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3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247782, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456064

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of aspirin dose on the incidence of all gestational age preeclampsia and preterm preeclampsia. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Web of Science) were searched for articles published between January 1985 and March 2019 with no language restrictions. METHODS: We followed the PRIMSA guidelines and utilized Covidence software. Articles were screened by 2 independent reviewers, with discrepancies settled by an independent 3rd party. Study selection criteria were randomized trials comparing aspirin for prevention of all gestational age and preterm preeclampsia to placebo or no antiplatelet treatment in women aged 15-55 years with moderate or high-risk factors according to the list of risk factors from American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines. The quality of trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The data were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis comparing aspirin at doses of <81, 81, 100, and 150 mg. Pre-specified outcomes were all gestational age and preterm preeclampsia. RESULTS: Of 1,609 articles screened, 23 randomized trials, which included 32,370 women, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In preterm preeclampsia, women assigned at random to 150 mg experienced a significant 62% reduction in risk of preterm preeclampsia (RR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20-0.72; P = 0.011). Aspirin doses <150 mg produced no significant reductions. The number needed to treat with 150 mg of aspirin was 39 (95% CI: 23-100). There was a maximum 30% reduction in risk of all gestational age preeclampsia at all aspirin doses. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, based on indirect comparisons, aspirin at a dose greater than the current, recommended 81 mg was associated with the highest reduction in preterm preeclampsia. Our meta-analysis is limited due to the deficiency of homogeneous high evidence data available in the literature to date; however, it may be prudent for clinicians to consider that the optimal aspirin dose may be higher than the current guidelines advise. Future research to compare the efficacy aspirin doses greater than 81 mg is recommended. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019127951 (University of York, UK; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Young Adult
7.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(10): 1665-1667, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265654

ABSTRACT

Vaccination plays an important role in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 to minimie the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its life-threatening complications. Myocarditis has been reported as a possible and rare adverse consequence of different vaccines, and its clinical presentation can range from influenza-like symptoms to acute heart failure. We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented progressive dyspnea and constrictive retrosternal pain after receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Cardiac magnetic resonance and laboratory data revealed typical findings of acute myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , Bisoprolol/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , /adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Troponin I/blood
8.
Vasc Med ; 26(6): 626-632, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234444

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an ongoing viral pandemic marked by increased risk of thrombotic events. However, the role of platelets in the elevated observed thrombotic risk in COVID-19 and utility of antiplatelet agents in attenuating thrombosis is unknown. We aimed to determine if the antiplatelet effect of aspirin may mitigate risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and venous thromboembolism in COVID-19. We evaluated 22,072 symptomatic patients tested for COVID-19. Propensity-matched analyses were performed to determine if treatment with aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) affected thrombotic outcomes in COVID-19. Neither aspirin nor NSAIDs affected mortality in COVID-19. Thus, aspirin does not appear to prevent thrombosis and death in COVID-19. The mechanisms of thrombosis in COVID-19, therefore, appear distinct and the role of platelets as direct mediators of SARS-CoV-2-mediated thrombosis warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Inpatients , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Aspirin/adverse effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/virology
10.
Fam Med Community Health ; 9(2)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To review the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease, potential aspirin targets on this pathogenesis and the potential role of aspirin in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Narrative review. SETTING: The online databases PubMed, OVID Medline and Cochrane Library were searched using relevant headlines from 1 January 2016 to 1 January 2021. International guidelines from relevant societies, journals and forums were also assessed for relevance. PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable. RESULTS: A review of the selected literature revealed that clinical deterioration in COVID-19 is attributed to the interplay between endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and dysregulated inflammation. Aspirin has anti-inflammatory effects, antiplatelet aggregation, anticoagulant properties as well as pleiotropic effects on endothelial function. During the COVID-19 pandemic, low-dose aspirin is used effectively in secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement, prevention of pre-eclampsia and postdischarge treatment for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Prehospital low-dose aspirin therapy may reduce the risk of intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, whereas aspirin association with mortality is still debatable. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend a low-dose aspirin regimen for primary prevention of arterial thromboembolism in patients aged 40-70 years who are at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, or an intermediate risk with a risk-enhancer and have a low risk of bleeding. Aspirin's protective roles in COVID-19 associated with acute lung injury, vascular thrombosis without previous cardiovascular disease and mortality need further randomised controlled trials to establish causal conclusions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
12.
J Emerg Med ; 60(4): 531-535, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases increases globally, more cases of a rare COVID-19-associated disease process are being identified in the pediatric population. This syndrome is referred to as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Clinical manifestations of the syndrome vary and include one or a combination of the following: vasodilatory shock, cardiogenic shock, Kawasaki-like disease, cytokine storming, coronary artery dilatation, and aneurysms. CASE REPORT: This case report describes the presentation, findings, workup, and treatment for a 9-year-old boy diagnosed with MIS-C. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: It is important to recognize MIS-C, as it shares many of the same features as other disease processes, for example, Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome, but has different complications if left untreated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
13.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5179-5189, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096764

ABSTRACT

Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is commonly used for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Aspirin use is associated with better outcomes among COVID-19 positive patients. We hypothesized that the aspirin use for primary cardiovascular disease prevention might have a protective effect on COVID-19 susceptibility and disease duration. We conducted a retrospective population-based cross-sectional study, utilizing data from the Leumit Health Services database. The proportion of patients treated with aspirin was significantly lower among the COVID-19-positive group, as compared to the COVID-19-negative group [73 (11.03%) vs. 1548 (15.77%); P = 0.001]. Aspirin use was associated with lower likelihood of COVID-19 infection, as compared to nonusers (adjusted OR 0.71 (95% CI, 0.52 to 0.99; P = 0.041). Aspirin users were older (68.06 ± 12.79 vs. 56.63 ± 12.28 years of age; P < 0.001), presented a lower BMI (28.77 ± 5.4 vs. 30.37 ± 4.55; P < 0.0189), and showed higher prevalence of hypertension (56, 76.71%), diabetes (47, 64.38%), and COPD (11, 15.07%) than the aspirin nonusers (151, 25.64%, P < 0.001; 130, 22.07%, P < 0.001; and 43, 7.3%, P = 0.023, respectively). Moreover, COVID-19 disease duration (considered as the time between the first positive and second negative COVID-19 RT-PCR test results) among aspirin users was significantly shorter, as compared to aspirin nonusers (19.8 ± 7.8 vs. 21.9 ± 7.9 P = 0.045). Among hospitalized COVID-positive patients, a higher proportion of surviving subjects were treated with aspirin (20, 19.05%), as opposed to 1 dead subject (14.29%), although this difference was not significant (P = 0.449). In conclusion, we observed an inverse association between the likelihood of COVID-19 infection, disease duration and mortality, and aspirin use for primary prevention.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Prevention , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(2): 1263-1273, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060602

ABSTRACT

To determine whether pre-hospitalization use of aspirin is associated with all-cause mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We recruited 183 adult patients with CAD diagnosed with COVID-19, including 52 taking low-dose aspirin (mean [SD] age, 69.7 [1.1] years; 59.6% men) and 131 without using aspirin (mean [SD] age, 71.8 [0.9] years; 51.9% men), who were admitted in the Tongji hospital in Wuhan, China from January 10, 2020 to March 30, 2020. There was no difference on in-hospital mortality between aspirin group and non-aspirin group (21.2% vs. 22.1%, P = .885). Similarly, for critically severe COVID-19 patients, the mortality in aspirin group was close to that in non-aspirin group (44% vs. 45.9%, P = .872). Moreover, the percentage of patients with CAD taking low-dose aspirin did not differ between those survivors and non-survivors (28.7% vs. 27.5%, P = .885). Meanwhile, the usage of aspirin was not correlated with all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.944, 95% CI: 0.411-2.172, P = .893). Collectively, our study suggested that the pre-hospitalization use of low-dose aspirin was not associated with the clinical outcome of patients with CAD hospitalized with COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Aged , China , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
15.
Am J Hematol ; 96(4): 471-479, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039153

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic complications occur at high rates in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, yet the impact of intensive antithrombotic therapy on mortality is uncertain. We examined in-hospital mortality with intermediate- compared to prophylactic-dose anticoagulation, and separately with in-hospital aspirin compared to no antiplatelet therapy, in a large, retrospective study of 2785 hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients. In this analysis, we established two separate, nested cohorts of patients (a) who received intermediate- or prophylactic-dose anticoagulation ("anticoagulation cohort", N = 1624), or (b) who were not on home antiplatelet therapy and received either in-hospital aspirin or no antiplatelet therapy ("aspirin cohort", N = 1956). To minimize bias and adjust for confounding factors, we incorporated propensity score matching and multivariable regression utilizing various markers of illness severity and other patient-specific covariates, yielding treatment groups with well-balanced covariates in each cohort. The primary outcome was cumulative incidence of in-hospital death. Among propensity score-matched patients in the anticoagulation cohort (N = 382), in a multivariable regression model, intermediate- compared to prophylactic-dose anticoagulation was associated with a significantly lower cumulative incidence of in-hospital death (hazard ratio 0.518 [0.308-0.872]). Among propensity-score matched patients in the aspirin cohort (N = 638), in a multivariable regression model, in-hospital aspirin compared to no antiplatelet therapy was associated with a significantly lower cumulative incidence of in-hospital death (hazard ratio 0.522 [0.336-0.812]). In this propensity score-matched, observational study of COVID-19, intermediate-dose anticoagulation and aspirin were each associated with a lower cumulative incidence of in-hospital death.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(11)2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957913

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old man recently admitted for bipedal oedema, endocarditis and a persistently positive COVID-19 swab with a history of anticoagulation on rivaroxaban for atrial fibrillation, transitional cell carcinoma, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, diabetes and hypertension presented with sudden onset diplopia and vertical gaze palsy. Vestibulo-ocular reflex was preserved. Simultaneously, he developed a scotoma and sudden visual loss, and was found to have a right branch retinal artery occlusion. MRI head demonstrated a unilateral midbrain infarct. This case demonstrates a rare unilateral cause of bilateral supranuclear palsy which spares the posterior commisure. The case also raises a question about the contribution of COVID-19 to the procoagulant status of the patient which already includes atrial fibrillation and endocarditis, and presents a complex treatment dilemma regarding anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation , Blindness , Brain Stem Infarctions , Coronavirus Infections , Diplopia , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Ophthalmoplegia , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blindness/diagnosis , Blindness/etiology , Brain Stem Infarctions/diagnostic imaging , Brain Stem Infarctions/drug therapy , Brain Stem Infarctions/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diplopia/diagnosis , Diplopia/etiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/complications , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/physiopathology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Ophthalmoplegia/diagnosis , Ophthalmoplegia/etiology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retinal Artery Occlusion/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Artery Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Artery Occlusion/etiology , Retinal Artery Occlusion/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Treatment Outcome
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 716, 2020 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-801905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A healthy 25-year-old woman developed COVID-19 disease with clinical characteristics resembling Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a rare form of COVID-19 described primarily in children under 21 years of age. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with 1 week of weakness, dyspnea, and low-grade fevers, followed by mild cough, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, and lymph node swelling. She was otherwise healthy, with no prior medical history. Her hospital course was notable for profound acute kidney injury, leukocytosis, hypotension, and cardiac dysfunction requiring ICU admission and vasopressor support. MIS-C-like illness secondary to COVID-19 was suspected due to physical exam findings of conjunctivitis, mucositis, and shock. She improved following IVIG, aspirin, and supportive care, and was discharged on hospital day 5. CONCLUSION: MIS-C-like illness should be considered in adults presenting with atypical clinical findings and concern for COVID-19. Further research is needed to support the role of IVIG and aspirin in this patient population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adult , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/complications , Diarrhea/complications , Dyspnea/complications , Female , Fever/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/complications
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