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1.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286870, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incorrect use of inhalers is a problem associated with poor patient outcomes. Despite improvement in the technique after verbal educations, this deteriorates over-time requiring re-enforcement through different educative strategies. This study aimed to assess the impact of a novel video-based teach-to-goal (TTG) educational intervention on: mastery of inhaler technique, disease control, medication adherence and disease-related quality of life (QoL) over-time among asthma and COPD patients. METHODS: This prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT05664347. After baseline assessment participants received either a verbal (control group) or a video-based (intervention group) TTG strategy. After 3-month the intervention was assessed for impact on the intended outcomes. Inhaler technique was assessed using standardized checklists, disease control using the Asthma control test and COPD assessment test respectively for asthma and COPD patients while adherence using the Morisky Green Levine scale. For QoL, the mini asthma quality of life questionnaire and the St. George respiratory questionnaire were used for asthmatic and COPD patients, respectively. Differences in outcomes between intervention-control groups were analyzed using either Chi-Square (X2)/Fisher Exact or Mann Whitney test. The impact of intervention on outcomes over-time was examined using either McNemar or Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: At baseline, intervention (n = 51) and control (n = 52) groups had comparable demographic/clinical characteristics. At follow-up, inhaler technique improved among intervention group compared to control group (93.4% vs 67%) and to baseline (93.4% to 49.5%), (P<0.05). Similarly, medication adherence ameliorated among the intervention group in comparison to control group (88.2% to 61.5%) and to baseline (88.2% to 66.7%), (P<0.05). In regards to disease control, results showed an amelioration among the intervention group compared to baseline (35.3% to 54.9%) (P<0.05). QoL scores improved significantly among asthma patients (intervention group) at follow-up vs baseline. Better scores were also observed for COPD patients compared to controls, (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Video-based (TTG) was effective in enhancing inhaler technique over time as well as improving disease control, medication adherence, and QoL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05664347. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05664347.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Adult , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Goals , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/drug therapy , Nebulizers and Vaporizers
2.
Respir Med ; 216: 107308, 2023 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Asthma control is of importance when assessing the risk of severe outcomes of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to explore associations of clinical characteristics and the effect of multiple manifestations of uncontrolled asthma with severe COVID-19. METHODS: In 2014-2020, adult patients with uncontrolled asthma, defined as Asthma Control Test (ACT) ≤19 were identified in the Swedish National Airway Register (SNAR) (n = 24533). The SNAR database, including clinical data, was linked with national registers to identify patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 221). The effect of multiple manifestations of uncontrolled asthma was based on: 1) ACT ≤15, 2) frequent exacerbations and 3) previous asthma inpatient/secondary care and evaluated stepwise. Poisson regression analyses were conducted with severe COVID-19 as the dependent variable. RESULTS: In this cohort with uncontrolled asthma, obesity was the strongest independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 in both sexes, but even greater in men. Multiple manifestations of uncontrolled asthma were more common among those with severe COVID-19 vs. without: one, 45.7 vs. 42.3%, two, 18.1 vs. 9.1% and three, 5.0 vs. 2.1%. The risk ratio (RR) of severe COVID-19 increased with an increasing number of manifestations of uncontrolled asthma: one, RR 1.49 (95% CI 1.09-2.02), two, RR 2.42 (95% CI 1.64-3.57) and three, RR 2.96 (95% CI 1.57-5.60), when adjusted for sex, age, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to consider the effect of multiple manifestations of uncontrolled asthma and obesity when assessing patients with COVID-19, as this increases the risk of severe outcomes substantially.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/drug therapy , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors
3.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(2): 561-568, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lockdown imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a completely different style of life with possible effects on the attitude toward their disease in patients with chronic lung disease, such as asthma. The aim of our study was to investigate in asthmatic children the level of asthma control and the maintenance therapy used during the lockdown. METHODS: Among asthmatic children attending our clinic, we identified those who had been prescribed the same therapy in March-April 2019 and March-April 2020. The level of asthma control (GINA-score) and the maintenance therapy used during the lockdown (March-April 2020) were compared with those of March-April 2019. We separately analyzed a small group of children with severe asthma treated with Omalizumab during the lockdown. RESULTS: We enrolled 92 asthmatic children (67 males). Compared to 2019, in 2020 a higher proportion of children modified their maintenance therapy (38% vs. 15.2%, p < .001), with a significant increase in both the proportion of children who increased (p = .033) and in that of children who decreased their therapy (p = .026). The level of control resulted as significantly higher in 2020 (March p = .023; April p = .007). Also, the 13 children treated with Omalizumab showed a good level of control in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: In asthmatic children, the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown had a significant impact on their asthma control and on their attitude toward maintenance therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/psychology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Maintenance Chemotherapy , Male , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Respirology ; 28(7): 603-614, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313099

ABSTRACT

This review addresses some of the major lessons we have learnt regarding asthma and the covid-19 pandemic, including susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe covid-19, potentially protective factors, comparison to other respiratory infections, changes in healthcare behaviour from the perspective of patients and clinicians, medications to treat or prevent covid-19, and post-covid syndrome.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/drug therapy
7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 3, 2023 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are currently alternative treatments to the long-term use of oral corticosteroids (OCS) in severe asthma, recent studies show excessive use depending on geography and differences in medical practice. The objective of the study was to describe the differences in OCS use for severe asthma across the Spanish geography. METHODS: This is a real-world study using existing databases (year 2019): longitudinal patient database (EMR), based on electronic medical records, and database of pharmacological consumption (Sell-in) in basic healthcare areas. With EMR, the percentage of OCS prescriptions corresponding to patients with severe asthma (ICD-9 "asthma" and prescription of biological treatment and/or high dose of inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting inhaled ß2 agonists) was calculated. This percentage was transferred to the OCS consumption of each basic healthcare area as reported in the Sell-in database and a national heat map was created. The estimation of OCS use in patients with severe asthma per 100,000 inhabitants for each region was calculated by grouping basic healthcare areas and the mean OCS use per patient for different regions in Spain was also estimated. RESULTS: Patients with severe asthma in Spain were mostly female (69.6%), with a mean age (SD) of 57.6 years (18.01). Median time (Pc25-Pc75) since asthma diagnosis was 83.1 months (34.65-131.56). Of all patients with OCS prescriptions in 2019 identified in EMR, 4.4% corresponded to patients with severe asthma. Regions with the highest OCS use were Asturias, Andalucía, and Galicia, whereas those with the lowest use were Navarra, Baleares, Madrid and País Vasco. The mean OCS use per patient with severe asthma in 2019 throughout Spain was 1099.85 mg per patient, ranging from 782.99 mg in Navarra to 1432.64 in Asturias. CONCLUSIONS: There are geographical differences between Spanish regions with respect to the use of OCS in patients with severe asthma. The national mean consumption of OCS per patient with severe asthma and year is above the limits that indicate good asthma control.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Spain/epidemiology , Hot Temperature , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/diagnosis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Prescriptions , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(12): 1101-1102, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311903
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(51): e32420, 2022 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309751

ABSTRACT

Asthmatics seem less prone to adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and some data shows that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are protective. We gathered data on anecdotal ICS and outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, given there is literature supporting ICS may reduce risk of severe infection. In addition, we fill gaps in current literature evaluating Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) as a risk assessment tool for COVID-19. This was a single-center, retrospective study designed and conducted to identify factors associated intubation and inpatient mortality. A multivariate logistic regression model was fit to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Intubation was associated with male gender (OR, 2.815; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.348-5.881; P = .006) and increasing body mass index (BMI) (OR, 1.053; 95% CI, 1.009-1.099; P = .019). Asthma was associated with lower odds for intubation (OR, 0.283; 95% CI, 0.108-0.74; P = .01). 80% of patients taking pre-hospital ICS were not intubated (n = 8). In-patient mortality was associated with male gender (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.167-5.1; P = .018), older age (OR, 1.096; 95% CI, 1.052-1.142; P = <.001), and increasing BMI (OR, 1.079; 95% CI, 1.033-1.127; P = .001). Asthma was associated with lower in-patient mortality (OR, 0.221; 95% CI, 0.057-0.854; P = .029). CCI did not correlate with intubation (OR, 1.262; 95% CI, 0.923-1.724; P = .145) or inpatient mortality (OR, 0.896; 95% CI, 0.665-1.206; P = .468). Asthmatics hospitalized for COVID-19 had less adverse outcomes, and most patients taking pre-hospital ICS were not intubated. CCI score was not associated with intubation or inpatient mortality.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/chemically induced , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Administration, Inhalation
10.
Prim Care ; 50(2): 179-190, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274077

ABSTRACT

Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation and respiratory symptoms such as wheezing and coughing. In the United States, it affects 25 million people annually. Chronic smokers, poor adherence to medications, incorrect use of inhalers, and overall poor asthma control are known risk factors that lead to poorly controlled chronic asthmatics. Although asthma is traditionally categorized by severity, treatment by primary care providers is guided by the Global Initiative for Asthma or the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. As more research is available, shared decision-making between health care providers and patients will lead to improved outcomes in managing chronic asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Humans , Adult , United States , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Risk Factors
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 158: 114096, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases mainly include asthma, influenza, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, lung fibrosis, and lung cancer. Given their high prevalence and poor prognosis, the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases are increasingly essential. In particular, the development for the novel strategies of drug treatment has been a hot topic in the research field. Ginsenosides are the major component of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng), a food homology and well-known medicinal herb. In this review, we summarize the current therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of ginsenosides in respiratory diseases. METHODS: The reviewed studies were retrieved via a thorough analysis of numerous articles using electronic search tools including Sci-Finder, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Web of Science. The following keywords were used for the online search: ginsenosides, asthma, influenza, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary hypertension (PH), lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and clinical trials. We summarized the findings and the conclusions from 176 manuscripts on ginsenosides, including research articles and reviews. RESULTS: Ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh2, and CK, which are the most commonly reported ginsenosides for treating of respiratory diseases, and other ginsenosides such as Rh1, Rk1, Rg5, Rd and Re, all primarily reduce pneumonia, fibrosis, and inhibit tumor progression by targeting NF-κB, TGF-ß/Smad, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and JNK pathways, thereby ameliorating respiratory diseases. CONCLUSION: This review provides novel ideas and important aspects for the future research of ginsenosides for treating respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Ginsenosides , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Influenza, Human , Lung Neoplasms , Panax , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/therapeutic use , Ginsenosides/chemistry , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Asthma/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Panax/chemistry
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 151(4): 809-817, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253843

ABSTRACT

The Precision Interventions for Severe and/or Exacerbation-Prone Asthma clinical trials network is actively assessing novel treatments for severe asthma during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and has needed to adapt to various clinical dilemmas posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Pharmacologic interactions between established asthma therapies and novel drug interventions for COVID-19 infection, including antivirals, biologics, and vaccines, have emerged as a critical and unanticipated issue in the clinical care of asthma. In particular, impaired metabolism of some long-acting beta-2 agonists by the cytochrome P4503A4 enzyme in the setting of antiviral treatment using ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (NVM/r, brand name Paxlovid) may increase risk for adverse cardiovascular events. Although available data have documented the potential for such interactions, these issues are largely unappreciated by clinicians who treat asthma, or those dispensing COVID-19 interventions in patients who happen to have asthma. Because these drug-drug interactions have not previously been relevant to patient care, clinicians have had no guidance on management strategies to reduce potentially serious interactions between treatments for asthma and COVID-19. The Precision Interventions for Severe and/or Exacerbation-Prone Asthma network considered the available literature and product information, and herein share our considerations and plans for treating asthma within the context of these novel COVID-19-related therapies.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Asthma/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination
13.
Nutrients ; 15(4)2023 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260745

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is indicated to be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of both respiratory health and mental health problems, while mental health issues are a common consequence of diseases of the respiratory system. The aim of the presented systematic review was to gather available evidence regarding the influence of the supplementation of vitamin D on mental health in adults with respiratory system diseases obtained within randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The systematic review was conducted on the basis of the PubMed and Web of Science databases in agreement with the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), while being registered within the database of the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42020155779). A total of 8514 studies published before September 2021 were screened and 5 RCTs were included, which were assessed using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. Screening, inclusion, reporting, and assessment were conducted by two researchers independently. The studies focused on the assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but also increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, pulmonary tuberculosis, and bronchial asthma. The studies were conducted for various periods of time-from 2 months to a year-while the dose of vitamin D applied was also diverse-from 4000 IU applied daily, to 100,000 IU applied weekly, or monthly. The psychological measures applied within the studies allowed the assessment, mainly, of quality of life, but also well-being, and depression. For the majority of studies, some concerns regarding risk of bias were defined, resulting from the randomization process and selection of reported results; however, for one study, the risk was even defined as high. Within the included studies, three studies confirmed a beneficial effect of vitamin D (including those with a high risk of bias), but two studies did not confirm it. Taking into account the evidence gathered, in spite of a positive influence of vitamin D on mental health in individuals with increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections and bronchial asthma, the conducted systematic review is not a strong confirmation of the beneficial effect of the supplementation of vitamin D on mental health in adults with respiratory system diseases.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Mental Health , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vitamins , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Asthma/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements
14.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 29(3): 215-222, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283832

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three years after the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies have examined the association between asthma and COVID-related morbidity and mortality, with most showing that asthma does not increase risk. However, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) currently suggests that patients with severe asthma may, nonetheless, be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19-related morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to poor COVID-19 outcomes, our search yielded nine studies that quantified associations with severe asthma, seven that considered use of monoclonal antibodies (mAB), and 14 that considered inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use. mAb and ICS use have been used as measures of severe asthma in several studies. Severe asthma was significantly associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes. The results for mAb and ICS were mixed. SUMMARY: An increased risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes in patients with severe asthma is possible. However, these studies remain sparse and suffer from several methodological limitations that hinder their interpretation. Additional evidence is needed to provide clear, cogent guidance for health agencies seeking to inform patients with asthma about potential risks due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Humans , Administration, Inhalation , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/complications , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
15.
Arerugi ; 72(1): 44-48, 2023.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) refers to respiratory disorders caused by airflow limitation in the larynx, including vocal cord dysfunction, and may sometimes be misdiagnosed as bronchial asthma (BA). Here, we report the case of an 11-year-old boy diagnosed with BA in infancy. He was referred to our Allergy Center and was taking a high dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) due to frequent coughing from the age of 10 years and persistent coughing following COVID-19 infection at the age of 11. However, the patient continued to experience frequent coughing attacks and repeated visits to the emergency department after inhalation of ß2-stimulants failed to improve his cough. We admitted him to the allergy center for examinations to assess the BA severity. In the airway hypersensitiveness test, saline inhalation performed prior to methacholine inhalation caused expiratory stridor and respiratory distress in the larynx, which worsened with ß2-stimulant inhalation. Based on these results, we ruled out BA and diagnosed ILO. We instructed him on breathing maneuvers, and he was able to respond appropriately when symptoms appeared. We then started reducing his ICS dose.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Asthma , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Laryngeal Diseases , Humans , Male , Child , COVID-19/complications , Asthma/therapy , Asthma/drug therapy , Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Laryngeal Diseases/complications , Laryngeal Diseases/diagnosis , Laryngeal Diseases/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Hypersensitivity/complications , COVID-19 Testing
16.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1034755, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282958

ABSTRACT

Background: Bronchial asthma (asthma) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, involving a variety of cells and cellular components, that manifests clinically as recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, with or without chest tightness or cough, airway hyperresponsiveness, and variable airflow limitation. The number of people with asthma has reached 358 million worldwide and asthma causes huge economic loss. However, there is a subset of patients who are not sensitive to existing drugs and the existing drugs have many adverse effects. Therefore, it's important to find new drugs for asthma patients. Methods: Publications related to biologics in asthma published from 2000 to 2022 were retrieved from Web of Science Core Collection. The search strategies were as follows: topic: TS=(biologic* OR "biologic* product*" OR "biologic* therap*" OR biotherapy* OR "biologic* agent*" OR Benralizumab OR "MEDI-563" OR Fasenra OR "BIW-8405" OR Dupilumab OR SAR231893 OR "SAR-231893" OR Dupixent OR REGN668 OR "REGN-668" OR Mepolizumab OR Bosatria OR "SB-240563" OR SB240563 OR Nucala OR Omalizumab OR Xolair OR Reslizumab OR "SCH-55700" OR SCH55700 OR "CEP-38072" OR CEP38072 OR Cinqair OR "DCP-835" OR DCP835 OR Tezspire OR "tezepelumab-ekko" OR "AMG-157" OR tezspire OR "MEDI-9929" OR "MEDI-19929" OR MEDI9929 OR Itepekimab OR "REGN-3500"OR REGN3500 OR "SAR-440340"OR SAR440340 OR Tralokinumab OR "CAT-354" OR Anrukinzumab OR "IMA-638" OR Lebrikizumab OR "RO-5490255"OR "RG-3637"OR "TNX-650"OR "MILR1444A"OR "MILR-1444A"OR"PRO301444"OR "PRO-301444"OR Pitrakinra OR altrakincept OR "AMG-317"OR"AMG317" OR Etokimab OR Pascolizumab OR "IMA-026"OR Enokizumab OR "MEDI-528"OR "7F3COM-2H2" OR 7F3COM2H2 OR Brodalumab OR "KHK-4827" OR "KHK4827"OR "AMG-827"OR Siliq OR Ligelizumab OR "QGE-031" OR QGE031 OR Quilizumab OR Talizumab OR "TNX-901" OR TNX901 OR Infliximab OR Etanercept OR "PRS-060") AND TS=asthma*. The document type was set to articles and review articles and the language restriction was set to English. Three different analysis tools including one online platform, VOS viewer1.6.18, and CiteSpace V 6.1.R1 software were used to conduct this bibliometric study. Results: This bibliometric study included 1,267 English papers published in 244 journals from 2,012 institutions in 69 countries/regions. Omalizumab, benralizumab, mepolizumab, and tezepelumab in relation to asthma were the research hotspots in the field. Conclusion: This study systematically uncovers a holistic picture of existing literature related to the biologic treatment of asthma over the past 20 years. We consulted scholars in order to understand key information in this field from the perspective of bibliometrics, which we believe may greatly facilitate future research in this field.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Biological Products , Humans , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Bibliometrics
17.
Trials ; 24(1): 252, 2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common long-term condition and major public health problem. Supported self-management for asthma that includes a written personalised asthma action plan, supported by regular professional review, reduces unscheduled consultations and improves asthma outcomes and quality of life. However, despite unequivocal inter/national guideline recommendations, supported self-management is poorly implemented in practice. The IMPlementing IMProved Asthma self-management as RouTine (IMP2ART) implementation strategy has been developed to address this challenge. The aim of this implementation trial is to determine whether facilitated delivery of the IMP2ART strategy increases the provision of asthma action plans and reduces unscheduled care in the context of routine UK primary care. METHODS: IMP2ART is a parallel group, cluster randomised controlled hybrid II implementation trial. One hundred forty-four general practices will be randomly assigned to either the IMP2ART implementation strategy or control group. Following a facilitation workshop, implementation group practices will receive organisational resources to help them prioritise supported self-management (including audit and feedback; an IMP2ART asthma review template), training for professionals and resources to support patients to self-manage their asthma. The control group will continue with usual asthma care. The primary clinical outcome is the between-group difference in unscheduled care in the second year after randomisation (i.e. between 12 and 24 months post-randomisation) assessed from routine data. Additionally, a primary implementation outcome of asthma action plan ownership at 12 months will be assessed by questionnaire to a random sub-group of people with asthma. Secondary outcomes include the number of asthma reviews conducted, prescribing outcomes (reliever medication and oral steroids), asthma symptom control, patients' confidence in self-management and professional support and resource use. A health economic analysis will assess cost-effectiveness, and a mixed methods process evaluation will explore implementation, fidelity and adaptation. DISCUSSION: The evidence for supported asthma self-management is overwhelming. This study will add to the literature regarding strategies that can effectively implement supported self-management in primary care to reduce unscheduled consultations and improve asthma outcomes and quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN15448074. Registered on 2 December 2019.


Subject(s)
Asthma , General Practice , Self-Management , Humans , Quality of Life , Asthma/therapy , Asthma/drug therapy , Primary Health Care , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 24(5): 551-555, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271504

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Montelukast is a leukotriene inhibitor that is widely used to treat chronic asthma and allergic rhinitis. The drug interferes with molecular signaling pathways produced by leukotrienes in a variety of cells and tissues throughout the human body that lead to tightening of airway muscles, production of aberrant pulmonary fluid (airway edema), and in some cases, pulmonary inflammation. AREAS COVERED: Montelukast has also been noted to have anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting it may have a role in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has been noted to induce misfiring of the immune system in some patients. A literature search of PubMed was performed to identify all relevant studies of montelukast and SARS-CoV-2 through 27 January 2023. EXPERT OPINION: Montelukast has been the subject of small studies of SARS-CoV-2 and will be included in a large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of outpatients with COVID-19 sponsored by the United States National Institutes of Health known as Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines-6. This paper reviews what is known about montelukast, an inexpensive, well-tolerated, and widely available medication, and examines the rationale for using this drug to potentially treat patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Quinolines , Humans , Leukotriene Antagonists/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Asthma/drug therapy , Acetates/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Quinolines/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , Sulfides/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
19.
Respir Investig ; 61(2): 270-283, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287419

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses like rhinovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and coronavirus cause several respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis, and coronavirus disease 2019, and exacerbate bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and diffuse panbronchiolitis. The production of inflammatory mediators and mucin and the accumulation of inflammatory cells have been reported in patients with viral infection-induced respiratory diseases. Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted are produced in the cells, including human airway and alveolar epithelial cells, partly through the activation of toll-like receptors, nuclear factor kappa B and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These mediators are associated with the development of viral infection-induced respiratory diseases through the induction of inflammation and injury in the airway and lung, airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness, and mucus secretion. Medications used to treat respiratory diseases, including corticosteroids, long-acting ß2-agonists, long-acting muscarinic antagonists, mucolytic agents, antiviral drugs for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza virus, macrolides, and Kampo medicines, reduce the production of viral infection-induced mediators, including cytokines and mucin, as determined in clinical, in vivo, or in vitro studies. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of these medications on viral infection-induced respiratory diseases may be associated with clinical benefits, such as improvements in symptoms, quality of life, and mortality rate, and can prevent hospitalization and the exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma, bronchiectasis, and diffuse panbronchiolitis.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Virus Diseases , Humans , Quality of Life , Asthma/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Mucins/therapeutic use
20.
J Asthma ; 59(12): 2475-2490, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to asthma medications is commonly poor and is the primary cause for anticipated worsening health outcomes for patients with asthma. Worldwide, qualitative investigations that examine the adherence of young adults (18-34 years) to their asthma medication are limited. METHOD: This study used a phenomenological research approach to explicate the experience of asthma medication adherence as described by young adults. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth video interviews conducted with participants aged between 18 and 34 years to elicit their lived experience with adherence to asthma medication. Data from the interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the Edward and Welch (1) extension of Colaizzi's approach to phenomenology. RESULTS: Results yielded four main themes related to the phenomenon of adherence that emerged from the analysis. The themes were: Having a plan; Having knowledge about your medication and asthma triggers; Being responsible with asthma medication; and Health belief. CONCLUSION: According to the findings, for young people adhering to asthma medication is a process that depends on four vital aspects: (A) plan, (B) knowledge, (C) responsibility, and (D) belief. If young adults with asthma received individualized written asthma plans and have adequate knowledge about this plan, developing the correct health belief is likely to result. Hence, this can lead to a greater responsibility to manage their asthma to the recommended adherence level.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Humans , Young Adult , Adolescent , Adult , Asthma/drug therapy , Medication Adherence
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