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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581126

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) self-quarantine period, the transition to online-course has profoundly changed the learning modes of millions of school-aged children and put them at an increased risk of asthenopia. Therefore, we aimed to determine associations of the total screen/online-course time with asthenopia prevalence among that children during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the associations were mediated by psychological stress. Methods: Asthenopia was defined according to a validated computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q). We used CVS-Q to collect the frequency and intensity of 16 asthenopia-related eye symptoms of 25,781 children. Demographic features, eye care habits, visual disorders, lifestyle, psychological and environmental factors, were also collected. Results: The overall asthenopia prevalence was 12.1%, varying from 5.4 to 18.2% across grade/gender-classified subgroups. A 100-h increment of total screen/online-course time were associated with an increased risk of asthenopia by 9% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09] and 11% (OR = 1.11), respectively. Mediation analysis showed that the proportions of total effects mediated by psychological stress were 23.5 and 38.1%, respectively. Age, female gender, having myopia or astigmatism, bad habits when watching screens were also risk factors. Conversely, keeping 34-65 cm between eyes and screen, increased rest time between classes, and increased eye exercise were all associated with a decreased risk. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the influence of long total screen or online-course time on psychological stress increases asthenopia risk. The findings of this study have provided a new avenue for intervening screen-related asthenopia in addition to incorporating a reasonable schedule of online courses into educational policy.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia , COVID-19 , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Asthenopia/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258441, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468175

ABSTRACT

The steady, world-wide increase in myopia prevalence in children over the past decades has raised concerns. As an early intervention for axial-length-related myopia, correcting lenses have been developed (such as Defocus Incorporated Multiple Segment (DIMS) lenses), which have been shown to be effective in slowing myopia progression. Beyond this direct effect, however, it is not known whether such lenses also affect other aspects important to the wearer, such as eye fatigue, and how such effects may differ across age, as these lenses so far are typically only tested with adolescents. In the present work, we therefore investigated perceived fatigue levels according to lens type (normal vs DIMS) and age (adolescents vs adults) in a demanding visual search task ("Finding Wally") at two difficulty levels (easy vs difficult). Whereas age and difficulty did not result in significant differences in eye fatigue, we found a clear reduction of fatigue levels in both age groups when wearing the correcting lenses. Hence, the additional accommodation of these lens types may result in less strain in a task requiring sustained eye movements at near viewing distances.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia/pathology , Eyeglasses/classification , Myopia/rehabilitation , Vision, Ocular/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Asthenopia/etiology , Eyeglasses/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myopia/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
Clin Exp Optom ; 104(6): 698-704, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099427

ABSTRACT

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Home-isolation and social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic caused increased use of digital devices, posing a greater risk of developing digital eye strain-related symptoms. Eye-care professionals should educate patients about limiting screen time and managing digital eye strain symptoms. BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the COVID-19 isolation's impact on digital device use by comparing hours spent on digital devices before and during the 24-hour curfew in Saudi Arabia, while assessing the symptoms associated with digital eye strain. METHODS: A self-reported questionnaire was used to compare the total hours per day, either continuous or intermittent, spent on digital devices during and before curfew, and the association of these durations with digital eye strain. RESULTS: A total of 1,939 participants, (mean ± SD: 33 ± 12.2 years and 72% women) were recruited. Results showed a significant difference between usage duration before and during curfew. Digital eye strain incidence was 78% during the curfew. Chi-squared analysis indicated most symptoms are associated with usage duration and employment status. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between digital eye strain and the following factors: using more than one device (odds ratio 1.208, 95% confidence interval: 1.068-1.3661), age, optical correction, employment status, gender, using rewetting drops, and usage duration. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, prolonged use of digital devices significantly increased during home-isolation. Digital eye strain incidence increased during curfew. Regular eye exams should be encouraged to ensure the use of optimum prescription use and meet the specific visual demands required for the use of digital devices. Eye-health strategies and awareness campaigns should be employed on the importance of regular eye exams, decreasing screen time, practising the 20-20-20 rule, and the use of rewetting drops to help reduce the symptoms of digital eye strain during this period.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Self Report , Smartphone/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(1): 140-144, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979175

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine prevalence, symptoms frequency and associated risk factors of digital eye strain (DES) among children attending online classes during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The online electronic survey form was prepared on the Google app. Children/parents were asked to indicate the total duration of digital device use before and during COVID era. The symptoms of DES, its severity and frequency were recorded & measured with the Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire. Results: Two hundred and sixty one parents responded to the questionnaire, of these 217 were complete. Mean age of children was 13 ± 2.45 years. Mean duration of digital device used during COVID era was 3.9 ± 1.9 h which is more than pre COVID era (1.9 ± 1.1 h, P = <0.0001). 36.9% (n = 80) were using digital devices >5 h in COVID era as compared to 1.8% (n = 4) before COVID era. The most common digital device used were smartphones (n = 134, 61.7%). One hundred and eight children (49.8%) were attending online classes for >2 h per day. Prevalence of DES in our cohort is 50.23% (109/217). Of these 26.3% were mild, 12.9% moderate and 11.1% of severe grade. Most common symptoms were itching and headache (n = 117, 53.9%). Multivariate analysis revealed age >14 years (P = 0.04), male gender (P = 0.0004), smartphone use (P = 0.003), use of device >5 h (P = 0.0007) and mobile games >1 h/day (P = 0.0001) as independent risk factors for DES in children. Conclusion: There is an increased prevalence of DES among children in COVID era. Parents should be considerate about duration, type and distance of digital device use to avoid DES symptoms in children.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Video Games/adverse effects , Adolescent , Asthenopia/etiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
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