from Aspergillus colonisation in critically ill patients remains challenging and requires further optimization.


Subject(s)
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
J Hosp Infect ; 126: 16-20, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of bipolar ionization in the healthcare setting has yet to be proven. A major limitation of studies sponsored by industry has been the assessment of efficiency within test chambers in which ozone levels are not adequately controlled. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of bipolar ionization against antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, fungi and human coronavirus within a controlled test chamber designed to mitigate the effect of ozone. METHODS: Bacteria- and fungi-inoculated gauze pads, and human coronavirus 229E-inoculated stainless steel plates were placed within the vicinity of the AIO-2 bipolar ionizer and left at room temperature (2 h for coronavirus and 4 h for bacteria and fungi). FINDINGS: Four hours of exposure to bipolar ionization showed a 1.23-4.76 log reduction, corresponding to a 94.2->99.9% colony-forming units/gauze reduction, in Clostridioides difficile, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-drug-resistant S. aureus. A 1.2 log 50% tissue culture infectious dose reduction in human coronavirus was observed after 2 h. CONCLUSION: The assessment of bipolar ionization systems merits further investigation as an infection control measure.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Coronavirus , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Ozone , Aspergillus , Bacteria , Humans , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
6.
Med Mycol ; 60(5)2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860885

ABSTRACT

Although a high prevalence of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis has been reported, it is still difficult to distinguish between colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus and infection. Concomitantly, similarities between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis were suggested. The objective of this study was to investigate retrospectively if precipitin assays targeting A. fumigatus could have been useful in the management of SARS-CoV-2 patients hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in 2020. SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients were screened for Aspergillus co-infection using biomarkers (galactomannan antigen, qPCR) and culture of respiratory samples (tracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage). For all these patients, clinical data, ICU characteristics and microbial results were collected. Electrosyneresis assays were performed using commercial A. fumigatus somatic and metabolic antigens. ELISA were performed using in-house A. fumigatus purified antigen and recombinant antigens.Our study population consisted of 65 predominantly male patients, with a median ICU stay of 22 days, and a global survival rate of 62%. Thirty-five patients had at least one positive marker for Aspergillus species detection. The number of arcs obtained by electrosyneresis using the somatic A. fumigatus antigen was significantly higher for these 35 SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients (P 0.01, Welch's t-test). Our study showed that SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients with a positive marker for Aspergillus species detection more often presented precipitins towards A. fumigatus. Serology assays could be an additional tool to assess the clinical relevance of the Aspergillus species in respiratory samples of SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients. LAY SUMMARY: This study showed retrospectively that precipitin assays, such as electrosyneresis, could be helpful to distinguish between colonization and infection with Aspergillus fumigatus during the management of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) patients in an intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Antigens, Fungal , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , Female , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Male , Precipitins , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855791

ABSTRACT

Cemeteries are potential environmental reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms from organic matter decomposition. This study aimed to characterize the microbial contamination in three cemeteries, and more specifically in grave diggers' facilities. One active sampling method (impingement method) and several passive sampling methods (swabs, settled dust, settled dust filters and electrostatic dust cloths-EDC) were employed. The molecular detection of Aspergillus sections and SARS-CoV-2, as well as mycotoxin analysis, screening of azole resistance, and cytotoxicity measurement were also conducted. Total bacteria contamination was 80 CFU·m-2 in settled dust samples, reached 849 CFU·m-2 in EDC and 20,000 CFU·m-2 in swabs, and ranged from 5000 to 10,000 CFU·m-2 in filters. Gram-negative bacteria (VRBA) were only observed in in settled dust samples (2.00 × 105 CFU·m-2). Regarding Aspergillus sp., the highest counts were obtained in DG18 (18.38%) and it was not observed in azole-supplemented SDA media. SARS-CoV-2 and the targeted Aspergillus sections were not detected. Mycophenolic acid was detected in one settled dust sample. Cytotoxic effects were observed for 94.4% filters and 5.6% EDC in A549 lung epithelial cells, and for 50.0% filters and 5.6% EDC in HepG2 cells. Future studies are needed in this occupational setting to implement more focused risk management measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Aspergillus , Azoles , Cemeteries , Dust/analysis , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(6): 754-760, 2021 12.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus spp. fungal coinfections have been described in critically ill COVID-19 patients. AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and evolution of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with COVID-19, who present with COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in a single public hospital. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical records during 12 months in patients diagnosed with CAPA by cultures of respiratory samples or determination of galactomannan (GM). RESULTS: Probable CAPA was diagnosed in 11 patients (average APACHE II score of 11.7). Respiratory samples were obtained in 73% of cases by bronchoalveolar lavage and in 27% by tracheal aspirate. A. fumigatus was isolated in 4 cultures, A. niger, A. terreus and Aspergillus spp on one occasion each and the cultures were negative in 4 samples. Respiratory sample GM was performed in 7 patients, median: 3.6 (IQR: 1.71 - 4.4). In 10 patients, serum GM was performed, median: 0.5 (IQR: 0.265 - 0.9 75) with 50% of them > 0.5. Two patients showed classic findings suggestive of CAPA on computed tomography. All received antifungal therapy with voriconazole, mean time 14 days. Four patients died. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CAPA should be a diagnosis to be considered in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Chile/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Environ Manage ; 314: 115086, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804523

ABSTRACT

Previous studies anticipated that microorganisms and their metabolites in waste will increase as a consequence of a decreased collection frequency and due to differences in what kind of waste is bagged before collection leading to an increased exposure of workers handling the waste. This study aim was to investigate the microbial contamination present in the waste collection trucks (WCT) and in the support facilities (waste collection station - WCS). It was applied a multi-approach protocol using active (air sampling by impingement and impaction) and passive (surface swabs, electrostatic dust cloths and settled dust) sampling methods. The screening of azole-resistance, the investigation of mycotoxins and the assessment of the elicited biological responses in vitro were also carried out aiming recognizing the possible health effects of waste collection drivers. SARS-CoV-2 detection was also performed. In WCS only air samples had contamination in all the four sampling sites (canteen, operational removal core, operational removal center, and administrative service). Among all the analyzed matrices from the WCT a higher percentage of total bacterial counts and Gram-was detected in swabs (66.93%; 99.36%). In WCS the most common species were Penicillium sp. (43.98%) and Cladosporium sp. (24.68%), while on WCT Aspergillus sp. (4.18%) was also one of the most found. In the azole resistance screening Aspergillus genera was not observed in the azole-supplemented media. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any of the environmental samples collected, but Aspergillus section Fumigati was detected in 5 samples. Mycotoxins were not detected in EDC from WCS, while in WCT they were detected in filters (N = 1) and in settled dust samples (N = 16). In conclusion, our study reveals that a comprehensive sampling approach using active and passive sampling (e.g. settled dust sampling for a representative mycotoxin evaluation) and combined analytic methods (i.e., culture-based and molecular) is an important asset in microbial exposure assessments. Concerning the waste collection exposure scenario, the results of this study unveiled a complex exposure, particularly to fungi and their metabolites. Aspergillus section Fumigati highlight the significance of targeting this section in the waste management industry as an indicator of occupational health risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycotoxins , Occupational Exposure , Aspergillus , Azoles , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Fungi , Humans , Mycotoxins/analysis , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Med Mycol ; 60(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784373

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) incidence varies depending on the country. Serum galactomannan quantification is a promising diagnostic tool since samples are easy to obtain with low biosafety issues. A multicenter prospective study was performed to evaluate the CAPA incidence in Argentina and to assess the performance of the lateral flow assay with digital readout (Sona Aspergillus LFA) as a CAPA diagnostic and screening tool. The correlation between the values obtained with Sona Aspergillus LFA and Platelia® EIA was evaluated. In total, 578 serum samples were obtained from 185 critically ill COVID patients. CAPA screening was done weekly starting from the first week of ICU stay. Probable CAPA incidence in critically ill patients was 10.27% (19/185 patients when LFA was used as mycological criteria) and 9% (9/100 patients when EIA was used as mycological criteria). We found a very good correlation between the two evaluated galactomannan quantification methods (overall agreement of 92.16% with a Kappa statistic value of 0.721). CAPA diagnosis (>0.5 readouts in LFA) were done during the first week of ICU stay in 94.7% of the probable CAPA patients. The overall mortality was 36.21%. CAPA patients' mortality and length of ICU stay were not statistically different from for COVID (non-CAPA) patients (42.11 vs 33.13% and 29 vs 24 days, respectively). These indicators were lower than in other reports. LFA-IMMY with digital readout is a reliable tool for early diagnosis of CAPA using serum samples in critically ill COVID patients. It has a good agreement with Platelia® EIA. LAY SUMMARY: The incidence of COVID-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in critically-ill Argentinian patients was established (10.27%). Serum galactomannan quantification was useful as a screening tool for this mycosis. A good agreement between Platelia® EIA and Sona Aspergillus LFA is reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Argentina/epidemiology , Aspergillus , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Mannans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Mycoses ; 65(3): 362-373, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700157

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: (1) To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of Aspergillus Endocarditis (AE) in a nationwide multicentric cohort (GAMES). (2) To compare the AE cases of the GAMES cohort, with the AE cases reported in the literature since 2010. (3) To identify variables related to mortality. METHODS: We recruited 10 AE cases included in the GAMES cohort (January 2008-December 2018) and 51 cases from the literature published from January 2010 to July 2019. RESULTS: 4528 patients with infectious endocarditis (IE) were included in the GAMES cohort, of them 10 (0.2%) were AE. After comparing our 10 cases with the 51 of the literature, no differences were found. Analysing the 61 AE cases together, 55.7% were male, median age 45 years. Their main underlying conditions were as follows: prosthetic valve surgery (34.4%) and solid organ transplant (SOT) (19.7%). Mainly affecting mitral (36.1%) and aortic valve (29.5%). Main isolated species were as follows: Aspergillus fumigatus (47.5%) and Aspergillus flavus (24.6%). Embolisms occurred in 54%. Patients were treated with antifungals (90.2%), heart surgery (85.2%) or both (78.7%). Overall, 52.5% died. A greater mortality was observed in immunosuppressed patients (59.4% vs. 24.1%, OR = 4.09, 95%CI = 1.26-13.19, p = .02), and lower mortality was associated with undergoing cardiac surgery plus azole therapy (28.1% vs. 65.5%, OR = 0.22, 95%CI = 0.07-0.72, p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: AE accounts for 0.2% of all IE episodes of a national multicentric cohort, mainly affecting patients with previous valvular surgery or SOT recipients. Mortality remains high especially in immunosuppressed hosts and azole-based treatment combined with surgical resection are related to a better outcome.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , Endocarditis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Endocarditis/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 411-418, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is challenging, and the role of Aspergillus-PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Aspergillus-PCR in BAL in IPA in three different cohorts: ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19, ICU-admitted patients without COVID-19 and immunocompromised patients. METHODS: All stored available BAL samples collected from three patient groups were tested with Aspergillus-PCR (AsperGenius® ). IPA was diagnosed according to appropriate criteria for each patient group. RESULTS: We included 111 BAL samples from 101 patients: 52 (51%) patients admitted to ICU for COVID-19, 24 (24%) admitted to ICU for other reasons and 25 (25%) immunocompromised. There were 31 cases of IPA (28%). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 64% (95% CI 47-79) and specificity 99% (95% CI 93-100). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 40% (95%CI 19-64) in ICU COVID-19, 67% (95% CI 21-93) in non-COVID-19 ICU patients and 92% (95%CI 67-98) in the immunocompromised. The concordance between positive BAL-GM and BAL-PCR in patients with and without IPA was significantly lower in ICU patients (32%; 43% in COVID-19, 18% in non-COVID-19) than in the immunocompromised (92%), p < .001. CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus-PCR in BAL improves the diagnostic accuracy of BAL-GM in ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus/genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Galactose , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(1): e0168921, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630019

ABSTRACT

This multicenter study evaluated the IMMY Aspergillus Galactomannan Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) with automated reader for diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission between 03/2020 and 04/2021. A total of 196 respiratory samples and 148 serum samples (n = 344) from 238 patients were retrospectively included, with a maximum of one of each sample type per patient. Cases were retrospectively classified for COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) status following the 2020 consensus criteria, with the exclusion of LFA results as a mycological criterion. At the 1.0 cutoff, sensitivity of LFA for CAPA (proven/probable/possible) was 52%, 80% and 81%, and specificity was 98%, 88% and 67%, for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), nondirected bronchoalveolar lavage (NBL), and tracheal aspiration (TA), respectively. At the 0.5 manufacturer's cutoff, sensitivity was 72%, 90% and 100%, and specificity was 79%, 83% and 44%, for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. When combining all respiratory samples, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) was 0.823, versus 0.754, 0.890 and 0.814 for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of serum LFA were 20% and 93%, respectively, at the 0.5 ODI cutoff. Overall, the Aspergillus Galactomannan LFA showed good performances for CAPA diagnosis, when used from respiratory samples at the 1.0 cutoff, while sensitivity from serum was limited, linked to weak invasiveness during CAPA. As some false-positive results can occur, isolated results slightly above the recommended cutoff should lead to further mycological investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Org Lett ; 24(3): 804-808, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632912

ABSTRACT

A chemical investigation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus californicus led to the isolation of a polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrid, calipyridone A (1). A putative biosynthetic gene cluster cpd for production of 1 was next identified by genome mining. The role of the cpd cluster in the production of 1 was confirmed by multiple gene deletion experiments in the host strain as well as by heterologous expression of the hybrid gene cpdA inAspergillus oryzae. Moreover, chemical analyses of the mutant strains allowed the biosynthesis of 1 to be elucidated. The results indicate that the generation of the 2-pyridone moiety of 1 via nucleophilic attack of the iminol nitrogen to the carbonyl carbon is different from the biosynthesis of other fungal 2-pyridone products through P450-catalyzed tetramic acid ring expansions. In addition, two biogenetic intermediates, calipyridones B and C, showed modest inhibition effects on the plaque-forming ability of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/metabolism , Pyridones/metabolism , Aspergillus oryzae/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Gene Deletion , Humans , Multigene Family/genetics , Polyketides/metabolism , Polyketides/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , Pyrrolidinones/metabolism , Pyrrolidinones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
16.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 69(1): 48-53, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626227

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 who are admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk of developing secondary infections, including invasive fungal infections such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The main purpose was to analyse the putative COVID-19 Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA) patients in our setting. In these patients, we performed mycological culture in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for isolation of Aspergillus sp. We followed the AspICU algorithm to diagnose putative IPA. Moreover, we considered relevant the positivity of Galactomannan in BAL. We diagnosed putative IPA in 3 patients. The common features of these 3 patients were: more than 21 days of stay in ICU, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and treatment with steroids (1 mg/kg per day). Therefore, CAPA has to be systematically considered although a new algorithm to diagnose it is needed to treat patients in early stages in order to avoid catastrophic outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Mycoses ; 65(1): 57-64, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Though invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a well known complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, indolent forms of aspergillosis have been rarely described. METHODS: We prospectively collected the clinico-radio-microbiological data of 10 patients of subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (SAIA), who presented to our hospital with recent history of COVID-19 pneumonia along with cavitary lung disease, positive IgG (against Aspergillus) with or without positive respiratory samples for Aspergillus spp. RESULT: The mean age of presentation of SAIA was 50.7 ± 11.8 years. All the patients had recently recovered from severe COVID-19 illness with a mean duration of 29.2 ± 12 days from COVID-19 positivity. Cough was the predominant symptom seen in 8/10 (80%) patients followed by haemoptysis. 7/10 (70%) patients were known diabetic. While serum galactomannan was positive in 5/9 patients (55.5%), fungal culture was positive in 2/7 patients (28.5%) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Aspergillus was positive in three patients. Eight (80%) patients presented with a single cavitary lesion; pseudoaneurysm of pulmonary artery was seen in two patients and post-COVID-19 changes were seen in all patients. All patients were treated with voriconazole, out of which four (40%) patients died during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: SAIA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cavitating lung lesions in patients with recent history of COVID-19 in the background of steroid use with or without pre-existing diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Antibodies, Fungal/blood , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Voriconazole
18.
J Mycol Med ; 32(1): 101231, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536966

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated mold infections have been increasingly reported, and the main entity is COVID-19-associated aspergillosis (CAPA). Similarly, COVID-19-associated mucormycosis has been reported in hematology, and its prevalence is high and has been increasing in the diabetic population in India during the third COVID-19 pandemic wave. Simultaneous infection with Mucorales and Aspergillus is rare and even rarer during COVID-19. Here, we report the case of a previously immunocompetent patient with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated with probable CAPA and mucormycosis co-infection. Specific diagnostic tools for mucormycosis are lacking, and this case highlights the advantages of analyzing blood and respiratory samples using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect these fungi. We further reviewed the literature on mixed Aspergillus/Mucorales invasive fungal diseases to provide an overview of patients presenting with both fungi and to identify characteristics of this rare infection.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(12): e0122921, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522903

ABSTRACT

The literature regarding COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has shown conflicting observations, including survival of CAPA patients not receiving antifungal therapy and discrepancy between CAPA diagnosis and autopsy findings. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of CAPA, we performed a case-control study in which we compared Aspergillus test profiles in CAPA patients and controls in relation to intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. This was a multinational case-control study in which Aspergillus test results, use of antifungal therapy, and mortality were collected from critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients were classified using the 2020 European Confederation for Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ECMM/ISHAM) consensus case definitions. We analyzed 219 critically ill COVID-19 cases, including 1 proven, 38 probable, 19 possible CAPA cases, 21 Aspergillus-colonized patients, 7 patients only positive for serum (1,3)-ß-d-glucan (BDG), and 133 cases with no evidence of CAPA. Mortality was 53.8% in CAPA patients compared to 24.1% in patients without CAPA (P = 0.001). Positive serum galactomannan (GM) and BDG were associated with increased mortality compared to serum biomarker-negative CAPA patients (87.5% versus 41.7%, P = 0.046; 90.0% versus 42.1%, P = 0.029, respectively). For each point increase in GM or 10-point BDG serum concentration, the odds of death increased (GM, odds ratio [OR] 10.208, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.621 to 64.291, P = 0.013; BDG, OR, 1.247, 95% CI, 1.029 to 1.511, P = 0.024). CAPA is a complex disease, probably involving a continuum of respiratory colonization, tissue invasion, and angioinvasion. Serum biomarkers are useful for staging CAPA disease progression and, if positive, indicate angioinvasion and a high probability of mortality. There is need for a biomarker that distinguishes between respiratory tract colonization and tissue-invasive CAPA disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Aspergillus , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , SARS-CoV-2
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