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1.
J Orthop Res ; 40(1): 43-54, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787691

ABSTRACT

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are one of the most common and severe knee injuries across sports. As such, ACL injury prevention has been a focus of research and sports medicine practice for the past three-plus decades. Examining the current research and identifying both clinical strategies and research gaps, the aim of this review is to empower clinicians and researchers with knowledge of where the ACL injury prevention literature is currently and where it is going in the future. This paper examines the mechanism of ACL injury prevention, screening, implementation, compliance, adherence, coronavirus, and areas of future research. Clinical significance: The time lag between research and practical implementation in general healthcare settings can be as long as 17 years; however, athletes playing sports today are unable to wait that long. With effective programs already established, implementation and adherence to these programs is essential. Strategies such as coaching education, increasing awareness of free programs, identifying barriers, and overcoming implementation obstacles through creative collaboration are just a few ways that could help improve both ACL injury prevention implementation and adherence.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries/prevention & control , Athletic Injuries/prevention & control , Knee Injuries/prevention & control , Athletes , Humans , Sports
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the event rates of myocarditis detected by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in athletes who recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies reporting abnormal CMR findings in athletes who recovered from COVID-19. Secondary analyses were performed considering increased serum high sensitivity troponin (hs-Tn) levels and electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic (ECHO) abnormalities. RESULTS: In total, 7988 athletes from 15 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled event rate of myocarditis was 1% (CI 1-2%), reaching 4% in the sub-group analysis. In addition, heterogeneity was observed (I2 43.8%). The pooled event rates of elevated serum hs-Tn levels, abnormal ECG and ECHO findings were 2% (CI 1-5%), 3% (CI 1-10%) and 2% (CI 1-6%), respectively. ECG, ECHO and serum hs-Tn level abnormalities did not show any correlation with myocarditis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of COVID-19-related myocarditis in the athletic population ranges from 1 to 4%. Even if the event rate is quite low, current screening protocols are helpful tools for a safe return to play to properly address CMR studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: the study protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42022300819).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Athletes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 842452, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776050

ABSTRACT

The Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics will begin soon, which is mainly focused on winter sports. Athletes from different countries will arrive in Beijing one after another for training and competition. The health protection of athletes of winter sports is very important in training and competition. The occurrence of sports injury is characterized by multiple factors, uncertainty, and accidents. This paper mainly pays attention to the head injury with the highest severity. Athletes' high safety awareness is a part of reducing injury, but safety awareness cannot effectively reduce the occurrence of injury in competition, and timely treatment of injured athletes is particularly important. After athletes are injured, a telemedicine image acquisition system can be built, so that medical experts can identify athletes' injuries in time and provide the basis for further diagnosis and treatment. In order to improve the accuracy of medical image processing, a C-support vector machine (SVM) medical image segmentation method combining the Chan-Vese (CV) model and SVM is proposed in this paper. After segmentation, the edge and detail features of the image are more prominent, which meet the requirements of high precision for medical image segmentation. Meanwhile, a high-precision registration algorithm of brain functional time-series images based on machine learning (ML) is proposed, and the automatic optimization of high-precision registration of brain function time-series images is performed by ML algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher segmentation accuracy above 80% and less registration time below 40 ms, which can provide a reference for doctors to quickly identify the injury and shorten the time.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , Diagnostic Imaging , Support Vector Machine , Athletes , Athletic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Humans , Seasons
4.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265737, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Participation in American-style football (ASF), one of the most popular sports worldwide, has been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, prior clinical studies of former ASF players have been limited by reliance on subjective self-reported data, inadequate sample size, or focus on a single disease process in isolation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of objective multi-system pathology and its relationship with subjective health complaints among former professional ASF players. METHODS: The In-Person Assessment is a case-control, multi-day, deep human phenotyping protocol designed to characterize and quantify pathology among former professional ASF players. Participants, recruited from an on-going large-scale longitudinal cohort study, will include 120 men who report either no health conditions, a single health condition, or multiple health conditions across the key domains of cardiometabolic disease, disordered sleep, chronic pain, and cognitive impairment. Data will be collected from validated questionnaires, structured interviews, physical examinations, multi-modality imaging, and functional assessments over a 3-day study period. A pilot study was conducted to assess feasibility and to obtain participant feedback which was used to shape the final protocol. RESULTS: This study provides a comprehensive assessment of objective multi-system pathology and its relationship with subjective health complaints among former professional ASF players. CONCLUSION: The study will determine whether subjective health complaints among former professional ASF players are explained by objective explanatory pathology and will provide novel opportunities to examine the interrelatedness of co-morbidities. It is anticipated that this protocol will be applicable to other clinical and occupational populations.


Subject(s)
Football , Athletes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Multimorbidity , Pilot Projects , United States
6.
Sports Med ; 52(4): 725-740, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756976

ABSTRACT

It is well established that physical activity reduces all-cause mortality and can prolong life. Ultra-endurance running (UER) is an extreme sport that is becoming increasingly popular, and comprises running races above marathon distance, exceeding 6 h, and/or running fixed distances on multiple days. Serious acute adverse events are rare, but there is mounting evidence that UER may lead to long-term health problems. The purpose of this review is to present the current state of knowledge regarding the potential long-term health problems derived from UER, specifically potential maladaptation in key organ systems, including cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, renal, immunological, gastrointestinal, neurological, and integumentary systems. Special consideration is given to youth, masters, and female athletes, all of whom may be more susceptible to certain long-term health issues. We present directions for future research into the pathophysiological mechanisms that underpin athlete susceptibility to long-term issues. Although all body systems can be affected by UER, one of the clearest effects of endurance exercise is on the cardiovascular system, including right ventricular dysfunction and potential increased risk of arrhythmias and hypertension. There is also evidence that rare cases of acute renal injury in UER could lead to progressive renal scarring and chronic kidney disease. There are limited data specific to female athletes, who may be at greater risk of certain UER-related health issues due to interactions between energy availability and sex-hormone concentrations. Indeed, failure to consider sex differences in the design of female-specific UER training programs may have a negative impact on athlete longevity. It is hoped that this review will inform risk stratification and stimulate further research about UER and the implications for long-term health.


Subject(s)
Running , Adolescent , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Athletes , Female , Humans , Male , Marathon Running , Nutritional Status , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732034

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed our lifestyle, sleep and physical activity habits. This study evaluated the prevalence of poor sleep quality, its disrupters, and the impact of the pandemic in collegiate athletes. We performed a cross-sectional study of collegiate athletes (N = 339, median age: 20 (IQR,19-21) years old, 48.5% female, 47% individual sports) who received a web-based questionnaire in April 2021. This survey included subject characteristics, chronotype, sleep disrupters, the changes due to the pandemic and sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]). A multivariate linear regression was performed to assess the relationship between sleep quality, gender, chronotype, sleep disrupters and the changes to training volume or sleep. Results showed a disrupted sleep quality in 63.7%. One in five students had a total sleep time under 6.5 h per night. Poor sleep quality was significantly correlated with nocturnal concerns related to the pandemic, evening chronotype, female gender, third year of study, caffeine consumption and lack of sleep routine (all p < 0.05). To conclude, poor sleep quality is common in collegiate athletes. Sleep disrupters remain prevalent in the lifestyle habits of this population and may have been exacerbated by changes related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Sleep hygiene should become a major aspect of sports education during the return to post-covid normality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Athletes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 21(3): 100-104, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731573

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease (COVID) has become a global pandemic that has widely impacted athletes at all levels of competition. For many athletes infected with COVID, the course is mild or asymptomatic, and most athletes are able to return to play in a matter of weeks. However, 10% to 15% of people infected with COVID will go on to have prolonged COVID symptoms that last for weeks to months and impact their ability to function and exercise. Not much is known about why certain people become "COVID long-haulers," nor are there any predictive tools to predetermine who may have prolonged symptoms. However, many athletes will suffer from prolonged symptoms that may require further evaluation and may prolong their return to exercise, training, and competition. The purpose of this article is to discuss a framework in which sports medicine and primary care physicians can use to evaluate COVID long-haulers and help them return to sport.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Athletes , Humans , Pandemics , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(7): 670-679, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720501

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the perceptions of South African elite and semi-elite athletes on return to sport (RTS); maintenance of physical conditioning and other activities; sleep; nutrition; mental health; healthcare access; and knowledge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGN: Cross- sectional study. METHODS: A Google Forms survey was distributed to athletes from 15 sports in the final phase (last week of April 2020) of the level 5 lockdown period. Descriptive statistics were used to describe player demographic data. Chi-squared tests investigated significance (p<0.05) between observed and expected values and explored sex differences. Post hoc tests with a Bonferroni adjustment were included where applicable. RESULTS: 67% of the 692 respondents were males. The majority (56%) expected RTS after 1-6 months. Most athletes trained alone (61%; p<0.0001), daily (61%; p<0.0001) at moderate intensity (58%; p<0.0001) and for 30-60min (72%). During leisure time athletes preferred sedentary above active behaviour (p<0.0001). Sleep patterns changed significantly (79%; p<0.0001). A significant number of athletes consumed excessive amounts of carbohydrates (76%; p<0.0001; males 73%; females 80%). Many athletes felt depressed (52%), and required motivation to keep active (55%). Most had access to healthcare during lockdown (80%) and knew proceedings when suspecting COVID-19 (92%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had physical, nutritional and psychological consequences that may impact on the safe RTS and general health of athletes. Lost opportunities and uncertain financial and sporting futures may have significant effects on athletes and the sports industry. Government and sporting federations must support athletes and develop and implement guidelines to reduce the risk in a COVID-19 environment.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Return to Sport , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Dietary Carbohydrates , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 102: 206-208, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719357

ABSTRACT

Just weeks away from the Opening Ceremony of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics, the United States, followed by Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada, has declared a diplomatic boycott of the Games. A diplomatic boycott stipulates that while government officials of these countries will not attend the event, the athletes' scheduled attendance will largely remain intact. An unintended consequence of the boycotts is that they force the attending athletes to cope with the stress and distress associated with the 2022 Winter Olympics in an unfamiliar environment on their own. It is important to underscore that many of the challenges the athletes could face amid the Games are either deep-rooted or unprecedented, ranging from stressors fuelled by the nonstop media reports, the competitions, to the Omicron scares. These insights combined, in turn, underscore the imperative for effective and preemptive mental health support for Olympic athletes. To shed light on the issue, this paper highlights the reasons why timely solutions are needed to adequately safeguard Olympic athletes' mental health and overall wellbeing, and underlines promising technology-based solutions that can be cost-effectively designed and developed for the athletes.


Subject(s)
Psychoneuroimmunology , Sports , Athletes , Humans , Seasons , United Kingdom
12.
J Athl Train ; 57(2): 136-139, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To define and discuss the role of population health as a framework to improve care and clinical decision making in athletic training practice. BACKGROUND: Athletic trainers (ATs) are allied health professionals who are uniquely suited to provide preventive and educational health and wellness programs to improve health outcomes across a physically active population. Athletic trainers are often the first contacts for high school athletes seeking health and wellness education, which may allow ATs to be the first intervention or prevention point for reducing or eliminating negative health behaviors and outcomes among their patients. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating a population-health framework into the athletic training setting prepares ATs to address complex health concerns in communities that result from factors that influence determinants of health. The field of athletic training could benefit from a population-health approach to care by broadening consideration of the factors that affect the health of homogeneous populations that are served by ATs.


Subject(s)
Population Health , Sports , Athletes , Humans , Schools
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 299-305, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704008

ABSTRACT

During December 2021, the United States experienced a surge in COVID-19 cases, coinciding with predominance of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant (1). During this surge, the National Football League (NFL) and NFL Players Association (NFLPA) adjusted their protocols for test-to-release from COVID-19 isolation on December 16, 2021, based on analytic assessments of their 2021 test-to-release data. Fully vaccinated* persons with COVID-19 were permitted to return to work once they were asymptomatic or fever-free and experiencing improving symptoms for ≥24 hours, and after two negative or high cycle-threshold (Ct) results (Ct≥35) from either of two reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests† (2). This report describes data from NFL's SARS-CoV-2 testing program (3) and time to first negative or Ct≥35 result based on serial COVID-19 patient testing during isolation. Among this occupational cohort of 173 fully vaccinated adults with confirmed COVID-19 during December 14-19, 2021, a period of Omicron variant predominance, 46% received negative test results or had a subsequent RT-PCR test result with a Ct≥35 by day 6 postdiagnosis (i.e., concluding 5 days of isolation) and 84% before day 10. The proportion of persons with positive test results decreased with time, with approximately one half receiving positive RT-PCR test results after postdiagnosis day 5. Although this test result does not necessarily mean these persons are infectious (RT-PCR tests might continue to return positive results long after an initial positive result) (4), these findings indicate that persons with COVID-19 should continue taking precautions, including correct and consistent mask use, for a full 10 days after symptom onset or initial positive test result if they are asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Quarantine , Return to Sport , Return to Work , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Athletes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Football , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686729

ABSTRACT

The introduction of carbon fiber plate shoes has triggered a plethora of world records in running, which has encouraged shoe industries to produce novel shoe designs to enhance running performance, including shoes containing conductor elements or "grounding shoes" (GS), which could potentially reduce the energy cost of running. The aim of this study was to examine the physiological and perceptual responses of athletes subjected to grounding shoes during running. Ten elite runners were recruited. Firstly, the athletes performed an incremental running test for VO2max and anaerobic threshold (AT) determination, and were familiarized with the two shoe conditions (traditional training shoe (TTS) and GS, the latter containing a conductor element under the insole). One week apart, athletes performed running economy tests (20 min run at 80% of the AT) on a 400 m dirt track, with shoe conditions randomized. VO2, heart rate, lactate, and perceived fatigue were registered throughout the experiment. No differences in any of the physiological or perceptual variables were identified between shoe conditions, with an equal running economy in both TTS and GS (51.1 ± 4.2 vs. 50.9 ± 5.1 mL kg-1 min-1, respectively). Our results suggest that a grounding stimulus does not improve the energy cost of running, or the physiological/perceptual responses of elite athletes.


Subject(s)
Running , Shoes , Athletes , Biomechanical Phenomena , Humans , Lactic Acid , Running/physiology
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147810, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680205
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147805, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680204

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic initially led to the abrupt shutdown of collegiate athletics until guidelines were established for a safe return to play for student athletes. Currently, no literature exists that examines the difference in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity between student athletes and nonathletes at universities across the country. Objective: To identify the difference in risk of COVID-19 infection between student athlete and nonathlete student populations and evaluate the hypothesis that student athletes may display increased SARS-CoV-2 test positivity associated with increased travel, competition, and testing compared with nonathletes at their respective universities. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional analysis, a search of publicly available official university COVID-19 dashboards and press releases was performed for all 65 Power 5 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions during the 2020 to 2021 academic year. Data were analyzed at the conclusion of the academic year. Schools that released at least 4 months of testing data, including the fall 2020 football season, for student athletes and nonathlete students were included in the analysis. Power 5 NCAA Division I student athletes and their nonathlete student counterparts were included in the analysis. Exposure: Designation as a varsity student athlete. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was SARS-CoV-2 test positivity for student athletes and nonathlete students at the included institutions for the 2020 to 2021 academic year, measured as a relative risk for student athletes. Results: Among 12 schools with sufficient data available included in the final analysis, 555 372 student athlete tests and 3 482 845 nonathlete student tests were performed. There were 9 schools with decreased test positivity in student athletes compared with nonathlete students (University of Arkansas: 0.01% vs 3.52%; University of Minnesota: 0.63% vs 5.96%; Penn State University: 0.74% vs 6.58%; Clemson University: 0.40% vs 1.88%; University of Louisville: 0.75% vs 3.05%; Purdue University: 0.79% vs 2.97%; University of Michigan: 0.40% vs 1.12%; University of Illinois: 0.17% vs 0.40%; University of Virginia: 0.64% vs 1.04%) (P < .001 for each). The median (range) test positivity in these 9 schools was 0.46% (0.01%-0.79%) for student athletes and 1.04% (0.40%-6.58%) for nonathlete students. In 1 school, test positivity was increased in the student athlete group (Stanford University: 0.20% vs 0.05%; P < .001). Overall, there were 2425 positive tests (0.44%) among student athletes and 30 567 positive tests (0.88%) among nonathlete students, for a relative risk of 0.50 (95% CI, 0.48-0.52; P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference in student athlete test positivity between included schools; however, test positivity among nonathlete students varied considerably between institutions, ranging from 133 of 271 862 tests (0.05%) at Stanford University to 2129 of 32 336 tests (6.58%) at Penn State University. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 transmission mitigation protocols implemented by the NCAA, participation in intercollegiate athletics was not associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. This finding suggests that collegiate athletics may be held without an associated increased risk of infection among student athletes.


Subject(s)
Athletes/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sports/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
J Adolesc Health ; 70(4): 559-566, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676792

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes' exposure to COVID-19-related events (e.g., canceled season, diagnosed with COVID) and their psychological distress in April/May 2020. METHODS: The link to the online survey was emailed to NCAA student-athletes by the NCAA Student Athlete Advisory Council and the athletic departments of 80 NCAA institutions. In April-May of 2020, student-athletes (N = 5915; women = 3924) completed the online survey once. The survey included measures of their psychological distress, COVID-19 worry, and their exposure to different COVID-19-related events. To examine differences in exposure to COVID-related events by racial, ethnicity, and gender identities, we conducted logistic regressions. A path analysis examined relationships between COVID-related events, COVID-19 worry, and psychological distress for men and women. RESULTS: Student-athletes' exposure to COVID-19 events differed significantly by gender, race, and ethnicity. In addition, 58.7% of women's and 54.5% of men's psychological distress variance was explained by the path model and mostly by their COVID-related worry. Student-athletes' stress was directly related to the changes that occurred in class delivery (i.e., online format) and indirectly by being quarantined. Men's psychological distress was also related through worry by their sport season being canceled. DISCUSSION: The general uncertainty and worry about COVID individuals experienced at the beginning of this pandemic primarily explained the athletes' high levels of psychological distress. As COVID-19 continues to cause quarantines and changes educational experiences, the worry and psychological distress of college students are likely to continue.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Athletes/psychology , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Students , Universities
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674645

ABSTRACT

Elite athletes use high-intensity training to maintain their fitness level. However, intense training can harm the immune system, making athletes suspectable to COVID-19 and negatively affecting their performance. In addition, the diet of athletes should be appreciated more as it is another influencer of the immune system, especially during the COVID 19 pandemic. The other important issue elite athletes face currently is vaccination and its possible intervention with their training. The present study attempts to discuss the impact of different training intensities, nutritional strategies, and vaccination on the immune system function in elite athletes. To this end, Scopus, ISC, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched from 1988 to 2021 using the related keywords. The results of our review showed that although high-intensity exercise can suppress the immune system, elite athletes should not stop training in the time of infection but use low- and moderate-intensity training. Moderate-intensity exercise can improve immune function and maintain physical fitness. In addition, it is also better for athletes not to undertake high-intensity training at the time of vaccination, but instead perform moderate to low-intensity training. Furthermore, nutritional strategies can be employed to improve immune function during high-intensity training periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Athletes , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604380, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674430

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The primary objective is to compare the prevalence of mental health problems, including psychological distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms in Japan Rugby Top League players in the new life with COVID-19 with those evaluated before COVID-19. Methods: An observational comparative web-based cross-sectional study was employed for Japan Rugby Top League players. We compared the data from 220 Japanese and 7 foreign players during the new life with COVID-19 with the data from before COVID-19, which was obtained from 233 Japanese and 18 foreign players. We measured anxiety and depression symptoms with the validated Kessler-6, which has been widely used in clinical and research settings among different populations. To investigate the distribution of K6 score and whether there are discrete clusters or not, we conducted the two-step cluster analysis. Results: In the new life with COVID-19, 15.0% of players reported mild symptoms, which was significantly lower than the 32.3% of players before COVID-19. The prevalence of moderate and severe symptoms was 6.7 and 3.5%, respectively, in the group during the new life with the COVID-19, and 4.8 and 5.2% in the pre-COVID-19 group, with no significant difference. A two-step cluster analysis supported the existence of these two qualitatively different clusters in both groups. Conclusions: With the spread of new lifestyles related to COVID-19, some rugby players may have improved mental health status due to changes in their daily living environment. Such environmental adjustments alone may not have been sufficient to change the mental health status of others. Rugby players or their teams may require mental health professionals and systems that ensure rest, adjust the environment, and sustainably provide more professional care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Football , Anxiety/epidemiology , Athletes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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