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2.
Cell Commun Signal ; 20(1): 173, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098351

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been growing swiftly worldwide. Patients with background chronic pulmonary inflammations such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are likely to be infected with this virus. Of note, there is an argument that COVID-19 can remain with serious complications like fibrosis or other pathological changes in the pulmonary tissue of patients with chronic diseases. Along with conventional medications, regenerative medicine, and cell-based therapy could be alternative approaches to compensate for organ loss or restore injured sites using different stem cell types. Owing to unique differentiation capacity and paracrine activity, these cells can accelerate the healing procedure. In this review article, we have tried to scrutinize different reports related to the harmful effects of SARS-CoV-2 on patients with asthma and COPD, as well as the possible therapeutic effects of stem cells in the alleviation of post-COVID-19 complications. Video abstract.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Asthma/complications , Asthma/drug therapy
3.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation in the United Kingdom requested an evidence synthesis to investigate the relationship between asthma and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise evidence on the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes in people with uncontrolled asthma or markers of asthma severity. METHODS: High-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or oral corticosteroids (OCS) were used as markers of asthma severity, following international or national asthma guidelines. Risk of bias was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute tools. Adjusted point estimates were extracted for random-effects meta-analyses and subgroup analyses. RESULTS: After screening, 12 studies (11 in adults and one in children) met the eligibility criteria. Adults using high-dose ICS or OCS had a pooled adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.33 (95% CI 1.06-1.67, I2=0%) for hospitalisation and an aHR of 1.22 (95% CI 0.90-1.65, I2=70%) for mortality for COVID-19. We found insufficient evidence for associations between markers on COVID-19 mortality in the subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with severe asthma are at increased risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation compared to nonusers. Our analysis highlighted the dearth of studies in children with asthma investigating serious COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/adverse effects , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
4.
Adv Ther ; 39(12): 5307-5326, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075678

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a heterogenous respiratory disease, usually associated with chronic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness, which affects an estimated 339 million people worldwide. Severe asthma affects approximately 5-10% of patients with asthma, approximately 17-34 million people globally, more than half of whom have uncontrolled disease. Severe asthma carries a substantial burden of disease, including unpredictable symptoms and potentially life-threatening flare-ups. Furthermore, severe asthma has a substantial burden on health care systems and economies worldwide. In 2018, a group of experts from the clinical community, patient support groups, and professional organisations joined together to develop the Severe Asthma Patient Charter, which set out six principles to define what patients should expect for the management of their severe asthma and what should constitute a basic standard of care. Since the publication of that original Charter in 2018, several important changes have occurred, including an improved understanding of asthma and effective asthma management; several new therapies have become available; and finally, the COVID-19 pandemic has placed a spotlight on respiratory conditions, the workforces that treat them, and the fundamental importance of health care system resilience. With those developments in mind, we, representatives of the academic, clinical, and patient advocacy group communities, have updated the Charter to Improve Patient Care in Severe Asthma with a focus on six principles: (1) I deserve a timely, comprehensive assessment of my asthma and its severity; (2) I deserve a timely, straightforward referral to an appropriate specialist for my asthma when it is not well controlled; (3) I deserve to understand what makes my asthma worse; (4) I deserve access to treatment and care that reduces the impact of asthma on my daily life; (5) I deserve not to be reliant on systemic corticosteroids; (6) I deserve to be involved in decisions about my treatment and care.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Asthma/drug therapy , Patient Care , Referral and Consultation
5.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 436: 437-466, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075205

ABSTRACT

A number of different experimental models using both non-selective and selective PI3K inhibitors have shown that many pathogenic steps of respiratory disorders, such as bronchial asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Lung Cancer (LC) are, at least in part, regulated by the PI3K signaling pathway, suggesting that the inhibition of PI3K could represent an ideal therapeutic target for the treatment of respiratory diseases. This chapter summarizes the current state of the therapeutic strategies aimed to exploit the inhibition of PI3K in this context. In animal models of asthma, selective δ and γ inhibitors have shown to be effective, and when administered by inhalation, reasonably safe. Nevertheless, very few clinical trials have been performed so far. The efficacy of current traditional therapies for allergic bronchial asthma has likely diminished the need for new alternative treatments. Surprisingly, in COPD, where instead there is an urgent need for new and more effective therapeutic approaches, the number of clinical studies is still low and not capable yet, with the exception for an acceptable safety profile, to show a significant improvement of clinical outcomes. In IPF, a disease with a disappointing prognosis, PI3K inhibitors have been bound to a FAP ligand with the aim to selectively target myofibroblasts, showing to significantly reduce collagen production and the development of lung fibrosis in an animal model of lung fibrosis. Due to its role in cell activation and cell replication, the PI3K pathway is obviously largely involved in lung cancer. Several studies, currently ongoing, are testing the effect of PI3K inhibitors mainly in NSCLC. Some evidence in the treatment of cancer patients suggests the possibility that PI3K inhibitors may enhance the response to conventional treatment. The involvement of PI3Kδ in the modulation of airway neutrophil recruitment and bronchial epithelial functional alterations also suggest a potential role in the treatment of ARDS, but at the current state the ongoing trials are aimed to the treatment of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. In general, few clinical trials investigating PI3K inhibitors in respiratory disorders have been performed so far. This relatively new approach of treatment is just at its beginning and certainly needs further efforts and additional studies.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung Neoplasms , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , Asthma/drug therapy , Collagen/therapeutic use , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Ligands , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
6.
Tuberk Toraks ; 70(3): 231-241, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056109

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To assess the incidence and course of COVID-19 in patients with severe asthma/chronic spontaneous urticaria using biological agents. Materials and Methods: A total of 202 patients (142 with asthma, and 60 with urticaria) were enrolled. The subjects were asked via face-to-face or telephone interview whether they had been diagnosed with COVID-19 and the course of the disease. Result: Study group consisted of 132 women, and 70 men (median age= 48 years). Median omalizumab dose was 300 mg/month in asthma (min-max= 150-1200 mg). The mepolizumab dose of two patients diagnosed with EGPA was 300 mg/month. Thirty one (15.3%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, 22 (71%) of whom were receiving omalizumab and nine (29%) were receiving mepolizumab. Asthma or chronic spontaneous urticaria diagnosis, age, sex, smoking, weight, comorbidities, atopy, and biological agent use were not statistically different between patients with or without COVID-19. Nine COVID-19 patients were hospitalized, and three of them required intensive care. Mepolizumab usage was higher in hospitalized patients (5, 55.6%), whereas omalizumab usage was higher in home-treated patients (18, 81%). The mean duration of biological use in home-treated patients was significantly higher than that of the hospitalized patients (35.64 months vs. 22.56 months, p= 0.024). Biological treatment was interrupted in 47 (23%) patients, selfinterruption due to the infection risk was the foremost reason (34%). Conclusions: The incidence of COVID-19 among patients with asthma and urticaria on mepolizumab and omalizumab was higher compared to studies from other countries. The disease course appeared mild in patients receiving long-term biological therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Chronic Urticaria , Pulmonary Eosinophilia , Urticaria , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/drug therapy , Urticaria/chemically induced , Urticaria/drug therapy , Urticaria/epidemiology
7.
Intern Med J ; 52(9): 1478-1487, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052580

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a common but complex heterogenous inflammatory airway disorder. Despite significant developments in our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of asthma, it remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Optimal management involves addressing modifiable risk factors, titration of inhaled pharmacotherapy in a stepwise approach and, in severe disease, consideration of biologic agents. Appreciation of the clinical characteristics of asthma and recognition of the immune pathways involved has allowed the development of phenotypic and endotypic subtypes of asthma to be better defined. This has revolutionised asthma management, allowing risk stratification of patients, targeted use of biologic agents to modify cytokine responses that drive asthma and improved patient outcomes. Patient education and engagement are critical to the management of this disease in an era of personalised medicine and a rapidly changing global environment.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Asthma/drug therapy , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Cytokines , Humans
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(10): 2646-2656, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe asthma may require maintenance oral corticosteroids (mOCS) for disease control as well as systemic corticosteroid (SCS) bursts for clinically significant exacerbations. However, mOCS and SCS use are associated with adverse effects, which increases patient disease burden. OBJECTIVE: To assess the real-world corticosteroid-sparing effect of mepolizumab in patients with severe asthma. METHODS: REALITI-A was a 24-month international, prospective, observational cohort study involving 84 centers across Europe, Canada, and the United States, with a 1-year pre-post mepolizumab treatment preplanned interim analysis. A total of 822 adults with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and a physician decision to initiate mepolizumab treatment (100 mg subcutaneously) were included. End points included daily mOCS dose at baseline (penultimate 28 days of pretreatment) and 1 year after treatment; percent reduction from baseline in mOCS dose; patients discontinuing mOCS 1 year after treatment; and the rate of clinically significant exacerbations (those requiring OCS for 3 days or more [or parenteral administration], emergency room visit, and/or hospital admission) before and after treatment. RESULTS: A total of 319 patients received mOCS at baseline (median [interquartile range]: 10.0 [5.0-15.0] mg/d). At 1 year after treatment, median mOCS dose was reduced by 75% (2.5 [0.0-5.0] mg/d); 64% of patients had a reduction in mOCS dose of 50% or greater compared with baseline and 43% discontinued mOCS. Clinically significant exacerbations decreased between pretreatment and posttreatment (rate ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.29 [0.26-0.32]; P < .001). CONCLUSION: This 1-year analysis demonstrates that real-world mepolizumab treatment is clinically effective in patients with severe asthma, providing disease control while reducing the need for mOCS and SCS bursts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Asthma/chemically induced , Asthma/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5829-5834, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asthma can manifest in a variety of clinical phenotypes like cough variant asthma, chest tightness variant asthma (CTVA), and masked asthma. Patients with CTVA usually have a singular or primary complaint of chest tightness, which is often overlooked or misdiagnosed due to the lack of characteristic asthma symptoms. We hereby report a case of CTVA managed by omalizumab. CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old female patient reported to us with repeated coughing persisting for 3 weeks. Initial treatment with standard asthma drugs had minimal effect. Later during the disease, chest tightness became the primary symptom, and she was managed with steroids, ß2 receptor agonists, and leukotriene receptor agonists but without complete relief. Based on clinical signs and symptoms, the response to baseline drugs, and results of bronchial provocation test, the diagnosis was revised to CTVA, and the patient was started on Omalizumab in addition to baseline drugs, which significantly improved her condition. CONCLUSIONS: CTVA is difficult to diagnose due to its insidious symptoms and poor characteristics. Improper treatment can lead to uncontrolled disease, negative psychological issues, and reduced quality of life. Comprehensive assessment of children's airway inflammation level, lung function, bronchial provocation test, and responsiveness to drug therapy should be performed for accurate diagnosis. Omalizumab in combination with standard drugs can significantly improve the outcomes of CTVA.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Cough , Female , Humans , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Quality of Life
12.
Acta Biomed ; 93(4): e2022264, 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044328

ABSTRACT

Background Asthma control is the goal of the management, but some patients do not achieve adequate control. Adherence to prescriptions is a relevant factor in this issue. As very few studies addressed this problem in adolescents, we investigated this aspect in this setting. Methods This cross-sectional study consecutively enrolled 87 adolescents (60 males, 27 females, median age 14.2 years) with asthma visited at a third-level pediatric clinic. We used two questionnaires: Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and TAI. Results As regards MMAS-8, 23 (26.6%) adolescents had low adherence, 34 (39%) medium, and 30 (34.4%) high. Concerning TAI, 34 (39%) had low adherence, 43 (49.5%) medium, and 10 (11.5%) high. After stratification per asthma control grade, adolescents with partly-controlled asthma had the highest scores for medium adherence (p=0.0017 and 0.049, respectively for MMAS-8 and TAI). Conclusions Adolescents with asthma have poor adherence independently to the asthma control grade. This failure implicates that more attention should be paid to this issue in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Medication Adherence , Adolescent , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 242, 2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ecklonia cava is an edible marine brown alga harvested from the ocean that is widely consumed in Asian countries as a health-promoting medicinal food The objective of the present study is to evaluate the anti-asthma mechanism of a new functional food produced by bioprocessing edible algae Ecklonia cava and shiitake Lentinula edodes mushroom mycelia and isolated fractions. METHODS: We used as series of methods, including high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, cell assays, and an in vivo mouse assay to evaluate the asthma-inhibitory effect of Ecklonia cava bioprocessed (fermented) with Lentinula edodes shiitake mushroom mycelium and its isolated fractions in mast cells and in orally fed mice. RESULTS: The treatments inhibited the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) production, suggesting anti-asthma effects in vitro. The in vitro anti-asthma effects in cells were confirmed in mice following the induction of asthma by alumina and chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA). Oral administration of the bioprocessed Ecklonia cava and purified fractions suppressed the induction of asthma and was accompanied by the inhibition of inflammation- and immune-related substances, including eotaxin; thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP); OVA-specific IgE; leukotriene C4 (LTC4); prostaglandin D2 (PGD2); and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and other fluids and organs. Th2 cytokines were reduced and Th1 cytokines were restored in serum, suggesting the asthma-induced inhibitory effect is regulated by the balance of the Th1/Th2 immune response. Serum levels of IL-10, a regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine, were increased, further favoring reduced inflammation. Histology of lung tissues revealed that the treatment also reversed the thickening of the airway wall and the contraction and infiltration of bronchial and blood vessels and perialveolar inflammatory cells. The bioprocessed Ecklonia cava/mushroom mycelia new functional food showed the highest inhibition as compared with commercial algae and the fractions isolated from the bioprocessed product. CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro cell and in vivo mouse assays demonstrate the potential value of the new bioprocessed formulation as an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic combination of natural compounds against allergic asthma and might also ameliorate allergic manifestations of foods, drugs, and viral infections.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , Anti-Allergic Agents , Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Phaeophyta , Shiitake Mushrooms , Aluminum Oxide/adverse effects , Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Asthma/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-10 , Leukotriene C4/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mycelium , Ovalbumin/adverse effects , Phaeophyta/metabolism , Prostaglandin D2/adverse effects , Shiitake Mushrooms/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/adverse effects
15.
Adv Ther ; 39(11): 5216-5228, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035373

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are treatable but greatly underdiagnosed disorders. Telemedicine made it possible to continue diagnosis, follow-up visits and treatment modifications during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study describes the management of patients with COPD and asthma, and their treatments during the pandemic from the pulmonologist's perspective. METHODS: NEUMOBIAL was an ecological study with aggregated data. A total of 279 Spanish pulmonologists answered a 60-question survey about their last 10 patients, focused on the characterisation and changes in visits and treatments during the pandemic. RESULTS: Most pulmonologists (72.0%) considered that the pandemic negatively altered the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with asthma or COPD. Diagnostic tests were reduced during the pandemic, mainly because they were not recommended by pulmonologists (68.1% and 72.7% in the case of COPD and asthma tests, respectively). Moreover, 17.3% of the COPD and 19.1% of the asthma visits were remote visits. According to pulmonologists, low adherence to treatment was mainly due to a lack of patient knowledge about their disease (75.3% and 81.7% in COPD and asthma, respectively). Other factors that also influenced adherence were inadequate use of the inhaler (59.5% for COPD and 57.7% for asthma) and a lack of knowledge about the device (57.3% for COPD and 57.7% for asthma). Pulmonologists chose Zonda® for COPD because of the ease of use of the device (73.1%) and the ability to check whether the entire dose was inhaled (69.5%). For asthma, Spiromax® was chosen because of the ease of use of the device (85.7%) and the possibility of using a single device for maintenance and reliever treatment (82.4%). CONCLUSION: According to pulmonologists, during the pandemic, treatments for COPD and asthma were mainly chosen on the basis of their ease of use; treatment adherence was good; and the number of remote visits increased.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonologists
17.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 32(1): 31, 2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016705

ABSTRACT

Significant indirect healthcare costs are related to uncontrolled asthma, including productivity loss. Days with short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) use is associated with symptom-related disruptions at work, home, and school. Digital self-management platforms may support fewer days with SABA medication use and may reduce symptom-related disruptions.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Asthma/drug therapy , Health Care Costs , Humans
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(9): 2312-2323.e2, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biologics are an effective therapy for severe asthma. Home administration of biologics by patients is likely to facilitate their accessibility. Yet little is known about patients' and health care providers' (HCPs) perceptions regarding home administration of biologics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to create more insight into the perceptions and experiences of patients and HCPs regarding home administration of biologics in the context of the treatment of severe asthma. METHODS: A qualitative international study was performed in the Netherlands, United States, Australia, and United Kingdom. In each country, 2 focus groups were held with potential/recent and long-term users of biologics at home. Prior to the focus groups, patients were prompted with themes on online forums. For triangulation purposes, interviews were held with HCPs to discuss salient findings from forums and focus groups. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: In total, 75 patients participated in the forums, of which 40 participated in the focus groups. Furthermore, 12 HCPs were interviewed. The following overarching themes were identified: living with severe asthma; practical aspects of using biologics; the role of HCPs regarding biologics; social support from family, friends, and others; effectiveness of biologics and other treatments; side effects of biologics. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that, for those using biologics for severe asthma, the benefits of home administration of biologics usually outweigh inconvenience and side effects. Guided practice, accessible support contact, and monitoring including social support should be central in the transition from hospital to home administration of asthma biologics.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Biological Products , Asthma/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Health Personnel , Humans , Qualitative Research , Social Support
20.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(12): 5083-5092, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001607

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Pressurised metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) have a much higher carbon footprint than dry powder inhalers (DPIs). We aimed to describe variations of inhaler options in local adult asthma prescribing guidance. METHODS: We reviewed local clinical commissioning group (CCG) adult asthma prescribing guidance for primary care in England in 2019 and recorded DPI and MDI inclusion. The relationship to prescribing data from OpenPrescribing.net was examined. RESULTS: In total, 58 unique guidance documents were analysed covering 144 out of 191 CCGs in England. Only 3% of CCG guidelines expressed an overall preference for DPIs, while 12% explicitly preferred MDIs. The inclusion of DPIs first-line was 77% for short-acting ß-agonists, 78% for low-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) inhalers and 90-96% for combination long-acting ß-agonist/ICS inhalers. MDIs were included first-line in 98-100% of these classes. In 26% of CCGs, there was no first-line DPI option for at least 1 asthma management step. Ten percent of CCGs had no DPI included first-line for any of the 5 classes examined. Many CCGs recommended higher carbon footprint options; Ventolin MDI (25.6%), inhalers containing HFA227ea (57.9%) and ICS regimes recommending 2 puffs of a lower dose over 1 puff of higher dose (94.2%). MDIs were prescribed more in CCGs that recommended them. CONCLUSION: Before the COVID pandemic, there was substantial variation between CCGs in adult asthma prescribing guidance regarding higher and lower carbon footprint options. There may still be scope to amend local guidance to improve clinical and environmental outcomes. This study provides a method and baseline for further investigation of this.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Carbon Footprint , Administration, Inhalation , Pandemics , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Metered Dose Inhalers , Asthma/drug therapy , Dry Powder Inhalers , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Primary Health Care
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