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1.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100745, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741319

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2 originated from China and spread across every corner of the world. The scientific interest on COVID-19 increased after WHO declared it a pandemic in the early February of 2020. In fact, this pandemic has had a worldwide impact on economy, health, and lifestyle like no other in the last 100 years. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Coronaviridae family and causes the deadliest clinical manifestations when compared to other viruses in the family. COVID-19 is an emerging zoonotic disease that has resulted in over 383,000 deaths around the world. Scientists are scrambling for ideas to develop treatment and prevention strategies to thwart the disease condition. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the latest information on the virus, disease, prevention, and treatment strategies. The future looks promising.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ataxia/diagnosis , Ataxia/physiopathology , Ataxia/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Nausea/diagnosis , Nausea/physiopathology , Nausea/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
2.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S101-S103, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609376

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) has turned out to be a formidable pandemic. Upcoming evidence from confirmed cases of COVID-19 suggests an anticipated incursion of patients with neurological manifestations in the weeks to come. An expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2 over the glial cells and neurons have made the brain a potential target. Neurotoxicity may occur as a result of direct, indirect and post-infectious complications. Attention to neurological deficits in COVID-19 is fundamental to ensure appropriate, timely, beneficial management of the affected patients. Most common neurological manifestations seen include dizziness, headache, impaired consciousness, acute cerebrovascular disease, ataxia, and seizures. Anosmia and ageusia have recently been hinted as significant early symptoms in COVID-19. As cases with neurological deficits in COVID-19 emerge, the overall prognosis is yet unknown.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Headache/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sensation Disorders/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Ataxia/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Myalgia/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology
4.
J Neurovirol ; 26(3): 324-329, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276266

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported at the end of 2019 in China for the first time and has rapidly spread throughout the world as a pandemic. Since COVID-19 causes mild to severe acute respiratory syndrome, most studies in this field have only focused on different aspects of pathogenesis in the respiratory system. However, evidence suggests that COVID-19 may affect the central nervous system (CNS). Given the outbreak of COVID-19, it seems necessary to perform investigations on the possible neurological complications in patients who suffered from COVID-19. Here, we reviewed the evidence of the neuroinvasive potential of coronaviruses and discussed the possible pathogenic processes in CNS infection by COVID-19 to provide a precise insight for future studies.


Subject(s)
Ataxia/epidemiology , Brain Edema/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Ataxia/complications , Ataxia/diagnosis , Ataxia/virology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , Brain Edema/complications , Brain Edema/diagnosis , Brain Edema/virology , COVID-19 , Central Nervous System/pathology , Central Nervous System/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Encephalitis, Viral/complications , Encephalitis, Viral/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/virology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission
5.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 699-702, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-96729

ABSTRACT

Neurologic sequelae can be devastating complications of respiratory viral infections. We report the presence of virus in neural and capillary endothelial cells in frontal lobe tissue obtained at postmortem examination from a patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Our observations of virus in neural tissue, in conjunction with clinical correlates of worsening neurologic symptoms, pave the way to a closer understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying central nervous system involvement by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/diagnosis , Ataxia/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Seizures/diagnosis , Aged , Ageusia/complications , Ageusia/physiopathology , Ageusia/virology , Ataxia/complications , Ataxia/physiopathology , Ataxia/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Fatal Outcome , Frontal Lobe/blood supply , Frontal Lobe/pathology , Frontal Lobe/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/physiopathology , Seizures/virology
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