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1.
Kardiologiia ; 62(3): 21-27, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in Russian, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789754

ABSTRACT

Aim      To evaluate the incidence and features of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombosis in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) after novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19).Material and methods  Percutaneous echocardiography (pcEchoCG) was performed for 128 patients with persistent AF prepared for cardioversion, 36 (28.1 %) of whom had had COVID-19. In 3 (8.3 %) patients, the lung lesion area was 50-75 %; in 31 (86.1 %) patients, 25-50 %; in 1 (2.8 %) patient, less than 25 %. One patient had no lung lesion. Median time from the onset of COVID-19 to the patient enrollment in the study was 76.5 days. At the time of enrollment, the polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all patients.Results Patients after COVID-19 and those who had not had COVID-19 were comparable by age (62.5±9.2 and 62.4±9.1 years, respectively; р=0.956), gender (men 52.8 and 59.8 %, respectively; р=0.471), and risk of stroke (score 2.19±1.28 and score 1.95±1.35, respectively; р=0.350). Duration of the last arrhythmia episode was longer for patients after COVID-19 than for the comparison group (76.5 and 45.0 days, respectively; р=0.011). All patients received oral anticoagulants. 55.6 % of COVID-19 patients received rivaroxaban, whereas 62.0% of patients who had not had COVID-19 were treated with apixaban. Median duration of the anticoagulant treatment was longer for COVID-19 patients than for the comparison group (61.5 and 32.0 days; р=0.051). LAA thrombus was detected in 7 (19.4 %) patients after COVID-19 and in 6 (6.5 %) patients of the comparison group (р=0.030). In COVID-19 patients, the thrombus adhered to LAA wall over the entire thrombus length whereas in patients who had not have COVID-19, the thrombus had a free part that formed a sharp angle with LAA walls. In the presence of LAA thrombus, the LAA blood flow velocity was considerably higher for COVID-19 patients than for the comparison group (31.0±8.9 and 18.8±4.9 cm/sec, respectively; p=0.010). At the follow-up examination performed at 24.0 days on the average, the thrombus was found to be dissolved in 80 and 50% of patients after and without COVID-19, respectively (р=0.343).Conclusion      In patients with persistent AF after the novel coronavirus infection, LAA thrombosis was detected more frequently than in patients who had never had COVID-19; it was characterized by mural localization and was not associated with a decrease in LAA blood flow velocity.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Thrombosis , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/adverse effects , Heart Diseases/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732122

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Pre-existing atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent comorbidity in hospitalized patients with COVID-19; however, little is still known about its prognostic role in infected patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the pre-existing AF as comorbidity would contribute to increase the risk for severe forms of COVID-19, worse prognosis, or even higher mortality. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to the emergency department of nine Italian Hospitals from 1 March to 30 April 2020.The prevalence and the type of pre-existing AF have been collected. The correlation between the history and type of AF and the development of severe ARDS and in-hospital mortality has been evaluated. Results: In total, 467 patients (66.88 ± 14.55 years; 63% males) with COVID-19 were included in the present study. The history of AF was noticed in 122 cases (26.1%), of which 12 (2.6%) with paroxysmal, 57 (12.2%) with persistent and 53 (11.3%) with permanent AF. Among our study population, COVID-19 patients with AF history were older compared to those without AF history (71.25 ± 12.39 vs. 65.34 ± 14.95 years; p < 0.001); however, they did not show a statistically significant difference in cardiovascular comorbidities or treatments. Pre-existing AF resulted in being independently associated with an increased risk of developing severe ARDS during the hospitalization; in contrast, it did not increase the risk of in-hospital mortality. Among patients with AF history, no significant differences were detected in severe ARDS and in-hospital mortality between patients with permanent and non-permanent AF history. Conclusions: Pre-existing AF is a frequent among COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital, accounting up to 25% of cases. It is independently associated with an increased risk of severe ARDS in hospitalized COVID-19 patients; in contrast, it did not affect the risk of death. The type of pre-existing AF (permanent or non-permanent) did not impact the clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 88-94, jan. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1698742

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial é um problema de saúde pública associado com um risco cinco vezes maior de acidente vascular cerebral e mortalidade. A análise de custos é importante para a introdução de novas terapias, e deve ser reconsiderada em situações especiais, tais como a pandemia do coronavírus em 2020. Objetivo: Avaliar os custos (em um período de um ano) relacionados à terapia anticoagulante e a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibrilação atrial tratados em um hospital público universitário. Métodos: Os custos do paciente foram aqueles relacionados à anticoagulação e calculados pela média de custos mensais da varfarina ou de anticoagulantes orais diretos (DOACs). As despesas não médicas, como alimentação e transporte, foram calculadas a partir de dados obtidos de questionários. O questionário brasileiro SF-6D foi usado para medir a qualidade de vida. Valores p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A população do estudo consistiu em 90 pacientes, 45 em cada braço (varfarina vs. DOACs). Os custos foram 20% mais altos no grupo dos DOACs (US$55 532,62 vs. US$46 385,88), e principalmente relacionados ao preço dos medicamentos (US$23 497,16 vs. US$1903,27). Os custos hospitalares foram mais altos no grupo da varfarina (US$31 088,41 vs $24 604,74), e relacionados às visitas ao ambulatório. Ainda, as despesas não médicas foram duas vezes maiores no grupo varfarina ($13 394,20 vs $7 430,72). A equivalência de preço entre os dois medicamentos seria alcançada por uma redução de 39% no preço dos DOACs. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto à qualidade de vida. Conclusões: Os custos totais foram mais altos no grupo de pacientes tratados com DOACs que no grupo da varfarina. No entanto, uma redução de cerca de 40% no preço dos DOACs tornaria viável a incorporação desses medicamentos no sistema de saúde público brasileiro.


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation is a public health problem associated with a fivefold increased risk of stroke or death. Analyzing costs is important when introducing new therapies and must be reconsidered in special situations, such as the novel coronavirus pandemic of 2020. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the costs related to anticoagulant therapy in a one-year period, and the quality of life of atrial fibrillation patients treated in a public university hospital. Methods: Patient costs were those related to the anticoagulation and calculated by the average monthly costs of warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Patient non-medical costs (eg., food and transportation) were calculated from data obtained by questionnaires. The Brazilian SF-6D was used to measure the quality of life. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The study population consisted of 90 patients, 45 in each arm (warfarin vs direct oral anticoagulants). Costs were 20% higher in the DOAC group ($55,532.62 vs $46,385.88), and mainly related to drug price ($23,497.16 vs $1,903.27). Hospital costs were higher in the warfarin group ($31,088.41 vs $24,604.74) and related to outpatient visits. Additionally, non-medical costs were almost twice higher in the warfarin group ($13,394.20 vs $7,430.72). Equivalence of price between the two drugs could be achieved by a 39% reduction in the price of DOACs. There were no significant group differences regarding quality of life. Conclusions: Total costs were higher in the group of patients taking DOACs than those taking warfarin. However, a nearly 40% reduction in the price of DOACs could make it feasible to incorporate these drugs into the Brazilian public health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants
4.
J Cardiol ; 79(4): 489-493, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with systematic coagulopathy which might result in fatality. We aimed to investigate whether systematic anticoagulation before admission with COVID infection was associated with patients' survival. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 6,095 hospitalized patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 from the Mount Sinai Health System. Patients were stratified into two groups: patients with therapeutic anticoagulation before admission (7.9%, N=480), or those without (92.1%, N=5,615). Propensity score matched analysis was conducted to assess the association of anticoagulation before admission and in-hospital mortality (N=296 in each group). Multiple imputation for missing data was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 480 patients (7.9%) received anticoagulation before admission. Patients with anticoagulation before admission were older (72.1±14.7 years vs. 63.1±17.2 years), and had more comorbidities including chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure (all p< 0.05). Notably, patients with anticoagulation before admission had lower D-dimer [1.48 (IQR 0.75, 2.79) µg/mL vs 1.66 (0.89, 3.52) µg/mL, p=0.002]. In a propensity score matched analysis (N=296 in each group), in-hospital mortality was not significantly different in patients with anticoagulation before admission compared to those without (28.4% vs 31.1%, p=0.53). In addition, inverse probability weighted analysis and multiple imputation for missing data did not change the result. Furthermore, these differences were not significant after excluding endotracheal intubation from both groups. CONCLUSION: Anticoagulation before admission was not associated with lower risk of in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients. Further investigation is needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 254, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of developing a stroke by 20%. AF related strokes are associated with greater morbidity. Historically, warfarin was the anticoagulant of choice for stroke prevention in patients with AF but lately patients are being switched or started on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). DOACs are promoted as safer alternatives to warfarin and it is expected that they will be associated with fewer challenges both for patients and healthcare professionals. This systematic narrative review aimed to explore perspectives of patients and professionals on medicines optimisation of oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists and DOACs in atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Prospero registration CRD42018091591. Systematic searches undertaken of research studies (qualitative and quantitative), published February 2018 to November 2020 from several databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Medline Via Ovid, CINHAL via Ebsco, and PubMED via NCBI) following PRISMA methodology. Data were organised using Covidence software. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies and synthesized the findings (thematic analysis approach). RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Studies were critically appraised using established critical appraisal tools (Qualsyst) and a risk of bias was assigned. Clinicians considered old age and the associated complexities such as co-morbidities and the increased potential for bleeding as potential barriers to optimising anticoagulation. Whereas patients' health and medication beliefs influenced adherence. Notably, structured patient support was important in enhancing safety and effective anticoagulation. For both patients and clinicians, confidence and experience of safe anticoagulation was influenced by the presence of co-morbidities,  poor knowledge and understanding of AF and the purpose of anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Age, complex multimorbidity and polypharmacy influence prescribing, with DOACs being perceived to be safer than warfarin. This systematic narrative review suggests that interventions are needed to support patient self-management. There are residual anxieties associated with long term anticoagulation in the context of complexities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Humans , Stroke/prevention & control , Warfarin/therapeutic use
6.
Chest ; 161(1): e5-e11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595933

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old obese man (BMI 38.0) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic atrial fibrillation, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia stage II, stable for 8 years after chemotherapy, and a history of smoking presented to the ED with progressive dyspnea and fever due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted to a general ward and treated with dexamethasone (6 mg IV once daily) and oxygen. On day 3 of hospital admission, he became progressively hypoxemic and was admitted to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone treatment was continued, and a single dose of tocilizumab (800 mg) was administered. On day 9 of ICU admission, voriconazole treatment was initiated after tracheal white plaques at bronchoscopy, suggestive of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, were noticed. However, his medical situation dramatically deteriorated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bronchoscopy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
7.
Am Heart J ; 243: 28-38, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing globally, which is a major clinical and public health concern due to the 5-fold increased risk of stroke. Oral anticoagulation with novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is the current primary option for stroke prevention in patients with AF, although it increases the risk of major bleeding. Patients with prior ischemic cerebrovascular events are at particularly high risk of both recurrent ischemic events and major bleeding. Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) provides an alternative option for stroke prevention in high-risk patients, however, with currently limited evidence. Thus, randomized trials comparing LAAO to NOACs are needed. OBJECTIVE: The Occlusion-AF trial is designed to assess whether LAAO is non-inferior to NOAC therapy for reduction of the combined endpoint of stroke, systemic embolism, major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ≥ 3) and all-cause mortality in patients with AF and a recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Investigator-initiated multicenter, multinational, randomized open-label non-inferiority trial with blinded outcome evaluation (PROBE design). Patients with documented AF, and an ischemic stroke or TIA within 6 months will be eligible for enrollment. Major exclusion criteria are modified Rankin Scale > 3 at enrollment, glomerular filtration rate < 15 ml/min, and life-expectancy less than 2 years. A total of 750 patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive either a NOAC or LAAO using the Amplatzer Amulet (Abbott, MN, USA) or Watchman FLX (Boston Scientific, MN, USA) with subsequent life-long aspirin 75 mg daily. Follow-up will be based on in-office and telephone follow-up in combination with long-term follow-up (10 years) through national hospital discharge registries in the individual Nordic countries. The primary outcome will be a composite endpoint of stroke, systemic embolism, major bleeding (BARC ≥ 3) and all-cause mortality at 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The Occlusion-AF trial is designed to compare LAAO to NOAC therapy for secondary stroke prevention in AF patients with a high risk of recurrent thromboembolic events, i.e. with previous ischemic stroke or TIA, and otherwise eligible for anticoagulation. The results are expected to contribute significantly to the understanding of the effects of LAAO compared to the standard contemporary pharmacological treatment in these patients.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Humans , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
8.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 38(2): 351-362, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427312

ABSTRACT

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard for assessing left atrial appendage (LAA) mechanic and thrombosis (LAAT); however, TEE is a high-risk procedure for viral transmission during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We investigated whether deformation indices of left atrium (LA) at transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) correlate with those of LAA assessed by TEE in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients undergoing electrical cardioversion (ECV). Consecutive patients with NVAF of ≥ 48 h or unknown duration, who underwent TEE and TTE at our Institution before ECV were retrospectively investigated. Standard echo-Doppler and LA and LAA myocardial strain and strain rate parameters were analyzed. A total of 115 NVAF patients (71.3 ± 8.1 yr/o, 59.1% men) were included: LAAT was diagnosed in 25 (21.7%) patients. Compared to patients without LAAT, those with LAAT had significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc Risk score (4.5 ± 1.4 vs. 3.5 ± 1.1, p < 0.001), and lower ejection fraction (46.0 ± 14.8 vs. 57.6 ± 8.6%, p < 0.001). In LAAT patients, global strain of LA (8.7 ± 2.6 vs. 16.3 ± 4.5%, p < 0.001) and LAA (7.0 ± 1.7 vs. 11.7 ± 2.0%, p < 0.001) was significantly reduced compared to non-LAAT patients. A close relationship between left atrial strain reservoir (LASr) and LAA-global strain was demonstrated (r = 0.81). By univariable analysis, CHA2DS2-VASc Risk Score (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.34-3.00), NT-proBNP (OR 1.36, 95%CI 1.19-1.54), ejection fraction (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.88-0.96), E/e' ratio (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.51-2.85), and LASr (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.25-0.62) were strongly associated with LAAT presence at TEE. By multivariable analysis, only LASr (OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.24-0.70) retained statistical significance. ROC curve analysis revealed that an LASr cut-off value ≤ 9.3% had 98.9% sensibility and 100% specificity to identify LAAT by TEE (AUC = 0.98). In patients with NVAF of ≥ 48 h or unknown duration, scheduled to undergo ECV, LA deformation assessment by TTE might substitute invasive measurement of LAA function by TEE, simplifying diagnostic approach and possibly contributing to reduce COVID-19 infection diffusion.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Electric Countershock/adverse effects , Female , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cardiol J ; 28(5): 758-766, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431057

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed the face of contemporary medicine. However, each and every medical practitioner must be aware of potential early and late complications of COVID-19, its impact on chronic diseases - especially ones as common as atrial fibrillation (AF) - and the possible interactions between patients' chronic medications and pharmacotherapy of COVID-19. Patients with AF due to comorbidities and, often, elderly age are assumed to be at a higher risk of a severe course of COVID-19. This expert consensus summarizes the current knowledge regarding the pharmacotherapy of AF patients in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. In general, anticoagulation principles in quarantined or asymptomatic individuals remain unchanged. Nevertheless, it is advisable to switch from vitamin K antagonists to non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) whenever possible due to their consistent benefits and safety with fixed dosing and no monitoring. Additionally, in AF patients hospitalized due to mild or moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, we recommend continuing NOAC treatment or to switching to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). On the other hand, in severely ill patients hospitalized in intensive care units, intravenous or subcutaneous dosing is preferable to oral, which is why the treatment of choice is either LMWH or unfractionated heparin. Finally, particularly in critical scenarios, the treatment strategy in COVID-19 patients with AF should be individualized based on possible interactions between anticoagulants, antiarrhythmics, antivirals, and antibiotics. In this consensus, we also discuss how to safely perform COVID-19 vaccination in anticoagulated AF patients.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Heparin , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin K
10.
Heart Rhythm ; 18(6): 855-861, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating data suggest blood biomarkers could inform stroke etiology. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of multiple blood biomarkers in elucidating stroke etiology with a focus on new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardioembolism. METHODS: Between January and December 2017, information on clinical and laboratory parameters and stroke characteristics was prospectively collected from ischemic stroke patients recruited from the National University Hospital, Singapore. Multiple blood biomarkers (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP], d-dimer, S100ß, neuron-specific enolase, vitamin D, cortisol, interleukin-6, insulin, uric acid, and albumin) were measured in plasma. These variables were compared with stroke etiology and the risk of new-onset AF and cardioembolism using multivariable regression methods. RESULTS: Of the 515 ischemic stroke patients (mean age 61 years; 71% men), 44 (8.5%) were diagnosed with new-onset AF, and 75 (14.5%) had cardioembolism. The combination of 2 laboratory parameters (total cholesterol ≤169 mg/dL; triglycerides ≤44.5 mg/dL) and 3 biomarkers (NT-proBNP ≥294 pg/mL; S100ß ≥64 pg/mL; cortisol ≥471 nmol/l) identified patients with new-onset AF (negative predictive value [NPV] 90%; positive predictive value [PPV] 73%; area under curve [AUC] 85%). The combination of 2 laboratory parameters (total cholesterol ≤169 mg/dL; triglycerides ≤44.5 mg/dL) and 2 biomarkers (NT-proBNP ≥507 pg/mL; S100ß ≥65 pg/mL) identified those with cardioembolism (NPV 86%; PPV 78%; AUC 87%). Adding clinical predictors did not improve the performance of these models. CONCLUSION: Blood biomarkers could identify patients with increased likelihood of cardioembolism and direct the search for occult AF.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Embolism/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/blood , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Embolism/blood , Embolism/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
11.
Biomark Med ; 15(13): 1167-1175, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379920

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate whether C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) has an association with new onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) in SARS-CoV-2. Materials & methods: This study included 782 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, who were hospitalized in Turkey. The end point of the study was an occurrence of NOAF. Results: NOAF was identified in 41 patients (5.2%). Subjects who developed NOAF had a higher CAR compared with those who did not develop NOAF (p < 0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis the CAR (odds ratio = 2.879; 95% CI: 1.063-7.793; p = 0.037) was an independent predictor of NOAF. Conclusion: A high level of CAR in blood samples is associated with an increased risk of developing NOAF in SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Albumins/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turkey
12.
Biomark Med ; 15(13): 1167-1175, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362210

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate whether C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) has an association with new onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) in SARS-CoV-2. Materials & methods: This study included 782 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, who were hospitalized in Turkey. The end point of the study was an occurrence of NOAF. Results: NOAF was identified in 41 patients (5.2%). Subjects who developed NOAF had a higher CAR compared with those who did not develop NOAF (p < 0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis the CAR (odds ratio = 2.879; 95% CI: 1.063-7.793; p = 0.037) was an independent predictor of NOAF. Conclusion: A high level of CAR in blood samples is associated with an increased risk of developing NOAF in SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Albumins/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turkey
13.
Kardiologiia ; 61(7): 55-59, 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359484

ABSTRACT

Aim    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management of warfarin therapy used for atrial fibrillation (AF) and prosthetic valve disease.Material and methods    The study included 139 Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and 173 prosthetic valve patients (PVP) who were using warfarin. The time in therapeutic range (TTR), International Normalized Ratio (INR) averages, the numbers of INR tests, and the non-adherence to INR monitoring (NIM) were compared for the pre-covid period (PCP) and the COVID-19 period (CP). Also, adherence to warfarin therapy was evaluated with a questionnaire.Results    For all patients, the INR values were higher in the CP (2.47 vs 2.60, p<0.001), and the NIM percentage was higher (19.2 % vs 71.5 %, p<0.001) in the CP. The number of INR tests was lower during the CP (p<0.001).The percentage of patients with TTR≥70 % was lower during the CP (41.7 % vs 33 % p=0.017). Subgroup analysis showed that for PVP, TTR values and the percentage of patients with TTR ≥70 % were similar in both the PCP and CP periods. The questionnaire showed that for 94.1 % of respondents, the major cause of NIM in the CP was the COVID-19 pandemic. However, during the CP, adherence to warfarin medication was high (95.5 %).Conclusion    Lower TTR during the COVID-19 pandemic can increase bleeding and thromboembolic cases.Therefore, patients taking warfarin should be followed more closely, and more practical ways should be considered for INR testing.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Warfarin/adverse effects
14.
Cardiol J ; 28(5): 758-766, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355147

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed the face of contemporary medicine. However, each and every medical practitioner must be aware of potential early and late complications of COVID-19, its impact on chronic diseases - especially ones as common as atrial fibrillation (AF) - and the possible interactions between patients' chronic medications and pharmacotherapy of COVID-19. Patients with AF due to comorbidities and, often, elderly age are assumed to be at a higher risk of a severe course of COVID-19. This expert consensus summarizes the current knowledge regarding the pharmacotherapy of AF patients in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. In general, anticoagulation principles in quarantined or asymptomatic individuals remain unchanged. Nevertheless, it is advisable to switch from vitamin K antagonists to non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) whenever possible due to their consistent benefits and safety with fixed dosing and no monitoring. Additionally, in AF patients hospitalized due to mild or moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, we recommend continuing NOAC treatment or to switching to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). On the other hand, in severely ill patients hospitalized in intensive care units, intravenous or subcutaneous dosing is preferable to oral, which is why the treatment of choice is either LMWH or unfractionated heparin. Finally, particularly in critical scenarios, the treatment strategy in COVID-19 patients with AF should be individualized based on possible interactions between anticoagulants, antiarrhythmics, antivirals, and antibiotics. In this consensus, we also discuss how to safely perform COVID-19 vaccination in anticoagulated AF patients.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Heparin , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin K
15.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211021495, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277870

ABSTRACT

The treatment process of patients using warfarin is expected to be hindered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore we investigated whether the time in therapeutic range (TTR) and bleeding complications were affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. 355 patients using warfarin were included between March 2019 to March 2021. Demographic parameters, INR (international normalized ratio), and bleeding rates were recorded retrospectively. The TTR value was calculated using Rosendaal's method. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 12 years and 55% of them were female. The mean TTR value during the COVID-19 pandemic was lower than the pre-COVID-19 period (56 ± 21 vs 68 ± 21, P < 0.001). Among the patients, 41% had a lack of outpatient INR control. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 71 (20%) patients using VKA suffered bleeding. Among patients with bleeding, approximately 60% did not seek medical help and 6% of patients performed self-reduction of the VKA dose. During the COVID-19 pandemic, TTR values have decreased with the lack of monitoring. Furthermore, the majority of patients did not seek medical help even in case of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Bleeding Time , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Warfarin/pharmacology , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/psychology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Self Medication , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Warfarin/adverse effects , Warfarin/therapeutic use
16.
J Neurol ; 269(1): 19-25, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The negative impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on stroke care has been reported, but no data exist on the influence of the lockdown on medication adherence to antithrombotic treatment for stroke prevention. We present a comparison of electronic adherence data of stroke patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) prior to and during the COVID-19 lockdown in spring 2020 in Switzerland. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis using data from the ongoing MAAESTRO study, in which stroke patients with atrial fibrillation electronically monitor their adherence to DOAC treatment. Eligible patients for this analysis had at least four weeks of adherence data prior to and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Three adherence metrics (taking adherence, timing adherence, drug holidays) were calculated and compared descriptively. RESULTS: The analysis included eight patients (median age 81.5 years, IQR 74.8-84.5). Five patients had a pre-lockdown taking adherence over 90% (mean 96.8% ± 2.9), with no change during lockdown, high timing adherence in both periods and no drug holidays. The remaining three patients had pre-lockdown taking and timing adherence below 90%. Of those, two patients showed a moderate decline either in taking or timing adherence compared to pre-lockdown. One showed a substantial increase in taking and timing adherence during lockdown (both + 25.8%). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that a major disruption of social life (i.e., the imposed COVID-19 lockdown) is unlikely to relevantly affect the medication intake behaviour of patients with high pre-established adherence, but might have an impact in patients with previously suboptimal adherence. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: MAAESTRO: electronic Monitoring and improvement of Adherence to direct oral Anticoagulant treatment-a randomized crossover study of an Educational and reminder-based intervention in ischaemic STROke patients under polypharmacy, NCT03344146.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Medication Adherence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy
17.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(1): 105-112, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219264

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent arrhythmia of older patients, associates with serious thromboembolic complications and high mortality. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely affects aged subjects, determining an important prothrombotic status. The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality-related factors in older AF patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Between March and June 2020, we enrolled ≥60 year-old in-hospital COVID-19 patients (n = 806) in GeroCovid, a multicenter observational study promoted by the Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine. RESULTS: The prevalence of AF was 21.8%. In-hospital mortality was higher in the AF group (36.9 vs. 27.5%, p = 0.015). At admission, 51.7, 10.2, and 38.1% of AF cases were taking, respectively, oral anticoagulants (OACs), antiplatelet agents, and no antithrombotic therapy. During hospitalization, 51% patients switched to low-molecular-weight heparins. AF patients who survived were younger (81 ± 8 vs. 84 ± 7 years; p = 0.002) and had a lower CHA2DS2-VASc score (3.9 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 1.3; p = 0.02) than those who died. OAC use before (63.1 vs. 32.3%; p < 0.001) and during hospitalization (34.0 vs. 12.7%; p = 0.002) was higher among survivors. At multivariable analysis, lower age, higher self-sufficiency, less severe initial COVID-19 presentation, and the use of vitamin K antagonists (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03-0.84) or direct OACs (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56) at admission, or the persistence of OAC during hospitalization (OR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01-0.24), were associated with a lower chance of in-hospital death. CONCLUSION: AF is a prevalent and severe condition in older COVID-19 patients. Advanced age, dependency, and relevant clinical manifestations of disease characterized a worse prognosis. Preadmission and in-hospital anticoagulant therapies were positively associated with survival.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Oral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153657

ABSTRACT

A 54-year-old woman presented with pruritic rash and hives of 3 days' duration followed by shortness of breath for 1 day. SARS-CoV-2 PCR test for COVID-19 was positive. Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 include acral lesions, urticarial rash, erythematous maculopapular rash, vascular rashes and vesicular rash. The cutaneous manifestations are mostly described as self-limiting. Urticarial rashes are not reported as the initial presentation symptom of COVID-19 infection but mostly noted to occur at the same time or after the onset of non-cutaneous symptoms. Management of cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 affecting quality of life has not been well studied. Antihistamine therapy is the primary recommended therapy. Role of antiviral therapy for severe cases of rash needs to be further assessed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/virology , Urticaria/virology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Exanthema/pathology , Exanthema/therapy , Female , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/pathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Treatment Outcome , Urticaria/pathology , Urticaria/therapy
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 150, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106496

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus 2019 epidemic declared in China on December 31, 2019 soon spread to the rest of the world, becoming the subject of an unprecedented health pandemic according to the World Health Organization's declaration of March 11, 2020. It is a disease that has the potential to cause multiple systemic infections. We report here the case of an acute polyradiculoneuritis of the Guillain-Barré type (GBS) indicative of a COVID-19 infection. This is a 41 year old patient seen for ascending, symmetrical and bilateral, progressive and acute tetraparesis with in a context of influenza syndrome and digestive infections treated 2 weeks earlier. During a COVID-19 infection, certain inflammatory cells stimulated by the virus produce inflammatory cytokines creating immune-mediated processes. The same mechanism is observed in GBS being also an immune-mediated disorder. The management of this disease in COVID-19 positive patients does not differ from that of patients who do not carry the virus. The risk of respiratory distress in COVID-19 positive patients becomes twice as great in patients with GBS who test positive for COVID-19 at the same time. Monitoring for hemodynamic disorders and respiratory distress in a neuro-intensive care unit may be fruitful.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Combined Modality Therapy , Contraindications, Drug , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Quadriplegia/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Incontinence/etiology
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066840

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented many difficult and unique challenges to the medical community. We describe a case of a middle-aged COVID-19-positive man who presented with pulmonary oedema and acute respiratory failure. He was initially diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Later in the hospital course, his pulmonary oedema and respiratory failure worsened as result of severe acute mitral valve regurgitation secondary to direct valvular damage from COVID-19 infection. The patient underwent emergent surgical mitral valve replacement. Pathological evaluation of the damaged valve was confirmed to be secondary to COVID-19 infection. The histopathological findings were consistent with prior cardiopulmonary autopsy sections of patients with COVID-19 described in the literature as well as proposed theories regarding ACE2 receptor activity. This case highlights the potential of SARS-CoV-2 causing direct mitral valve damage resulting in severe mitral valve insufficiency with subsequent pulmonary oedema and respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Acute Disease , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Chordae Tendineae/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology
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