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1.
Sci Immunol ; 5(54)2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161788

ABSTRACT

Understanding the nature of immunity following mild/asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We analyzed T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in 136 healthcare workers (HCW) 16-18 weeks after United Kingdom lockdown, 76 of whom had mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection captured by serial sampling. Neutralizing antibodies (nAb) were present in 89% of previously infected HCW. T cell responses tended to be lower following asymptomatic infection than in those reporting case-definition symptoms of COVID-19, while nAb titers were maintained irrespective of symptoms. T cell and antibody responses were sometimes discordant. Eleven percent lacked nAb and had undetectable T cell responses to spike protein but had T cells reactive with other SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Our findings suggest that the majority of individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection carry nAb complemented by multispecific T cell responses at 16-18 weeks after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
2.
Elife ; 92020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155740

ABSTRACT

We conducted voluntary Covid-19 testing programmes for symptomatic and asymptomatic staff at a UK teaching hospital using naso-/oro-pharyngeal PCR testing and immunoassays for IgG antibodies. 1128/10,034 (11.2%) staff had evidence of Covid-19 at some time. Using questionnaire data provided on potential risk-factors, staff with a confirmed household contact were at greatest risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.82 [95%CI 3.45-6.72]). Higher rates of Covid-19 were seen in staff working in Covid-19-facing areas (22.6% vs. 8.6% elsewhere) (aOR 2.47 [1.99-3.08]). Controlling for Covid-19-facing status, risks were heterogenous across the hospital, with higher rates in acute medicine (1.52 [1.07-2.16]) and sporadic outbreaks in areas with few or no Covid-19 patients. Covid-19 intensive care unit staff were relatively protected (0.44 [0.28-0.69]), likely by a bundle of PPE-related measures. Positive results were more likely in Black (1.66 [1.25-2.21]) and Asian (1.51 [1.28-1.77]) staff, independent of role or working location, and in porters and cleaners (2.06 [1.34-3.15]).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 959697, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141992

ABSTRACT

Malaria has been hypothesized as a factor that may have reduced the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To evaluate the effect of recent malaria on COVID-19 we assessed a subgroup of individuals participating in a longitudinal cohort COVID-19 serosurvey that were also undergoing intensive malaria monitoring as part of antimalarial vaccine trials during the 2020 transmission season in Mali. These communities experienced a high incidence of primarily asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 during 2020 and 2021. In 1314 individuals, 711 were parasitemic during the 2020 malaria transmission season; 442 were symptomatic with clinical malaria and 269 had asymptomatic infection. Presence of parasitemia was not associated with new COVID-19 seroconversion (29.7% (211/711) vs. 30.0% (181/603), p=0.9038) or with rates of reported symptomatic seroconversion during the malaria transmission season. In the subsequent dry season, prior parasitemia was not associated with new COVID-19 seroconversion (30.2% (133/441) vs. 31.2% (108/346), p=0.7499), with symptomatic seroconversion, or with reversion from seropositive to seronegative (prior parasitemia: 36.2% (64/177) vs. no parasitemia: 30.1% (37/119), p=0.3842). After excluding participants with asymptomatic infection, clinical malaria was also not associated with COVID-19 serostatus or symptomatic seroconversion when compared to participants with no parasitemia during the monitoring period. In communities with intense seasonal malaria and a high incidence of asymptomatic or mild COVID-19, we did not demonstrate a relationship between recent malaria and subsequent response to COVID-19. Lifetime exposure, rather than recent infection, may be responsible for any effect of malaria on COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Antibody Formation , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Mali/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parasitemia/epidemiology
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e171, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133093

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) asymptomatic cases are hard to identify, impeding transmissibility estimation. The value of COVID-19 transmissibility is worth further elucidation for key assumptions in further modelling studies. Through a population-based surveillance network, we collected data on 1342 confirmed cases with a 90-days follow-up for all asymptomatic cases. An age-stratified compartmental model containing contact information was built to estimate the transmissibility of symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. The difference in transmissibility of a symptomatic and asymptomatic case depended on age and was most distinct for the middle-age groups. The asymptomatic cases had a 66.7% lower transmissibility rate than symptomatic cases, and 74.1% (95% CI 65.9-80.7) of all asymptomatic cases were missed in detection. The average proportion of asymptomatic cases was 28.2% (95% CI 23.0-34.6). Simulation demonstrated that the burden of asymptomatic transmission increased as the epidemic continued and could potentially dominate total transmission. The transmissibility of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases is high and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases play a significant role in outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , Middle Aged , Computer Simulation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 336-346, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluating the efficacy of control measures requires knowledge of the number of infections over time. This number, however, often differs from the number of confirmed cases because of a large fraction of asymptomatic infections and different testing strategies. METHODS: This study uses death count statistics, age-dependent infection fatality risks, and stochastic modeling to estimate the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among adults (aged 20 years or older) in 165 countries over time, from early 2020 until June 25, 2021. The accuracy of the approach is confirmed through comparison with previous nationwide seroprevalence surveys. RESULTS: The estimates presented reveal that the fraction of infections that are detected vary widely over time and between countries, and hence confirmed cases alone often yield a false picture of the pandemic. As of June 25, 2021, the nationwide cumulative fraction of SARS-CoV-2 infections (cumulative infections relative to population size) was estimated as 98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93-100%) for Peru, 83% (95% CI 61-94%) for Brazil, and 36% (95% CI 23-61%) for the United States. CONCLUSIONS: The time-resolved estimates presented expand the possibilities to study the factors that influenced and still influence the pandemic's progression in 165 countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States , Young Adult
12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(11): 1328-1330, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096354

ABSTRACT

Environmental surface testing was performed to search for evidence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) environmental contamination by an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carrier with persistently high viral loads under isolation. No evidence of environmental contamination was found. Further studies are needed to measure environmental contamination by SARS-CoV-2 carriers and to determine reasonable isolation periods.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Fomites/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Quarantine/methods , Viral Load , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine/standards , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090352

ABSTRACT

This study characterized the susceptibility and dynamic of porcine deltacoronavirus infection in grower pigs under experimental conditions using a combination of syndromic and laboratory assessments. Seven-week-old conventional pigs (n = 24) were randomly distributed into PDCoV- (n = 12) and mock-inoculated (n = 12) groups. Serum was collected at -7, 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days post-inoculation (DPI) to evaluate viremia (RT-qPCR) and antibody response (S1-based ELISA). Viral shedding and potential infectivity were determined using pen-based oral fluids and feces collected every other day between DPI 0 and 42. Pigs showed no clinical signs or viremia throughout the study. Active virus shedding was detected in feces (6-22 DPI) and oral fluids (2-30 DPI), peaking at DPI 10. IgG was first detected at DPI 10, being statistically significant after DPI 14 and increasing thereafter, coinciding with the progressive resolution of the infection. Likewise, a significant increase in proinflammatory IL-12 was detected between DPI 10 and 21 in PDCoV-inoculated pigs, which could enhance innate resistance to PDCoV infection. This study demonstrated that active surveillance based on systematic sampling and laboratory testing combining molecular and serological tools is critical for the accurate detection of subclinical circulation of PDCoV in pigs after weaning.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Swine Diseases , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections , Immunoglobulin G , Interleukin-12 , Swine , Viremia/veterinary
14.
Intern Med ; 61(20): 3053-3062, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079926

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the continuation of antibody prevalence status after 12 months and background factors in antibody-positive subjects following asymptomatic infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods We initially determined the SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid protein immunoglobulin G (anti-N IgG) antibody prevalence in 1,603 patients, doctors, and nurses at 65 medical institutions in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. We then obtained consent from 33 of the 39 subjects who tested positive and performed follow-up for 12 months. Results Follow-up for up to 12 months showed that a long-term response of the anti-N IgG antibody could be detected in 6 of the 33 participants (18.2%). The proportions with hypertension, using an angiotensin-receptor blocker, and without a drinking habit were higher among the participants with a long-term anti-N IgG antibody response for up to 12 months than among those without a long-term antibody response. Conclusions The proportion of individuals with subclinical COVID-19 who continuously had a positive result for the anti-N IgG antibody at 12 months was low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JAMA ; 328(15): 1523-1533, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074838

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data on the epidemiology of mild to moderately severe COVID-19 are needed to inform public health guidance. Objective: To evaluate associations between 2 or 3 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and attenuation of symptoms and viral RNA load across SARS-CoV-2 viral lineages. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of essential and frontline workers in Arizona, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, Texas, and Utah with COVID-19 infection confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing and lineage classified by whole genome sequencing of specimens self-collected weekly and at COVID-19 illness symptom onset. This analysis was conducted among 1199 participants with SARS-CoV-2 from December 14, 2020, to April 19, 2022, with follow-up until May 9, 2022, reported. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 lineage (origin strain, Delta variant, Omicron variant) and COVID-19 vaccination status. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical outcomes included presence of symptoms, specific symptoms (including fever or chills), illness duration, and medical care seeking. Virologic outcomes included viral load by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing along with viral viability. Results: Among 1199 participants with COVID-19 infection (714 [59.5%] women; median age, 41 years), 14.0% were infected with the origin strain, 24.0% with the Delta variant, and 62.0% with the Omicron variant. Participants vaccinated with the second vaccine dose 14 to 149 days before Delta infection were significantly less likely to be symptomatic compared with unvaccinated participants (21/27 [77.8%] vs 74/77 [96.1%]; OR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0-0.6]) and, when symptomatic, those vaccinated with the third dose 7 to 149 days before infection were significantly less likely to report fever or chills (5/13 [38.5%] vs 62/73 [84.9%]; OR, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.0-0.3]) and reported significantly fewer days of symptoms (10.2 vs 16.4; difference, -6.1 [95% CI, -11.8 to -0.4] days). Among those with Omicron infection, the risk of symptomatic infection did not differ significantly for the 2-dose vaccination status vs unvaccinated status and was significantly higher for the 3-dose recipients vs those who were unvaccinated (327/370 [88.4%] vs 85/107 [79.4%]; OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.5]). Among symptomatic Omicron infections, those vaccinated with the third dose 7 to 149 days before infection compared with those who were unvaccinated were significantly less likely to report fever or chills (160/311 [51.5%] vs 64/81 [79.0%]; OR, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.1-0.5]) or seek medical care (45/308 [14.6%] vs 20/81 [24.7%]; OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.2-0.9]). Participants with Delta and Omicron infections who received the second dose 14 to 149 days before infection had a significantly lower mean viral load compared with unvaccinated participants (3 vs 4.1 log10 copies/µL; difference, -1.0 [95% CI, -1.7 to -0.2] for Delta and 2.8 vs 3.5 log10 copies/µL, difference, -1.0 [95% CI, -1.7 to -0.3] for Omicron). Conclusions and Relevance: In a cohort of US essential and frontline workers with SARS-CoV-2 infections, recent vaccination with 2 or 3 mRNA vaccine doses less than 150 days before infection with Delta or Omicron variants, compared with being unvaccinated, was associated with attenuated symptoms, duration of illness, medical care seeking, or viral load for some comparisons, although the precision and statistical significance of specific estimates varied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Viral Load , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data , Whole Genome Sequencing , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections/therapy , Time Factors , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data
16.
Sex Health ; 19(4): 248-254, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050704

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted bacterium that is gaining attention because of the impact escalating antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is having on patient management. Of additional concern is that increased availability of testing appears to be resulting in screening practices that are not supported by clinical guidelines. This results in increasing numbers of asymptomatic M. genitalium infections being identified, which when combined with AMR issues, creates significant challenges for patients and clinicians. Rapidly rising levels of AMR, coupled with limited alternative treatment options, means patients can enter cycles of complex antimicrobial regimens that may cause more harm than the infection itself. In this review, we discuss the emergence of AMR and the implication for treatment practices, highlight the recommendations for testing but not screening for M. genitalium , and discuss expansion of individualised treatment strategies, to curb the emergence of resistance and improve outcomes for patients. We also provide suggestions for future research on the transmission and spread of resistance, to enhance global surveillance of this antimicrobial resistant pathogen and inform the revision of local and international treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Mycoplasma Infections , Mycoplasma genitalium , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence
17.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043979

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 has caused many breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated individuals. While vaccine status did not generally impact the number of viral RNA genome copies in nasopharyngeal swabs of breakthrough patients, as measured by Ct values, it has been previously found to decrease the infectious viral load in symptomatic patients. We quantified the viral RNA, infectious virus, and anti-spike IgA in nasopharyngeal swabs collected from individuals asymptomatically infected with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Vaccination decreased the infectious viral load, but not the amount of viral RNA. Furthermore, vaccinees with asymptomatic infections had significantly higher levels of anti-spike IgA in their nasal secretions compared to unvaccinated individuals with asymptomatic infections. Thus, vaccination may decrease the transmission risk of Delta, and perhaps other variants, despite not affecting the amount of viral RNA measured in nasopharyngeal swabs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Viral Load
18.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(12): 4011-4017, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035054

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, many reports have indicated that children shed the virus longer than adults in stool, and that most of the children had mild or even asymptomatic infections, which increased the potential risk for feces to be a source of contamination and may play an important role in the spread of the virus. In this review, we collected relevant literature to summarize the duration of fecal viral shedding in children with COVID-19. We found that in about 60% of the cases, the fecal shedding time was between 28 and 42 days, which was much longer than that of adults. We further explored the possible reason for prolonged shedding and its the potential impact. The poor hand hygiene practices of children, their tendency to swallow sputum and/or saliva, the significant difference in expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in intestine between children and adults, and the variance in immune status and intestinal microbiome could be considered as potential casual agents of longer fecal viral shedding duration of children.   Conclusion: Children with COVID-19 show prolonged fecal shedding compared to adults. Several mechanisms may be involved in the longer fecal viral shedding. Viral shedding in the stool could be contributing to a possible route of transmission. Therefore, we think that further preventive measures in children should be taken to reduce the spread of the disease. What is Known: • Children with COVID-19 are more likely to have asymptomatic infections and to experience mild symptoms. • Some patients continue to shed the virus in feces, despite respiratory samples testing negative. What is New: • Children with COVID-19 carried a longer-term fecal viral shedding than adults. • The poor hand hygiene practices of children, their tendency to swallow sputum and/or saliva, the difference in expression of ACE2 in intestine between children and adults, and the variance in immune status and intestinal microbiome could be considered as potential casual agents of longer fecal viral shedding duration of children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Adult , Humans , Virus Shedding , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections , RNA, Viral , Feces
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 94, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant decline in malaria burden was documented in previously high burden African countries. Even though the global decline in malaria burden is significant, about 95% of it was typically found in 29 African countries and the decline was affected by COVID-19 in 2020. The considerable reduction in malaria incidence was noted due to effective prevention and treatment efforts, and rapid changes in living conditions. The relationship between the occurrence of asymptomatic malaria infection and household living conditions is well unstudied. This study aimed to determine the association between household living conditions and the occurrence of asymptomatic malaria in the lowlands of Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2021 in twelve villages of Gambella, Southern Nation Nationalities and People Region and Afar in Ethiopia. A total of 1366 households were randomly selected, interviewed, and tested for malaria by rapid diagnostic test and blood film microscopic examination. Multiple logistic regression model was used to determine the independent association between living conditions and asymptomatic malaria infection. RESULTS: The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection among individuals living in dwellings built with traditional floor/wall/roof ranges from 8.1% to 8.4% while it ranges from 2.0% to 4.6% among those living in modern floor/wall/roof houses. Dwellings built with traditional wall materials (P = 0.050), spending nights with cattle in the same house (P < 0.001), and availability of kitchen in the main house with no partition (P = 0.004) were significantly associated with asymptomatic malaria infection. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic malaria infection was 4.3 times higher among occupants residing in dwellings built with traditional wall materials; 5.6 times higher among households spending nights with cattle in the same house, and 2.3 times higher among households with kitchen in the main house with no partition. Therefore, policies and strategies on malaria elimination need to address or target improvements of the above listed living conditions for the community. A multi sectoral action is required to use these social determinants as a vector control strategic addition; and malaria elimination programs are expected to coordinate the implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cattle , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Prevalence , Social Conditions
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30157, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008666

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have distinct clinical features in the pediatric groups. However, there is a paucity of research focused on clinical manifestation within pediatric group in Taiwan. This study is to conduct a retrospective study of the clinical features of COVID-19 in Taiwan pediatric patients. A retrospective study was conducted on pediatric patients (Aged ≤ 18 years) in a Northern Taiwan hospital from May 1st, 2021 to June 30th, 2021. Thirty-eight patients were included from emergency room. They were laboratory confirmed COVID-19 through specimens from nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data including RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values, clinical and epidemiological features were collected and analyzed. Thirty-eight patients aged from 7-month to 18-year-old were included. The median age of patients was 15-year-old. The patients had sex ratio of 23 males to 15 females. More than half patients were infected from family members. Asymptomatic patients were 47.37%. In the symptomatic patients, fever (34.21%) was the most predominant symptom. Cough, nasal obstruction and sore throat were also common. Asymptomatic children had significantly higher Ct-values than symptomatic children, and diagnosed patients with Ct-values more than 19 were associated with asymptomatic infection (P = .0084). Ct-values higher than 19 were associated with asymptomatic infection, which may be a predictor of pediatric disease severity. Our results highlight the distinct clinical manifestations and outcomes in pediatric COVID-19 patients. Compared to the adults, pediatric patients aged ≤ 18 years with COVID-19 in Taiwan mainly had mild disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Taiwan/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
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