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2.
JAMA ; 327(13): 1247-1259, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801957

ABSTRACT

Importance: The efficacy of antiplatelet therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether antiplatelet therapy improves outcomes for critically ill adults with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In an ongoing adaptive platform trial (REMAP-CAP) testing multiple interventions within multiple therapeutic domains, 1557 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 were enrolled between October 30, 2020, and June 23, 2021, from 105 sites in 8 countries and followed up for 90 days (final follow-up date: July 26, 2021). Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive either open-label aspirin (n = 565), a P2Y12 inhibitor (n = 455), or no antiplatelet therapy (control; n = 529). Interventions were continued in the hospital for a maximum of 14 days and were in addition to anticoagulation thromboprophylaxis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of intensive care unit-based respiratory or cardiovascular organ support) within 21 days, ranging from -1 for any death in hospital (censored at 90 days) to 22 for survivors with no organ support. There were 13 secondary outcomes, including survival to discharge and major bleeding to 14 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. An odds ratio (OR) greater than 1 represented improved survival, more organ support-free days, or both. Efficacy was defined as greater than 99% posterior probability of an OR greater than 1. Futility was defined as greater than 95% posterior probability of an OR less than 1.2 vs control. Intervention equivalence was defined as greater than 90% probability that the OR (compared with each other) was between 1/1.2 and 1.2 for 2 noncontrol interventions. Results: The aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitor groups met the predefined criteria for equivalence at an adaptive analysis and were statistically pooled for further analysis. Enrollment was discontinued after the prespecified criterion for futility was met for the pooled antiplatelet group compared with control. Among the 1557 critically ill patients randomized, 8 patients withdrew consent and 1549 completed the trial (median age, 57 years; 521 [33.6%] female). The median for organ support-free days was 7 (IQR, -1 to 16) in both the antiplatelet and control groups (median-adjusted OR, 1.02 [95% credible interval {CrI}, 0.86-1.23]; 95.7% posterior probability of futility). The proportions of patients surviving to hospital discharge were 71.5% (723/1011) and 67.9% (354/521) in the antiplatelet and control groups, respectively (median-adjusted OR, 1.27 [95% CrI, 0.99-1.62]; adjusted absolute difference, 5% [95% CrI, -0.2% to 9.5%]; 97% posterior probability of efficacy). Among survivors, the median for organ support-free days was 14 in both groups. Major bleeding occurred in 2.1% and 0.4% of patients in the antiplatelet and control groups (adjusted OR, 2.97 [95% CrI, 1.23-8.28]; adjusted absolute risk increase, 0.8% [95% CrI, 0.1%-2.7%]; 99.4% probability of harm). Conclusions and Relevance: Among critically ill patients with COVID-19, treatment with an antiplatelet agent, compared with no antiplatelet agent, had a low likelihood of providing improvement in the number of organ support-free days within 21 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
3.
Int J Cardiol ; 346: 107-108, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587662
4.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1703-1712, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525396

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acutely ill inpatients with COVID-19 typically receive antithrombotic therapy, although the risks and benefits of this intervention among outpatients with COVID-19 have not been established. Objective: To assess whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy can safely reduce major adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes among symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ACTIV-4B Outpatient Thrombosis Prevention Trial was designed as a minimal-contact, adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy among 7000 symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. The trial was conducted at 52 US sites between September 2020 and June 2021; final follow-up was August 5, 2021. Prior to initiating treatment, participants were required to have platelet count greater than 100 000/mm3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interventions: Random allocation in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to aspirin (81 mg orally once daily; n = 164), prophylactic-dose apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily; n = 165), therapeutic-dose apixaban (5 mg orally twice daily; n = 164), or placebo (n = 164) for 45 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous or arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for cardiovascular or pulmonary cause. The primary analyses for efficacy and bleeding events were limited to participants who took at least 1 dose of trial medication. Results: On June 18, 2021, the trial data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination because of lower than anticipated event rates; at that time, 657 symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 had been randomized (median age, 54 years [IQR, 46-59]; 59% women). The median times from diagnosis to randomization and from randomization to initiation of study treatment were 7 days and 3 days, respectively. Twenty-two randomized participants (3.3%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 prior to initiating treatment. Among the 558 patients who initiated treatment, the adjudicated primary composite end point occurred in 1 patient (0.7%) in the aspirin group, 1 patient (0.7%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, 2 patients (1.4%) in the 5-mg apixaban group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the placebo group. The risk differences compared with placebo for the primary end point were 0.0% (95% CI not calculable) in the aspirin group, 0.7% (95% CI, -2.1% to 4.1%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 1.4% (95% CI, -1.5% to 5.0%) in the 5-mg apixaban group. Risk differences compared with placebo for bleeding events were 2.0% (95% CI, -2.7% to 6.8%), 4.5% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.2%), and 6.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 12.9%) among participants who initiated therapy in the aspirin, prophylactic apixaban, and therapeutic apixaban groups, respectively, although none were major. Findings inclusive of all randomized patients were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Among symptomatic clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19, treatment with aspirin or apixaban compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of a composite clinical outcome. However, the study was terminated after enrollment of 9% of participants because of an event rate lower than anticipated. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498273.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects
6.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1703-1712, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460106

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acutely ill inpatients with COVID-19 typically receive antithrombotic therapy, although the risks and benefits of this intervention among outpatients with COVID-19 have not been established. Objective: To assess whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy can safely reduce major adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes among symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ACTIV-4B Outpatient Thrombosis Prevention Trial was designed as a minimal-contact, adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy among 7000 symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. The trial was conducted at 52 US sites between September 2020 and June 2021; final follow-up was August 5, 2021. Prior to initiating treatment, participants were required to have platelet count greater than 100 000/mm3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interventions: Random allocation in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to aspirin (81 mg orally once daily; n = 164), prophylactic-dose apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily; n = 165), therapeutic-dose apixaban (5 mg orally twice daily; n = 164), or placebo (n = 164) for 45 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous or arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for cardiovascular or pulmonary cause. The primary analyses for efficacy and bleeding events were limited to participants who took at least 1 dose of trial medication. Results: On June 18, 2021, the trial data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination because of lower than anticipated event rates; at that time, 657 symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 had been randomized (median age, 54 years [IQR, 46-59]; 59% women). The median times from diagnosis to randomization and from randomization to initiation of study treatment were 7 days and 3 days, respectively. Twenty-two randomized participants (3.3%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 prior to initiating treatment. Among the 558 patients who initiated treatment, the adjudicated primary composite end point occurred in 1 patient (0.7%) in the aspirin group, 1 patient (0.7%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, 2 patients (1.4%) in the 5-mg apixaban group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the placebo group. The risk differences compared with placebo for the primary end point were 0.0% (95% CI not calculable) in the aspirin group, 0.7% (95% CI, -2.1% to 4.1%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 1.4% (95% CI, -1.5% to 5.0%) in the 5-mg apixaban group. Risk differences compared with placebo for bleeding events were 2.0% (95% CI, -2.7% to 6.8%), 4.5% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.2%), and 6.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 12.9%) among participants who initiated therapy in the aspirin, prophylactic apixaban, and therapeutic apixaban groups, respectively, although none were major. Findings inclusive of all randomized patients were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Among symptomatic clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19, treatment with aspirin or apixaban compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of a composite clinical outcome. However, the study was terminated after enrollment of 9% of participants because of an event rate lower than anticipated. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498273.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390697

ABSTRACT

Backgroundand Objectives: Aspirin is used globally to reduce pain and inflammation; however, its effect in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is not fully investigated and remains controversial. We evaluated the association between aspirin and COVID-19 outcomes using nationwide data from the Korean National Health Insurance System. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational cohort study that included 22,660 eligible patients who underwent COVID-19 testing in South Korea between 1 January-31 July 2020. We identified all aspirin users prescribed aspirin within two weeks before or after the index date. The primary outcome was positivity for the COVID-19 test, and secondary outcomes included conventional oxygen therapy, intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, or death. We applied the propensity score matching method to reduce the possible bias originating from the differences in patients' baseline characteristics. Results: Of those eligible, 662 patients were prescribed aspirin. Among them, 136 patients were on aspirin within two weeks before diagnosis and 526 patients were on aspirin after diagnosis. The COVID-19 test positivity rate was not significantly different according to aspirin use. Aspirin use before COVID-19 was related to an increased death rate and aspirin use after COVID-19 was related to a higher risk of the conventional oxygen therapy. Conclusion: Aspirin use was associated with adverse effects in COVID-19 patients. Further studies for mechanisms are needed.


Subject(s)
Aspirin , COVID-19 , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 451, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of SARS-Cov-2 is characterized by inflammation, immune dysregulation, coagulopathy, and endothelial dysfunction. No single therapeutic agent can target all these pathophysiologic substrates. Moreover, the current therapies are not fully effective in reducing mortality in moderate and severe disease. Hence, we aim to evaluate the combination of drugs (aspirin, atorvastatin, and nicorandil) with anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, immunomodulatory, and vasodilator properties as adjuvant therapy in covid- 19. TRIAL DESIGN: Single-centre, prospective, two-arm parallel design, open-label randomized control superiority trial. PARTICIPANTS: The study will be conducted at the covid centre of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College Tanda Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India. All SARS-CoV-2 infected patients requiring admission to the study centre will be screened for the trial. All patients >18years who are RT-PCR/RAT positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection with pneumonia but without ARDS at presentation (presence of clinical features of dyspnoea hypoxia, fever, cough, spo2 <94% on room air and respiratory rate >24/minute) requiring hospital admission and consenting to participate in the trial will be included. Patients with documented significant liver disease/dysfunction (AST/ALT > 240), myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (CPK > 5x normal), allergy or intolerance to statins, allergy or intolerance to aspirin, patients taking medications with significant interaction with statins, prior statin use (within 30 days), prior aspirin use (within 30 days), history of active GI bleeding in past three months, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100000/ dl), pregnancy, active breastfeeding, patient unable to take oral or nasogastric medications, patients in altered mental status, shock, acute renal failure, acute coronary syndrome, sepsis and ARDS at presentation will be excluded. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: After randomization, participants in the intervention group will receive aspirin, atorvastatin, and nicorandil (Fig. 1). Atorvastatin will be prescribed as 40 mg starting dose followed by 40 mg oral tablets once daily for ten days or till hospital discharge whichever is later. Aspirin dose will be 325 starting dose followed by 75 mg once daily for ten days or till hospital discharge whichever is later. Nicorandil will be given as 10 mg starting dose followed by 5mg twice daily ten days or till hospital discharge whichever is later. All patients in the intervention and control group will receive a standard of care for covid management as per national guidelines. All patients will receive symptomatic treatment with antipyretics, adequate hydration, anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin, intravenous remdesivir, corticosteroids (intravenous dexamethasone for 5 days or more duration if oxygen requirement increasing or inflammatory markers are raised), and oxygen support. Patients will receive treatment for comorbid conditions as per guidelines. Fig. 1 Schematic study design MAIN OUTCOMES: The patients will be followed up for outcomes during the hospital stay or for ten days whichever is longer. The primary outcome will be in-hospital mortality. Any progression to ARDS, shock, acute kidney injury, impaired consciousness, length of hospital stay, length of mechanical ventilation (invasive plus non-invasive) will be secondary outcomes. Changes in serum markers (CRP, D -dimer, S ferritin) will be other secondary outcomes. The safety endpoints will be hepatotoxicity (ALT/AST > 3x ULN; hyperbilirubinemia), myalgia-muscle ache, or weakness without creatine kinase (CK) elevation, myositis-muscle symptoms with increased CK levels (3-10) ULN, rhabdomyolysis-muscle symptoms with marked CK elevation (typically substantially greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) and with creatinine elevation (usually with brown urine and urinary myoglobin) observed during the hospital stay. RANDOMIZATION: Computer-generated block randomization will be used to randomize the participants in a 1:1 ratio to the active intervention group A (Aspirin, Atorvastatin, Nicorandil) plus conventional therapy and control group B conventional therapy only. BLINDING (MASKING): The study will be an open-label trial. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 396 patients will participate in this study, which is randomly divided with 198 participants in each group. TRIAL STATUS: The first version of the protocol was approved by the institutional ethical committee on 1st February 2021, IEC /006/2021. The recruitment started on 8/4/2021 and will continue until 08/07/2021. A total of 281 patients have been enrolled till 21/5/2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been prospectively registered in Clinical Trial Registry - India (ICMR- NIMS): CTRI/2021/04/032648 [Registered on: 8 April 2021]. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported under the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aspirin/adverse effects , Atorvastatin/adverse effects , Humans , India , Nicorandil , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Vasc Med ; 26(6): 626-632, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234444

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an ongoing viral pandemic marked by increased risk of thrombotic events. However, the role of platelets in the elevated observed thrombotic risk in COVID-19 and utility of antiplatelet agents in attenuating thrombosis is unknown. We aimed to determine if the antiplatelet effect of aspirin may mitigate risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and venous thromboembolism in COVID-19. We evaluated 22,072 symptomatic patients tested for COVID-19. Propensity-matched analyses were performed to determine if treatment with aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) affected thrombotic outcomes in COVID-19. Neither aspirin nor NSAIDs affected mortality in COVID-19. Thus, aspirin does not appear to prevent thrombosis and death in COVID-19. The mechanisms of thrombosis in COVID-19, therefore, appear distinct and the role of platelets as direct mediators of SARS-CoV-2-mediated thrombosis warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Inpatients , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Aspirin/adverse effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/virology
15.
Fam Med Community Health ; 9(2)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To review the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease, potential aspirin targets on this pathogenesis and the potential role of aspirin in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Narrative review. SETTING: The online databases PubMed, OVID Medline and Cochrane Library were searched using relevant headlines from 1 January 2016 to 1 January 2021. International guidelines from relevant societies, journals and forums were also assessed for relevance. PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable. RESULTS: A review of the selected literature revealed that clinical deterioration in COVID-19 is attributed to the interplay between endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and dysregulated inflammation. Aspirin has anti-inflammatory effects, antiplatelet aggregation, anticoagulant properties as well as pleiotropic effects on endothelial function. During the COVID-19 pandemic, low-dose aspirin is used effectively in secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement, prevention of pre-eclampsia and postdischarge treatment for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Prehospital low-dose aspirin therapy may reduce the risk of intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, whereas aspirin association with mortality is still debatable. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend a low-dose aspirin regimen for primary prevention of arterial thromboembolism in patients aged 40-70 years who are at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, or an intermediate risk with a risk-enhancer and have a low risk of bleeding. Aspirin's protective roles in COVID-19 associated with acute lung injury, vascular thrombosis without previous cardiovascular disease and mortality need further randomised controlled trials to establish causal conclusions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
18.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5179-5189, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096764

ABSTRACT

Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is commonly used for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Aspirin use is associated with better outcomes among COVID-19 positive patients. We hypothesized that the aspirin use for primary cardiovascular disease prevention might have a protective effect on COVID-19 susceptibility and disease duration. We conducted a retrospective population-based cross-sectional study, utilizing data from the Leumit Health Services database. The proportion of patients treated with aspirin was significantly lower among the COVID-19-positive group, as compared to the COVID-19-negative group [73 (11.03%) vs. 1548 (15.77%); P = 0.001]. Aspirin use was associated with lower likelihood of COVID-19 infection, as compared to nonusers (adjusted OR 0.71 (95% CI, 0.52 to 0.99; P = 0.041). Aspirin users were older (68.06 ± 12.79 vs. 56.63 ± 12.28 years of age; P < 0.001), presented a lower BMI (28.77 ± 5.4 vs. 30.37 ± 4.55; P < 0.0189), and showed higher prevalence of hypertension (56, 76.71%), diabetes (47, 64.38%), and COPD (11, 15.07%) than the aspirin nonusers (151, 25.64%, P < 0.001; 130, 22.07%, P < 0.001; and 43, 7.3%, P = 0.023, respectively). Moreover, COVID-19 disease duration (considered as the time between the first positive and second negative COVID-19 RT-PCR test results) among aspirin users was significantly shorter, as compared to aspirin nonusers (19.8 ± 7.8 vs. 21.9 ± 7.9 P = 0.045). Among hospitalized COVID-positive patients, a higher proportion of surviving subjects were treated with aspirin (20, 19.05%), as opposed to 1 dead subject (14.29%), although this difference was not significant (P = 0.449). In conclusion, we observed an inverse association between the likelihood of COVID-19 infection, disease duration and mortality, and aspirin use for primary prevention.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Prevention , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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