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1.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(12): 2109-2118, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087497

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV2 has raised several important health concerns, not least increased mortality and morbidity. SARS-CoV2 can infect the central nervous system via hematogenous or transneuronal routes, acting through different receptors including ACE2, DPP4, and neuropilin 1 and cause several issues, including the focus here, cerebellitis. The cerebellum is an essential part of the CNS located adjacent to the brainstem with a complex micro and macroscopic structure. The cerebellum plays several physiological roles, such as coordination, cognition, and executive functioning. Damage to the cerebellum can lead to incoordination and ataxia. In our narrative review, we searched different databases from 2021 to 2022 with the keywords cerebellum and COVID-19; 247 studies were identified and reviewed, focusing on clinical studies and excluding non-clinical studies; 56 studies were finally included for analysis. SARS-CoV2 infection of the cerebellum can be seen to be assessed through many methods such as MRI, PET, CT, postmortem studies, and histological findings. These methodological studies have demonstrated that cerebellar infection with COVID-19 can bring about several sequelae: thrombosis, microbleed, hemorrhage, stroke, autoantibody production, ataxia, and widespread inflammation in the cerebellum. Such central effects are likely to exacerbate the known multiorgan effects of SARS-CoV2 and should also be considered as part of disease prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral , Ataxia/etiology
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(10)2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064085

ABSTRACT

We present a woman in her 40s who arrived at the emergency room with hypertension and optic ataxia. Her medical history is only relevant for obesity. Her lumbar puncture revealed high intracranial pressure and lymphocytic pleocytosis, and her neuroimaging tests, including angiography and venography, were normal. The patient improved after a cerebrospinal fluid drainage with a lumbar puncture, and her clinical manifestations resolved in parallel to the lymphocytic pleocytosis.The patient was diagnosed with a syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis and fully recovered 21 days after her discharge.


Subject(s)
Lymphocytosis , Nervous System Diseases , Ataxia/etiology , Female , Humans , Leukocytosis , Lymphocytosis/diagnosis , Syndrome
3.
Intern Med ; 61(11): 1757-1760, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951856

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has occasionally occurred in people who have received coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Dysgeusia is rare symptom of GBS. We herein report a rare case of sensory ataxic GBS with dysgeusia just after the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Although autoantibodies against glycolipids were not detected, immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone pulse therapy effectively ameliorated the symptoms. Our report suggests that the COVID-19 vaccine may induce various clinical subtypes of GBS, including a rare variant with sensory ataxia and dysgeusia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Ataxia/etiology , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Dysgeusia/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 26-34, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046668

ABSTRACT

Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome is a heterogeneous constellation of symptoms ranging from full combination of these three neurological findings to varying degrees of isolated individual sign. Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), neurological symptoms, syndromes, and complications associated with this multi-organ viral infection have been reported and the various aspects of neurological involvement are increasingly uncovered. As a neuro-inflammatory disorder, one would expect to observe opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome after a prevalent viral infection in a pandemic scale, as it has been the case for many other neuro-inflammatory syndromes. We report seven cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome presumably parainfectious in nature and discuss their phenomenology, their possible pathophysiological relationship to COVID-19, and diagnostic and treatment strategy in each case. Finally, we review the relevant data in the literature regarding the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome and possible similar cases associated with COVID-19 and its diagnostic importance for clinicians in various fields of medicine encountering COVID-19 patients and its complications.


Subject(s)
Ataxia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Ataxia/diagnostic imaging , Ataxia/drug therapy , Ataxia/etiology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Clonazepam/therapeutic use , Cough/diagnostic imaging , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/diagnostic imaging , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/diagnostic imaging , Myalgia/drug therapy , Myalgia/etiology , Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome/drug therapy , Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome/etiology , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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