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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935379, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This retrospective study aimed to investigate outcomes and hospitalization rates in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of early COVID-19 treated at home with prescribed and non-prescribed treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS The medical records of a cohort of 158 Italian patients with early COVID-19 treated at home were analyzed. Treatments consisted of indomethacin, low-dose aspirin, omeprazole, and a flavonoid-based food supplement, plus azithromycin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and betamethasone as needed. The association of treatment timeliness and of clinical variables with the duration of symptoms and with the risk of hospitalization was evaluated by logistic regression. RESULTS Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n=85) was treated at the earliest possible time (<72 h from onset of symptoms), and group 2 (n=73) was treated >72 h after the onset of symptoms. Clinical severity at the beginning of treatment was similar in the 2 groups. In group 1, symptom duration was shorter than in group 2 (median 6.0 days vs 13.0 days, P<0.001) and no hospitalizations occurred, compared with 19.18% hospitalizations in group 2. One patient in group 1 developed chest X-ray alterations and 2 patients experienced an increase in D-dimer levels, compared with 30 and 22 patients, respectively, in group 2. The main factor determining the duration of symptoms and the risk of hospitalization was the delay in starting therapy (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS This real-world study of patients in the community showed that early diagnosis and early supportive patient management reduced the severity of COVID-19 and reduced the rate of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Betamethasone/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Dietary Supplements , Early Diagnosis , Female , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Indomethacin/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Time , Treatment Outcome
2.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 278-280, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542929

ABSTRACT

To help stop the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccines are currently the most critical tool. However, the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines frequently cause systemic side effects shortly after the injection, such as fever, headache and generalized fatigue. In our survey, after receiving the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, 80% developed fever, 62% headache and 69% generalized fatigue. Among people who required antipyretics, the average durations of fever and headache were significantly shorter in those who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, loxoprofen and ibuprofen, than those who took acetaminophen. In our patch-clamp studies, NSAIDs effectively suppressed the delayed rectifier K+-channel (Kv1.3) currents in T-lymphocytes and thus exerted immunosuppressive effects. Because of this pharmacological property, the use of NSAIDs should be more effective in reducing the vaccine-induced systemic side effects that are caused primarily by the enhanced cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Headache/drug therapy , Headache/etiology , Humans , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Phenylpropionates/therapeutic use , Young Adult
3.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1703-1712, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525396

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acutely ill inpatients with COVID-19 typically receive antithrombotic therapy, although the risks and benefits of this intervention among outpatients with COVID-19 have not been established. Objective: To assess whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy can safely reduce major adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes among symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ACTIV-4B Outpatient Thrombosis Prevention Trial was designed as a minimal-contact, adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy among 7000 symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. The trial was conducted at 52 US sites between September 2020 and June 2021; final follow-up was August 5, 2021. Prior to initiating treatment, participants were required to have platelet count greater than 100 000/mm3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interventions: Random allocation in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to aspirin (81 mg orally once daily; n = 164), prophylactic-dose apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily; n = 165), therapeutic-dose apixaban (5 mg orally twice daily; n = 164), or placebo (n = 164) for 45 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous or arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for cardiovascular or pulmonary cause. The primary analyses for efficacy and bleeding events were limited to participants who took at least 1 dose of trial medication. Results: On June 18, 2021, the trial data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination because of lower than anticipated event rates; at that time, 657 symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 had been randomized (median age, 54 years [IQR, 46-59]; 59% women). The median times from diagnosis to randomization and from randomization to initiation of study treatment were 7 days and 3 days, respectively. Twenty-two randomized participants (3.3%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 prior to initiating treatment. Among the 558 patients who initiated treatment, the adjudicated primary composite end point occurred in 1 patient (0.7%) in the aspirin group, 1 patient (0.7%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, 2 patients (1.4%) in the 5-mg apixaban group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the placebo group. The risk differences compared with placebo for the primary end point were 0.0% (95% CI not calculable) in the aspirin group, 0.7% (95% CI, -2.1% to 4.1%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 1.4% (95% CI, -1.5% to 5.0%) in the 5-mg apixaban group. Risk differences compared with placebo for bleeding events were 2.0% (95% CI, -2.7% to 6.8%), 4.5% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.2%), and 6.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 12.9%) among participants who initiated therapy in the aspirin, prophylactic apixaban, and therapeutic apixaban groups, respectively, although none were major. Findings inclusive of all randomized patients were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Among symptomatic clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19, treatment with aspirin or apixaban compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of a composite clinical outcome. However, the study was terminated after enrollment of 9% of participants because of an event rate lower than anticipated. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498273.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26670, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501194

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Several studies reported that aspirin can potentially help prevent infection and serious complications of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but no study has elucidated a definitive association between aspirin and COVID-19. This study aims to investigate the association between aspirin and COVID-19.This case-control study used demographic, clinical, and health screening laboratory test data collected from the National Health Insurance Service database. Patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection until June 4, 2020, were matched with control patients using propensity score matching according to their SARS-CoV-2 status, the composite of complications, and death. The composite of complications included intensive care unit admission, use of vasopressors, high-flow oxygen therapy, renal replacement therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death. Exposure to aspirin was defined as having a prescription for aspirin for more than 14 days, including the index date. After matching, multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. To confirm the robustness of this study, we used 2 study groups, 3 propensity score matching methods, and 3 models for conditional logistic regression analyses.The crude odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for SARS-CoV-2 infection between the groups without and with exposure to aspirin were 1.21 (1.04-1.41), but the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were not significant. There was no association between aspirin exposure and COVID-19 status. Multiple statistical analyses, including subgroup analysis, revealed consistent results. Furthermore, the results of analysis for complications and death were not significant. Aspirin exposure was not associated with COVID-19-related complications and mortality in COVID-19 patients.In this nationwide population-based case-control study, aspirin use was not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection or related complications. With several ongoing randomized controlled trials of aspirin in COVID-19 patients, more studies would be able to confirm the effectiveness of aspirin in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Republic of Korea , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211048808, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495924

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate association between mean platelet volume (MVP), platelet distribution width (PDW) and red cell distribution width (RDW) and mortality in patients with COVID-19 and find out in which patients the use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) affects the prognosis due to the effect of MPV on thromboxan A2. A total of 5142 patients were divided into those followed in the intensive care unit (ICU) and those followed in the ward. Patient medical records were examined retrospectively. ROC analysis showed that the area under curve (AUC) values were 0.714, 0.750, 0.843 for MPV, RDW and D-Dimer, the cutoff value was 10.45fl, 43.65fl, 500.2 ng/mL respectively. (all P < .001). Survival analysis showed that patients with MPV >10.45 f/l and D-Dimer >500.2 ng/mL, treatment with ASA had lower in-hospital and 180-day mortality than patients without ASA in ICU patients (HR = 0.773; 95% CI = 0.595-0.992; P = .048, HR = 0.763; 95% CI = 0.590-0.987; P = .036). Administration of low-dose ASA in addition to anti-coagulant according to MPV and D-dimer levels reduces mortality.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , COVID-19/blood , Erythrocyte Indices , Erythrocytes , Mean Platelet Volume , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1703-1712, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460106

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acutely ill inpatients with COVID-19 typically receive antithrombotic therapy, although the risks and benefits of this intervention among outpatients with COVID-19 have not been established. Objective: To assess whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy can safely reduce major adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes among symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ACTIV-4B Outpatient Thrombosis Prevention Trial was designed as a minimal-contact, adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy among 7000 symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. The trial was conducted at 52 US sites between September 2020 and June 2021; final follow-up was August 5, 2021. Prior to initiating treatment, participants were required to have platelet count greater than 100 000/mm3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interventions: Random allocation in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to aspirin (81 mg orally once daily; n = 164), prophylactic-dose apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily; n = 165), therapeutic-dose apixaban (5 mg orally twice daily; n = 164), or placebo (n = 164) for 45 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous or arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for cardiovascular or pulmonary cause. The primary analyses for efficacy and bleeding events were limited to participants who took at least 1 dose of trial medication. Results: On June 18, 2021, the trial data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination because of lower than anticipated event rates; at that time, 657 symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 had been randomized (median age, 54 years [IQR, 46-59]; 59% women). The median times from diagnosis to randomization and from randomization to initiation of study treatment were 7 days and 3 days, respectively. Twenty-two randomized participants (3.3%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 prior to initiating treatment. Among the 558 patients who initiated treatment, the adjudicated primary composite end point occurred in 1 patient (0.7%) in the aspirin group, 1 patient (0.7%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, 2 patients (1.4%) in the 5-mg apixaban group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the placebo group. The risk differences compared with placebo for the primary end point were 0.0% (95% CI not calculable) in the aspirin group, 0.7% (95% CI, -2.1% to 4.1%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 1.4% (95% CI, -1.5% to 5.0%) in the 5-mg apixaban group. Risk differences compared with placebo for bleeding events were 2.0% (95% CI, -2.7% to 6.8%), 4.5% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.2%), and 6.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 12.9%) among participants who initiated therapy in the aspirin, prophylactic apixaban, and therapeutic apixaban groups, respectively, although none were major. Findings inclusive of all randomized patients were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Among symptomatic clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19, treatment with aspirin or apixaban compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of a composite clinical outcome. However, the study was terminated after enrollment of 9% of participants because of an event rate lower than anticipated. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498273.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects
7.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(12): e29355, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize viscoelastic testing profiles of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This single-center retrospective review included 30 patients diagnosed with MIS-C from March 1 to September 1, 2020. Thromboelastography (TEG) with platelet mapping was performed in 19 (63%) patients and compared to age- and sex-matched controls prior to cardiac surgery. Relationships between TEG parameters and inflammatory markers were assessed using correlation. RESULTS: Patients with MIS-C had abnormal TEG results compared to controls, including decreased kinetic (K) time (1.1 vs. 1.7 minutes, p < .01), increased alpha angle (75.0° vs. 65.7°, p < .01), increased maximum amplitude (70.8 vs. 58.3 mm, p < .01), and decreased lysis in 30 minutes (Ly30) (1.1% vs. 3.7%, p = .03); consistent with increased clot formation rate and strength, and reduced fibrinolysis. TEG maximum amplitude was moderately correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r = 0.60, p = .02), initial platelet count (r = 0.67, p < .01), and peak platelet count (r = 0.51, p = .03). TEG alpha angle was moderately correlated with peak platelet count (r = 0.54, p = .02). Seventeen (57%) patients received aspirin (ASA) and anticoagulation, five (17%) received only ASA, and three (10%) received only anticoagulation. No patients had a symptomatic thrombotic event. Six (20%) patients had a bleeding event, none of which was major. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MIS-C had evidence of hypercoagulability on TEG. Increased ESR and platelets were associated with higher clot strength. Patients were prophylactically treated with ASA or anticoagulation with no symptomatic thrombosis or major bleeding. Further multicenter study is required to characterize the rate of thrombosis and optimal thromboprophylaxis algorithm in this patient population.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Thrombophilia/blood , Adolescent , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Platelets/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/drug therapy
8.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Pediatr ; 229: 33-40, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the similarities and differences in the evaluation and treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at hospitals in the US. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 16 to July 16, 2020, of US children's hospitals regarding protocols for management of patients with MIS-C. Elements included characteristics of the hospital, clinical definition of MIS-C, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up. We summarized key findings and compared results from centers in which >5 patients had been treated vs those in which ≤5 patients had been treated. RESULTS: In all, 40 centers of varying size and experience with MIS-C participated in this protocol survey. Overall, 21 of 40 centers required only 1 day of fever for MIS-C to be considered. In the evaluation of patients, there was often a tiered approach. Intravenous immunoglobulin was the most widely recommended medication to treat MIS-C (98% of centers). Corticosteroids were listed in 93% of protocols primarily for moderate or severe cases. Aspirin was commonly recommended for mild cases, whereas heparin or low molecular weight heparin were to be used primarily in severe cases. In severe cases, anakinra and vasopressors frequently were recommended; 39 of 40 centers recommended follow-up with cardiology. There were similar findings between centers in which >5 patients vs ≤5 patients had been managed. Supplemental materials containing hospital protocols are provided. CONCLUSIONS: There are many similarities yet key differences between hospital protocols for MIS-C. These findings can help healthcare providers learn from others regarding options for managing MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 6-12, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether the active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization affects mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Aspirin is often prescribed for secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities that might increase mortality, and may therefore falsely demonstrate increased mortality. To reduce bias, only studies that performed an adjusted analysis were included in this review. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed, from inception until 16 April 2021. The exposure was active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization. The primary outcome was mortality. The pooled adjusted effect estimate was reported as relative risk (RR). RESULTS: Six eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 13,993 patients. The studies had low-to-moderate risk of bias based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The meta-analysis indicated that the use of low-dose aspirin was independently associated with reduced mortality {RR 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.61], P < 0.001; I2 = 36.2%}. Subgroup analysis on in-hospital low-dose aspirin administration also showed a significant reduction in mortality [RR 0.39 (95% CI 0.16-0.96), P < 0.001; I2 = 47.0%]. CONCLUSION: Use of low-dose aspirin is independently associated with reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19, with low certainty of evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Prescriptions , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14515, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341257

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection, affecting every one of us from the last year. Emerging reports have indicated thromboembolism in serious cases of COVID-19. The aspirin is useful to reduce mortality of serious patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome without COVID-19. Thus, we have conducted a metanalysis to find out the role of aspirin in the mortality of COVID-19 patients using RevMan 5. A total of 10 studies containing 56 696 COVID-19 patients were found appropriate for quantitative analysis. The quality of articles was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The fixed-effect model was used to calculate the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). The odd ratio was found to be 0.70 [0.63, 0.77] which indicates a lesser likelihood of having death in COVID-19 patients in aspirin group as compared with non-aspirin group. However, no effect 0.00 [-0.04, 0.04] was observed after the exclusion of outliers. Thus, further clinical evidence is required to make valid conclusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 375, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Half of U.S. adults have received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccines produced by either Pfizer, Moderna, or Johnson and Johnson, which represents a major milestone in the ongoing pandemic. Given the emergency use authorizations for these vaccines, their side effects and safety were assessed over a compressed time period. Hence, ongoing monitoring for vaccine-related adverse events is imperative for a full understanding and delineation of their safety profile. CASE PRESENTATION: An 22-year-old Caucasian male presented to our hospital center complaining of pleuritic chest pain. Six months prior he had a mild case of COVID-19, but was otherwise healthy. He had received his first dose of the Moderna vaccine three days prior to developing symptoms. Laboratory analysis revealed a markedly elevated troponin and multiple imaging modalities during his hospitalization found evidence of wall motion abnormalities consistent with a diagnosis of perimyocarditis. He was started on aspirin and colchicine with marked improvement of his symptoms prior to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: We present a case of perimyocarditis that was temporally related to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in an young male with prior COVID-19 infection but otherwise healthy. Our case report highlights an albeit rare but important adverse event for clinicians to be aware of. It also suggests a possible mechanism for the development of myocardial injury in our patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Recovery of Function , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104950, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318942

ABSTRACT

Patients affected by severe coronavirus induced disease-2019 (Covid-19) often experience hypoxemia due to alveolar involvement and endothelial dysfunction, which leads to the formation of micro thrombi in the pulmonary capillary vessels. Both hypoxemia and a prothrombotic diathesis have been associated with more severe disease and increased risk of death. To date, specific indications to treat this condition are lacking. This was a single center, investigator initiated, compassionate use, proof of concept, case control, phase IIb study (NCT04368377) conducted in the Intermediate Respiratory Care Unit of L. Sacco University Hospital in Milano, Italy. Our objective was to explore the effects of the administration of anti-platelet therapy on arterial oxygenation and clinical outcomes in patients with severe Covid-19 with hypercoagulability. We enrolled five consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe respiratory failure requiring helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and a pro-thrombotic state identified as a D-dimer > 3 times the upper limit of normal. Five patients matched for age, D-dimer value and SOFA score formed the control group. Beyond standard of care, treated patients received 25 µg/Kg/body weight tirofiban as bolus infusion, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.15 µg/Kg/body weight per minute for 48 hours. Before tirofiban, patients received acetylsalicylic acid 250 mg infusion and oral clopidogrel 300 mg; both were continued at a dose of 75 mg daily for 30 days. Fondaparinux2.5 mg/day sub-cutaneous was given for the duration of the hospital stay. All controls were receiving prophylactic or therapeutic dose heparin, according to local standard operating procedures. Treated patients consistently experienced a mean (SD) reduction in A-a O2 gradient of -32.6 mmHg (61.9, P = 0.154), -52.4 mmHg (59.4, P = 0.016) and -151.1 mmHg (56.6, P = 0.011; P = 0.047 vs. controls) at 24, 48 hours and 7 days after treatment. PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased by 52 mmHg (50, P = 0.172), 64 mmHg (47, P = 0.040) and 112 mmHg (51, P = 0.036) after 24, 48 hours and 7 days, respectively. All patients but one were successfully weaned from CPAP after 3 days. This was not true for the control group. No major adverse events were observed. Antiplatelet therapy might be effective in improving the ventilation/perfusion ratio in Covid-19 patients with severe respiratory failure. The effects might be sustained by the prevention and interference on forming clots in lung capillary vessels and by modulating megakaryocytes' function and platelet adhesion. Randomized clinical trials are urgently needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Aged , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Compassionate Use Trials , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/complications , Tirofiban/therapeutic use
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 148-152, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a dangerous pediatric complication of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review article is to provide a summary of the diagnosis and management of MIS-C with a focus on management in the acute care setting. DISCUSSION: MIS-C is an inflammatory syndrome which can affect nearly any organ system. The most common symptoms are fever and gastrointestinal symptoms, though neurologic and dermatologic findings are also well-described. The diagnosis includes a combination of clinical and laboratory testing. Patients with MIS-C will often have elevated inflammatory markers and may have an abnormal electrocardiogram or echocardiogram. Initial treatment involves resuscitation with careful assessment for cardiac versus vasodilatory shock using point-of-care ultrasound. Treatment should include intravenous immunoglobulin, anticoagulation, and consideration of corticosteroids. Interleukin-1 and/or interleukin-6 blockade may be considered for refractory cases. Aspirin is recommended if there is thrombocytosis or Kawasaki disease-like features on echocardiogram. Patients will generally require admission to an intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: MIS-C is a condition associated with morbidity and mortality that is increasingly recognized as a potential complication in pediatric patients with COVID-19. It is important for emergency clinicians to know how to diagnose and treat this disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Point-of-Care Systems , Resuscitation , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Ultrasonography
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1327: 205-214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316250

ABSTRACT

The exaggerated host response to Sars-CoV-2 plays an important role in COVID-19 pathology but provides a therapeutic opportunity until definitive virus targeted therapies and vaccines become available. Given a central role of endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation, repurposing ACE inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), statins, and aspirin has been of interest. In this retrospective, single-center study, we evaluated the primary outcomes of mortality and ICU admission in 587 hospitalized patients with documented COVID-19 with or without ACEIs, ARBs, statins, and aspirin. Atorvastatin was associated with reduced mortality, which persisted after adjusting for age, lockdown status, and other medications (OR: 0.18. 95% CI: 0.06-0.49, P = 0.001). ACEIs were also associated with reduced mortality in the crude model (OR: 0.20, CI: 0.06-0.66, P = 0.008), as ACEIs and ARBs were combined as a single group (OR: 0.35, CI: 0.16-0.75, P = 0.007), although ARBs alone did not reach statistical significance. There was no association between any medications and risk of ICU admission. Aspirin only achieved a significant association of reduced mortality in a subgroup of patients with diabetes in the crude model (OR: 0.17, CI: 0.04-0.80, P = 0.02). The reduced mortality observed with atorvastatin is consistent with other literature, and consideration should be given to atorvastatin as a COVID-19 treatment. While there was suggested benefit of ACEIs and ARBs in the present study, other studies are varied and further studies are warranted to recommend employing these medications as a treatment strategy. Nevertheless, this study combined with others continues to give credibility that ACEIs and ARBs are safe to continue in the setting of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertension , Aldosterone , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensins , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Renin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236430

ABSTRACT

This is a case report of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) associated with COVID-19 treated with oral aspirin therapy. A 56-year-old woman reported decreased vision in her left eye. Her left eye vision was 6/18, N10. Anterior segment was within normal limits. Left eye fundus was suggestive of CRVO and macular oedema. Optical coherence tomography showed cystoid macular oedema and neurosensory detachment. Blood work-up revealed elevated D-dimer levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). She was started on treatment with low-dose aspirin 150 mg/day. After 1 month, her vision improved to 6/6, N6. Left eye fundus showed reduced retinal haemorrhages and complete resolution of macular oedema. Her repeat blood work-up showed reduced D-dimer and ESR levels. The patient was asked to be reviewed after 3 months. This case highlights that specific treatment for reducing the hypercoagulable state caused by COVID-19 with oral aspirin therapy can result in complete resolution of CRVO macular oedema.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Middle Aged , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
20.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 38(7): 663-668, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216504

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection may present with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a serious complication of SARS-CoV-2 causing systemic organ dysfunction. This case series presents the first reported cases of patients who developed ITP following MIS-C, while completing corticosteroid tapers. These patients responded to standard of care therapies for ITP and had appropriate platelet count recovery. We emphasize the importance of careful monitoring of those recovering from COVID-19 or MIS-C, to proactively identify clinical and laboratory abnormalities, in addition to long-term cardiovascular sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Disease Management , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Infant , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Platelet Count , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
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