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1.
Mycoses ; 64(10): 1197-1202, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detection of galactomannan (GM) from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or serum is broadly used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), although the sensitivity of GM from serum is lower in non-neutropenic patients. We evaluated the Aspergillus galactomannan Lateral Flow assay (LFA) with digital readout from serum in a mixed cohort of patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective two-centre study evaluating the LFA from serum of patients with clinical suspicion of IA obtained between 2015 and 2021 at the University of California San Diego and the Medical University of Graz. The sensitivity and specificity was calculated for proven/probable aspergillosis versus no aspergillosis. Correlation with same-sample GM was calculated using Spearman correlation analysis and kappa statistics. RESULTS: In total, 122 serum samples from 122 patients were analysed, including proven IA (n = 1), probable IA or coronavirus-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) (n = 27), and no IA/CAPA/non-classifiable (n = 94). At a 0.5 ODI cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity of the LFA was 78.6% and 80.5%. Spearman correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between serum LFA ODI and serum GM ODI (ρ 0.459, p < .0001). Kappa was 0.611 when both LFA and GM were used with a 0.5 ODI cut-off, showing substantial agreement (p < .001). DISCUSSION: The LFA with digital read out from serum showed good performance for the diagnosis of probable/proven aspergillosis, with substantial agreement to GM from serum. Like the LFA from BALF, the LFA from serum may serve as a more rapid test compared to conventional GM, particularly in settings where GM is not readily available.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Fungal/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Automation, Laboratory , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
2.
Mycoses ; 64(9): 1002-1014, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148083

ABSTRACT

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an increasingly recognised phenomenon in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit, including in patients with severe influenza and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To date, there are no consensus criteria on how to define IA in the ICU population, although several criteria are used, including the AspICU criteria and new consensus criteria to categorise COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). In this review, we describe the epidemiology of IA in critically ill patients, most common definitions used to define IA in this population, and most common clinical specimens obtained for establishing a mycological diagnosis of IA in the critically ill. We also review the most common diagnostic tests used to diagnose IA in this population, and lastly discuss the most common clinical presentation and imaging findings of IA in the critically ill and discuss areas of further needed investigation.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Intensive Care Units/standards , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/classification , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/microbiology , Critical Illness/classification , Female , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/physiopathology , Male , Mannans/blood , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Mycoses ; 64(6): 641-650, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported, though histopathological evidence is frequently lacking. To assess the clinical significance of Aspergillus species in respiratory samples of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, we implemented routine screening for Aspergillus in tracheal aspirate (TA). PATIENTS/METHODS: From all adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), TA samples were collected twice a week for Aspergillus screening by PCR and or culture. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) sampling was performed in patients with a positive screening result if possible. Clinical information was obtained from the electronic patient record and patients were categorised according to the recently published consensus case definition for CAPA. RESULTS: Our study population consisted of 63 predominantly (73%) male patients, with a median age of 62 years and total median ICU stay of 18 days. Aspergillus species were present in TA screening samples from 15 patients (24%), and probable CAPA was diagnosed in 11 (17%) patients. Triazole resistance was detected in one patient (14%). Concordance between TA and BAL was 86%, and all TA culture positives were confirmed in BAL. We were able to withhold treatment in three of fifteen patients with positive screening (20%) but negative BAL results. CONCLUSIONS: Positive culture, molecular detection and or antigen detection of Aspergillus species do not equal infection. Until we understand the clinical relevance of Aspergillus species detected in respiratory samples of COVID-19 patients, minimal-invasive screening by TA is a feasible method to monitor patients. Positive screening results should be an indication to perform a BAL to rule out upper airway colonisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/virology , Aged , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Mycoses ; 64(2): 144-151, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the global coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) spreads across the world, new clinical challenges emerge in the hospital landscape. Among these challenges, the increased risk of coinfections is a major threat to the patients. Although still in a low number, due to the short time of the pandemic, studies that identified a significant number of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who developed secondary fungal infections that led to serious complications and even death have been published. OBJECTIVES: In this scenario, we aim to determine the prevalence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and describe possible associated risk factors in patients admitted due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. PATIENTS/METHODS: We designed an open prospective observational study at the Rey Juan Carlos University Hospital (Mostoles, Spain), during the period from February 1 to April 30, 2020. RESULTS: In this article, we reported seven patients with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) who had a poor prognosis. Severely ill patients represent a high-risk group; therefore, we must actively investigate the possibility of aspergillosis in all of these patients. Larger cohort studies are needed to unravel the role of COVID-19 immunosuppressive therapy as a risk factor for aspergillosis. CONCLUSIONS: As the pandemic continues to spread across the world, further reports are needed to assess the frequency of emergent and highly resistant reemergent fungal infections during severe COVID-19. These coinfections are leading a significant number of patients with COVID-19 to death due to complications following the primary viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intermediate Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain
5.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(4): 115272, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938872

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, has been used to treat critically ill patients with coronavirus disease-2019. We present the case of a previously immunocompetent man with coronavirus disease-2019 who developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after treatment with tocilizumab, illustrating the importance of considering opportunistic infections when providing immune modulating therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Humans , Immunomodulation , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Male , Micafungin/therapeutic use , Opportunistic Infections/chemically induced , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
6.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620966475, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873890

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection (SARS-CoV-2), commonly known as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019), began in the Wuhan District of Hubei Province, China. It is regarded as one of the worst pandemics, which has consumed both human lives and the world economy. COVID-19 infection mainly affects the lungs triggering severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, also providing a nidus for superimposed bacterial and fungal infections. We report the case of a 73-year-old male who presented with progressive dyspnea; diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2-related severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and complicated with lung cavitations growing Aspergillus sp. COVID-19, to our knowledge, has rarely been associated with subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with aspergillomas. Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis as a superimposed infection in patients with SARS-CoV-2 is a rare entity. By reporting this case, we would like to make the readers aware of this association.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
J Mycol Med ; 30(4): 101039, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723228

ABSTRACT

As aspergillosis is a well-known complication of severe influenza, we suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might be a risk factor for invasive aspergillosis (IA). We report the case of an 87 year-old woman, with no history of immune deficit, admitted in our emergency room for severe respiratory distress. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis was confirmed by a SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasal swab. On day 14, pulmonary examination deteriorated with haemoptysis and a major increase of inflammatory response. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed nodules highly suggestive of IA. Aspergillus antigen was found highly positive in sputum and blood, as was Aspergillusspp PCR on serum. Sputum cultures remained negative for Aspergillus. This patient died rapidly from severe respiratory failure, despite the addition of voriconazole. Considering SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as an acquired immunodeficiency, we report here a new case of "probable" IA based on clinical and biological arguments, in accordance with the last consensus definition of invasive fungal disease. On a routine basis, we have detected 30% of aspergillosis carriage (positive culture and antigen in tracheal secretions) in critically ill patients with COVID-19 in our centre. Further studies will have to determine whether sputum or tracheal secretions should be systematically screened for fungal investigations in intensive care unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients to early diagnose and treat aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, Fungal/analysis , Antigens, Fungal/blood , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/immunology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum/microbiology
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200401, 2020. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-636312

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present postmortem evidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in a patient with severe COVID-19. Autopsies of COVID-19 confirmed cases were performed. The patient died despite antimicrobials, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support. Histopathology and peripheral blood galactomannan antigen testing confirmed IPA. Aspergillus penicillioides infection was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and BLAST analysis. Further reports are needed to assess the occurrence and frequency of IPA in SARS-CoV-2 infections, and how they interact clinically.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aspergillus/genetics , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pandemics , Lung/microbiology
9.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(8): 1524-1535, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615887

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is increasingly reported in patients with influenza admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Classification of patients with influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) using the current definitions for invasive fungal diseases has proven difficult, and our aim was to develop case definitions for IAPA that can facilitate clinical studies. METHODS: A group of 29 international experts reviewed current insights into the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of IAPA and proposed a case definition of IAPA through a process of informal consensus. RESULTS: Since IAPA may develop in a wide range of hosts, an entry criterion was proposed and not host factors. The entry criterion was defined as a patient requiring ICU admission for respiratory distress with a positive influenza test temporally related to ICU admission. In addition, proven IAPA required histological evidence of invasive septate hyphae and mycological evidence for Aspergillus. Probable IAPA required the detection of galactomannan or positive Aspergillus culture in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or serum with pulmonary infiltrates or a positive culture in upper respiratory samples with bronchoscopic evidence for tracheobronchitis or cavitating pulmonary infiltrates of recent onset. The IAPA case definitions may be useful to classify patients with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), while awaiting further studies that provide more insight into the interaction between Aspergillus and the SARS-CoV-2-infected lung. CONCLUSION: A consensus case definition of IAPA is proposed, which will facilitate research into the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of this emerging acute and severe Aspergillus disease, and may be of use to study CAPA.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Influenza, Human/complications , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19 , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Mannans/analysis , Pandemics , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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