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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847313

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, computer vision syndrome (CVS) related to online classrooms were unavoidable. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the prevalence, characteristics and associated factors of CVS. A total of 527 students who were currently studying in a virtual classroom (70.40% female, mean (standard deviation; SD) age of 20.04 (2.17) years) were included. The prevalence of CVS assessed by an online CVS-Questionnaire was 81.0% (427/527). Comparing with those in the period before the online study, an increase in screen time (interquartile range) in students with and without CVS was 3 (0-3) and 2 (1-5) h, respectively. Overall, 516 students (97.9%) experienced at least one symptom. The most frequent symptom in CVS subjects was eye pain (96.5%). The most intense symptoms were the feeling of worsening eyesight (15.9%). The factors associated with CVS were female (p < 0.001), age (p = 0.010), atopic diseases (p = 0.020), prior ocular symptoms (p < 0.001), astigmatism (p = 0.033), distance from display <20 cm (p = 0.023), presence of glare or reflection on screen (p < 0.001), low screen brightness (p = 0.045), sleep duration (p = 0.030), inadequate break time between classes (p < 0.001) and increased screen time usage during online study (p < 0.001). Recommendations to prevent CVS based on the adjustable factors might reduce the burden of online study.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia , COVID-19 , Adult , Asthenopia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Self Report , Students , Syndrome , Thailand , Universities , Young Adult
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0007, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1716506

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar sintomas astenópicos e fatores sociodemográficos, hábitos comportamentais e clínicos nos docentes universitários durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal que avaliou a ocorrência de astenopia em 104 docentes. Questionários de sintomatologia visual validados foram adaptados para a coleta de dados. Houve comparação dos docentes quanto à ocorrência ou não de sintomas astenópicos, bem como foi aplicada regressão logística binária, para aferir a associação com variáveis independentes (p<0,05). Resultados: Houve maior aparecimento de sintomas astenópicos durante o período pandêmico, em que o tempo de exposição a telas parece ter sido o fator mais determinante. Além disso, os indivíduos com tempo de tela superior a 5 horas diárias, que faziam uso de telas para o lazer e usavam colírio/lubrificantes apresentaram significativamente maior chance de estar no grupo com sintomas astenópicos. Conclusão: Foi identificada associação significativa entre a ocorrência de sintomas astenópicos e o uso de telas durante o período pandêmico, principalmente nos grupos com maior duração do tempo de tela. O estudo chama atenção para a saúde ocular de docentes universitários em ensino remoto, além de suscitar novos estudos para investigação desse quadro em distintos ambientes escolares.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess asthenopic symptoms and sociodemographic factors, behavioral and clinical aspects in college lecturers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study evaluating asthenopia in 104 lecturers. Some validated visual symptom questionnaires were adapted for data collection. Lecturers were compared regarding the occurrence or not of asthenopic symptoms, and binary logistic regression was applied to measure the association with independent variables (p<0.05). Results: Asthenopic symptoms occurred more often during the pandemic, when exposure to screens was a determinant factor. The individuals with screen time longer than five hours a day, who used screens for leisure, and who used eye drops/lubricants were significantly more likely to be in the group with asthenopic symptoms. Conclusion: A significant association was identified in occurrence of asthenopic symptoms and screen use during the pandemic period, especially in groups with longer screen time. The study draws attention to the eye health of college lecturers in distance learning, and the need for further research on this situation in different school environments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Education, Distance/methods , Faculty , Universities , Computers , Xerophthalmia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Internet , Diplopia/epidemiology , Eye Manifestations , Pandemics , Occupational Stress , COVID-19
3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(3): 988-992, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715915

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of symptoms related to the use of display devices and contributing factors in children engaged in distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An online electronic survey form was prepared using Google Forms (Alphabet Co., Mountain View, CA) and sent to parents of children under the age of 18 years engaged in distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The types of display devices children use, how often such devices are used, the symptoms of digital eye strain, and the severity and frequency of the symptoms were recorded, and the associations between the factors were analyzed. Results: A total of 692 participants were included. The mean age of the children was 9.72±3.02 years. The most common display devices used were personal computers (n=435, 61.7%) for online classes and smartphones (n=400, 57.8%) for nonacademic purposes. The mean duration of display device use was 71.1±36.02 min without a break and 7.02±4.55 h per day. The most common reported symptom was headache (n=361, 52.2%). Of the participants, 48.2% (n=332) reported experiencing 3 or more symptoms. The multivariate analysis detected that being male (P=0.005) and older age (P=0.001) were independent risk factors for experiencing 3 or more symptoms. Conclusion: The increasing use of digital devices by children is exacerbating the problem of digital eye strain in children as a side effect of online learning. Public awareness should be improved.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Adolescent , Asthenopia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581126

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) self-quarantine period, the transition to online-course has profoundly changed the learning modes of millions of school-aged children and put them at an increased risk of asthenopia. Therefore, we aimed to determine associations of the total screen/online-course time with asthenopia prevalence among that children during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the associations were mediated by psychological stress. Methods: Asthenopia was defined according to a validated computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q). We used CVS-Q to collect the frequency and intensity of 16 asthenopia-related eye symptoms of 25,781 children. Demographic features, eye care habits, visual disorders, lifestyle, psychological and environmental factors, were also collected. Results: The overall asthenopia prevalence was 12.1%, varying from 5.4 to 18.2% across grade/gender-classified subgroups. A 100-h increment of total screen/online-course time were associated with an increased risk of asthenopia by 9% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09] and 11% (OR = 1.11), respectively. Mediation analysis showed that the proportions of total effects mediated by psychological stress were 23.5 and 38.1%, respectively. Age, female gender, having myopia or astigmatism, bad habits when watching screens were also risk factors. Conversely, keeping 34-65 cm between eyes and screen, increased rest time between classes, and increased eye exercise were all associated with a decreased risk. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the influence of long total screen or online-course time on psychological stress increases asthenopia risk. The findings of this study have provided a new avenue for intervening screen-related asthenopia in addition to incorporating a reasonable schedule of online courses into educational policy.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia , COVID-19 , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Asthenopia/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
6.
Clin Exp Optom ; 104(6): 698-704, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099427

ABSTRACT

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Home-isolation and social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic caused increased use of digital devices, posing a greater risk of developing digital eye strain-related symptoms. Eye-care professionals should educate patients about limiting screen time and managing digital eye strain symptoms. BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the COVID-19 isolation's impact on digital device use by comparing hours spent on digital devices before and during the 24-hour curfew in Saudi Arabia, while assessing the symptoms associated with digital eye strain. METHODS: A self-reported questionnaire was used to compare the total hours per day, either continuous or intermittent, spent on digital devices during and before curfew, and the association of these durations with digital eye strain. RESULTS: A total of 1,939 participants, (mean ± SD: 33 ± 12.2 years and 72% women) were recruited. Results showed a significant difference between usage duration before and during curfew. Digital eye strain incidence was 78% during the curfew. Chi-squared analysis indicated most symptoms are associated with usage duration and employment status. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between digital eye strain and the following factors: using more than one device (odds ratio 1.208, 95% confidence interval: 1.068-1.3661), age, optical correction, employment status, gender, using rewetting drops, and usage duration. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, prolonged use of digital devices significantly increased during home-isolation. Digital eye strain incidence increased during curfew. Regular eye exams should be encouraged to ensure the use of optimum prescription use and meet the specific visual demands required for the use of digital devices. Eye-health strategies and awareness campaigns should be employed on the importance of regular eye exams, decreasing screen time, practising the 20-20-20 rule, and the use of rewetting drops to help reduce the symptoms of digital eye strain during this period.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Self Report , Smartphone/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 28(4): 285-292, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990309

ABSTRACT

Purpose: There has been an enormous increase in the use of gadgets for online classes and entertainment during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of digital eye strain (DES), describe the pattern of gadget usage, and analyse the risk factors for DES.Methods: This online survey analysed 941 responses from students of online classes (688), teachers of online classes (45), and general population (208). A pre-validated questionnaire was used to calculate the DES score. Non-parametric tests of medians were used to compare the median DES score, Chi-square test to compare categorical variables, and binary logistic regression to find the predictors of DES.Results: The prevalence of eye strain was higher among students taking online classes compared to the general public (50.6% vs 33.2%; χ2 = 22.5, df = 1, p < .0001). There was an increase in screen time during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic time. The DES score was highest among students attending online classes (p < .0001), in those with eye diseases (p = .001), greater screen time (p = <0.0001), screen distance <20 cm (p = .002), those who used gadgets in dark (p = .017) and those who took infrequent/no breaks (p = .018). The DES scores were proportional to the increase in the number of hours of gadget usage during the pandemic.Conclusion: There is a need to educate people about limiting overall screen exposure and ergonomic methods of screen viewing. Efforts from policymakers to reduce the duration of online classes for students and online work hours for professionals are warranted to control this epidemic of eye strain.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(1): 140-144, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979175

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine prevalence, symptoms frequency and associated risk factors of digital eye strain (DES) among children attending online classes during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The online electronic survey form was prepared on the Google app. Children/parents were asked to indicate the total duration of digital device use before and during COVID era. The symptoms of DES, its severity and frequency were recorded & measured with the Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire. Results: Two hundred and sixty one parents responded to the questionnaire, of these 217 were complete. Mean age of children was 13 ± 2.45 years. Mean duration of digital device used during COVID era was 3.9 ± 1.9 h which is more than pre COVID era (1.9 ± 1.1 h, P = <0.0001). 36.9% (n = 80) were using digital devices >5 h in COVID era as compared to 1.8% (n = 4) before COVID era. The most common digital device used were smartphones (n = 134, 61.7%). One hundred and eight children (49.8%) were attending online classes for >2 h per day. Prevalence of DES in our cohort is 50.23% (109/217). Of these 26.3% were mild, 12.9% moderate and 11.1% of severe grade. Most common symptoms were itching and headache (n = 117, 53.9%). Multivariate analysis revealed age >14 years (P = 0.04), male gender (P = 0.0004), smartphone use (P = 0.003), use of device >5 h (P = 0.0007) and mobile games >1 h/day (P = 0.0001) as independent risk factors for DES in children. Conclusion: There is an increased prevalence of DES among children in COVID era. Parents should be considerate about duration, type and distance of digital device use to avoid DES symptoms in children.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Video Games/adverse effects , Adolescent , Asthenopia/etiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(11): 2378-2383, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895458

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Since the declaration of the lockdown due to COVID-19, the usage of digital devices has gone up across the globe, resulting in a challenge for the visual systems of all ages. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the lockdown on digital device usage, and consequently, the ocular surface health implications and circadian rhythm abnormalities related to digital eye strain. METHODS: An open online survey was sent through various social media platforms and was open for a period of 2 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 407 usable responses were obtained; the average age of respondents was 27.4 years. Typically, 93.6% of respondents reported an increase in their screen time since the lockdown was declared. The average increase in digital device usage was calculated at about 4.8 ± 2.8 h per day. The total usage per day was found to be 8.65 ± 3.74 hours. Sleep disturbances have been reported by 62.4% of people. Typically, 95.8% of respondents had experienced at least one symptom related to digital device usage, and 56.5% said that the frequency and intensity of these symptoms increased since the lockdown was declared. CONCLUSION: The study highlighted the drastic increase in use of digital devices after the initiation of the COVID-19 lockdown, and along with it, the slow deterioration of ocular health across all age groups. Awareness about prevention of digital eye strain should be stressed, and going forward, measures to bring these adverse effects to a minimum should be explored.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Computers , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Vision Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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