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1.
Eur Heart J ; 43(26): 2442-2460, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008562

ABSTRACT

The management of patients with stroke is often multidisciplinary, involving various specialties and healthcare professionals. Given the common shared risk factors for stroke and cardiovascular disease, input may also be required from the cardiovascular teams, as well as patient caregivers and next-of-kin. Ultimately, the patient is central to all this, requiring a coordinated and uniform approach to the priorities of post-stroke management, which can be consistently implemented by different multidisciplinary healthcare professionals, as part of the patient 'journey' or 'patient pathway,' supported by appropriate education and tele-medicine approaches. All these aspects would ultimately aid delivery of care and improve patient (and caregiver) engagement and empowerment. Given the need to address the multidisciplinary approach to holistic or integrated care of patients with heart disease and stroke, the European Society of Cardiology Council on Stroke convened a Task Force, with the remit to propose a consensus on Integrated care management for optimizing the management of stroke and associated heart disease. The present position paper summarizes the available evidence and proposes consensus statements that may help to define evidence gaps and simple practical approaches to assist in everyday clinical practice. A post-stroke ABC pathway is proposed, as a more holistic approach to integrated stroke care, would include three pillars of management: A: Appropriate Antithrombotic therapy.B: Better functional and psychological status.C: Cardiovascular risk factors and Comorbidity optimization (including lifestyle changes).


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cardiology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Heart Diseases , Stroke , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Humans , Stroke/therapy
2.
Am Heart J ; 252: 16-25, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly morbid condition which requires long-term adherence to oral anticoagulation and may be associated with adverse quality of life and health care utilization. We developed a relational agent-an interactive smartphone-based intervention accessible regardless of digital or health literacy-to assist individuals residing in rural, Western Pennsylvania, with AF with chronic disease self-management. METHODS: The "Mobile health intervention for rural atrial fibrillation" is a single center, parallel-arm randomized clinical trial for adults with AF funded by the National Institute of Health's National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to enroll 264 participants. All participants receive a smartphone with data plan: The intervention is a 4 month relational agent coupled with the AliveCor Kardia for heart rate and rhythm monitoring provided by smartphone, and the control a pre-installed, smartphone-based application for health-related information (WebMD). The study uses remote recruitment and engagement to enroll individuals who would otherwise be unlikely to participate in clinical research due to rurality. The primary outcome of the trial is adherence to oral anticoagulation, determined by proportion of days covered, as measured at 12 months. The secondary outcomes are quality of life, both AF-specific and general, and health care utilization. The study entails a baseline visit, a 4 month intervention phase, and 8 and 12 month follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: This mobile health trial tests the effectiveness of a smartphone-based relational agent to improve clinical and patient-reported outcomes in rural-dwelling individuals.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Mobile Applications , Telemedicine , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Smartphone
4.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 8(4): 323-324, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901164
5.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 7325060, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886811

ABSTRACT

Background: Most evidence regarding anticoagulation and COVID-19 refers to the hospitalization setting, but the role of oral anticoagulation (OAC) before hospital admission has not been well explored. We compared clinical outcomes and short-term prognosis between patients with and without prior OAC therapy who were hospitalized for COVID-19. Methods: Analysis of the whole cohort of the HOPE COVID-19 Registry which included patients discharged (deceased or alive) after hospital admission for COVID-19 in 9 countries. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint. Study outcomes were compared after adjusting variables using propensity score matching (PSM) analyses. Results: 7698 patients were suitable for the present analysis (675 (8.8%) on OAC at admission: 427 (5.6%) on VKAs and 248 (3.2%) on DOACs). After PSM, 1276 patients were analyzed (638 with OAC; 638 without OAC), without significant differences regarding the risk of thromboembolic events (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.59-2.08). The risk of clinically relevant bleeding (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.92-4.83), as well as the risk of mortality (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47; log-rank p value = 0.041), was significantly increased in previous OAC users. Amongst patients on prior OAC only, there were no differences in the risk of clinically relevant bleeding, thromboembolic events, or mortality when comparing previous VKA or DOAC users, after PSM. Conclusion: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients on prior OAC therapy had a higher risk of mortality and worse clinical outcomes compared to patients without prior OAC therapy, even after adjusting for comorbidities using a PSM. There were no differences in clinical outcomes in patients previously taking VKAs or DOACs. This trial is registered with NCT04334291/EUPAS34399.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Prognosis , Registries , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
7.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(7): 1055-1057, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860577

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is affecting millions of people globally. Several neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been developed to limit the progression and complications of the disease. These treatments provide immediate and passive immunity. The combination therapy with Bamlanivimab plus Etesevimab led to a lower incidence of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death and a faster reduction in the SARS-CoV-2 viral load. No or rare cases of cardiovascular side effects are reported. We present the case of a high-risk 79-years-old woman who developed atrial fibrillation with aberrant ventricular conduction after administration of neutralizing monoclonal-antibodies Bamlanivimab plus Etesevimab. The woman with a history of insulin-dependent diabetes and Grade II follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma previously vaccinated with two doses of Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine, presented with malaise, headache, and SARS-CoV-2 nasal swab reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tested positive for the infection. She received a single dose of Bamlanivimab (70 mg) + Etesevimab (1400 mg). After about a week, she developed atrial fibrillation with uncontrolled response to frequent premature ventricular complexes and aberrant ventricular conduction. This case presents a high-risk woman with SARS-CoV-2 infection who developed a serious adverse cardiovascular event some days after receiving neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Risk factors including sex, age, anxiety related to isolation and infection, and COVID-19 itself may have all contributed to atrial fibrillation. Arrhythmia may rarely occur after monoclonal-antibodies treatment, although recommended timing to monitor patients is from 1 to 24 h after the administration of these antibodies. Appreciation of this potential association is important for evaluating monoclonal-antibody treatments' safety and optimizing patient monitoring and follow-up.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e048777, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854328

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High adherence to oral anticoagulants is essential for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We developed a smartphone application (app) that pushes alarms for taking medication and measuring blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) at certain times of the day. In addition to drug alarms, the habit of measuring one's BP and HR may reinforce drug adherence by improving self-awareness of the disease. This pilot study aims to test the feasibility and efficacy of the smartphone app-based intervention for improving drug adherence in patients with AF. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 10 university hospitals in Korea will participate in this randomised control trial. Patients with AF, being treated with edoxaban for stroke prevention will be included in this study. Total of 500 patients will be included and the patients will be randomised to the conventional treatment group (250 patients) and the app conditional feedback group (250 patients). Patients in the app conditional feedback group will use the medication reminder app for medication and BP check alarms. The automatic BP machine will be linked to the smartphone via Bluetooth. The measured BP and HR will be updated automatically on the smartphone app. The primary endpoint is edoxaban adherence by pill count measurement at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Secondary endpoints are clinical composite endpoints including stroke, systemic embolic event, major bleeding requiring hospitalisation or transfusion, or death during the 6 months. As of 24t November 2021, 80 patients were enrolled. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital Institutional Review Board and will be conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study results will be published in a reputable journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: KCT0004754.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Mobile Applications , Stroke , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Humans , Pilot Projects , Pyridines , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Smartphone , Stroke/prevention & control , Thiazoles
9.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(7): 1081-1092, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were developed as an alternative to warfarin to treat and prevent thromboembolism, including stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients. The COVID-19 pandemic could increase the risk of stroke and/or the risk of bleeding in patients due to nonadherence or sub/supra-optimal dosing. OBJECTIVE: To investigate DOAC prescription trends in England's community settings during the complete first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Descriptive and interrupted time series (ITS) analyses were conducted to examine the prescription patterns of DOACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) and warfarin for primary care patients in the English Prescribing Dataset from January 2019 to February 2021, with March 2020 as the cut-off point. RESULTS: A 19% increase in mean DOAC's accompanied with 20% warfarin prescriptions decline was observed. ITS modelling showed an increase in DOAC prescription volume in March 2020 (+7 million items, p = 0.008). The pre-existing upward trend in DOAC prescriptions slowed during the period (-427,000 items, p = 0.007). Apixaban was the most frequently used DOAC and had the largest step-change in March 2020 (+5 million items, p = 0.010). The mean monthly combined cost of DOACs and warfarin was higher during the period. DOAC prescription trends were consistent across England's regions. Conclusion: The overall oral anticoagulants use in this period was lower than expected, indicating a medical needs gap, possibly due to adherence issues. The potential clinical and logistical consequences warrant further study to identify contributing factors and mitigate avoidable risks.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Dabigatran/adverse effects , England/epidemiology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Prescriptions , Pyridones/adverse effects , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Vitamin K , Warfarin/adverse effects
10.
Br J Gen Pract ; 72(720): e456-e463, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early evidence has shown that anticoagulant reduces the risk of thrombotic events in those infected with COVID-19. However, evidence of the role of routinely prescribed oral anticoagulants (OACs) in COVID-19 outcomes is limited. AIM: To investigate the association between OACs and COVID-19 outcomes in those with atrial fibrillation and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2. DESIGN AND SETTING: On behalf of NHS England, a population-based cohort study was conducted. METHOD: The study used primary care data and pseudonymously-linked SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing data, hospital admissions, and death records from England. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for COVID-19 outcomes comparing people with current OAC use versus non-use, accounting for age, sex, comorbidities, other medications, deprivation, and general practice. RESULTS: Of 71 103 people with atrial fibrillation and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2, there were 52 832 current OAC users and 18 271 non-users. No difference in risk of being tested for SARS-CoV-2 was associated with current use (adjusted HR [aHR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95 to 1.04) versus non-use. A lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (aHR 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.95) and a marginally lower risk of COVID-19-related death (aHR, 0.74, 95% CI = 0.53 to 1.04) were associated with current use versus non-use. CONCLUSION: Among those at low baseline stroke risk, people receiving OACs had a lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and severe COVID-19 outcomes than non-users; this might be explained by a causal effect of OACs in preventing severe COVID-19 outcomes or unmeasured confounding, including more cautious behaviours leading to reduced infection risk.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/prevention & control
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809850

ABSTRACT

The current physician-centric model of care is not sustainable for the rising tide of atrial fibrillation. The integrated model of care has been recommended for managing atrial fibrillation. This study aims to provide a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of a Nurse-led Integrated Chronic care E-enhanced Atrial Fibrillation (NICE-AF) clinic in the community. The NICE-AF clinic was led by an advanced practice nurse (APN) who collaborated with a family physician. The clinic embodied integrated care and shifted from hospital-based, physician-centric care. Regular patient education, supplemented by a specially curated webpage, fast-tracked appointments for hospital-based specialised investigations, and teleconsultation with a hospital-based cardiologist were the highlights of the clinic. Forty-three participants were included in the six-month preliminary evaluation. No significant differences were observed in cardiovascular hospitalisations (p-value = 0.102) and stroke incidence (p-value = 1.00) after attending the NICE-AF clinic. However, significant improvements were noted for AF-specific QoL (p = 0.001), AF knowledge (p < 0.001), medication adherence (p = 0.008), patient satisfaction (p = 0.020), and depression (p = 0004). The preliminary evaluation of the NICE-AF clinic demonstrated the clinical utility of this new model of integrated care in providing safe and effective community-based AF care. Although a full evaluation is pending, the preliminary results highlighted its promising potential to be expanded into a permanent, larger-scale service.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Stroke , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Humans , Nurse's Role , Quality of Life , Stroke/epidemiology
12.
Am Heart J ; 249: 76-85, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) is attractive because AF independently raises the risk of ischemic stroke, this risk is largely reversible by long-term oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC), and many patients with AF remain undiagnosed and untreated. Recent trials of one-time brief screening for AF have not produced a significant increase in the proportion of patients diagnosed with AF. Trials of longer-term screening have demonstrated an increase in AF diagnoses, primarily paroxysmal AF. To date, however, no trials have demonstrated that screening for AF results in lower rates of stroke. Clinical practice guidelines conflict in their level of support for screening for AF. METHODS: The GUARD-AF individually randomized trial is designed to test whether screening for AF in individuals age 70 years or greater using a 2-week single-lead electrocardiographic patch monitor can identify patients with undiagnosed AF and lead to treatment with OAC, resulting in a reduced rate of stroke in the screened population. The trial's efficacy end point is hospitalization for stroke (either ischemic or hemorrhagic) and the trial's safety end point is hospitalization for a bleeding event. End points will be ascertained via Medicare claims or electronic health records at 2.5 years after study start. Enrollment is based in primary care practices and the OAC decision for screen-detected cases is left to the patient and their physician. The initial planned target sample size was 52,000, with 26,000 allocated to either screening or to usual care. RESULTS: Trial enrollment was severely hampered by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and stopped at a total enrollment of 11,931 participants. Of 5,965 randomized to the screening arm, 5,713 patients (96%) returned monitors with analyzable results. Incidence of screen-detected and clinically detected AF and associated stroke and bleeding outcomes will be ascertained. CONCLUSIONS: GUARD-AF is the largest AF screening randomized trial using a longer-term patch-based continuous electrocardiographic monitor. The results will contribute important information on the yield of patch-based AF screening, the "burden" of AF detected (percent time in AF, longest episode), and physicians' OAC decisions as a function of AF burden. GUARD-AF's stroke and bleed results will contribute to pooled trial analyses of AF screening, thereby informing future studies and guidelines.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Electrocardiography , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Medicare , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , United States
15.
Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem ; 20(2): 114-124, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760080

ABSTRACT

Direct (New-generation) Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as effective agents which are used in place of vitamin-K antagonists in treatment and prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE), atrial fibrillation and other thrombotic diseases. Among them, the FIIa- direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and FXa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) are the most broadly used. Anticoagulant dosing may differ under special considerations. The patients' physiological reserves, organ functional status and failures should be taken into account in clinical decision-making processes. The advantages and drawbacks of each specific agent should be weighed with special regard to metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, along with the efficiency of the agents in different indications. This article aims to review the most recent literature to highlight the usage and efficacy of the agents in different clinical conditions.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Venous Thromboembolism , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Dabigatran , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
17.
Heart ; 108(12): 923-931, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antithrombotic (AT) use in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) and at high risk of stroke (CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2) and investigate whether pre-existing AT use may improve COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: Individuals with AF and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 on 1 January 2020 were identified using electronic health records for 56 million people in England and were followed up until 1 May 2021. Factors associated with pre-existing AT use were analysed using logistic regression. Differences in COVID-19-related hospitalisation and death were analysed using logistic and Cox regression in individuals with pre-existing AT use versus no AT use, anticoagulants (AC) versus antiplatelets (AP), and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) versus warfarin. RESULTS: From 972 971 individuals with AF (age 79 (±9.3), female 46.2%) and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, 88.0% (n=856 336) had pre-existing AT use, 3.8% (n=37 418) had a COVID-19 hospitalisation and 2.2% (n=21 116) died, followed up to 1 May 2021. Factors associated with no AT use included comorbidities that may contraindicate AT use (liver disease and history of falls) and demographics (socioeconomic status and ethnicity). Pre-existing AT use was associated with lower odds of death (OR=0.92, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.96), but higher odds of hospitalisation (OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.26). AC versus AP was associated with lower odds of death (OR=0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98) and higher hospitalisation (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.24). For DOACs versus warfarin, lower odds were observed for hospitalisation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.89) but not for death (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing AT use may be associated with lower odds of COVID-19 death and, while not evidence of causality, provides further incentive to improve AT coverage for eligible individuals with AF.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology , Warfarin
18.
J Cardiol ; 79(4): 489-493, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with systematic coagulopathy which might result in fatality. We aimed to investigate whether systematic anticoagulation before admission with COVID infection was associated with patients' survival. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 6,095 hospitalized patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 from the Mount Sinai Health System. Patients were stratified into two groups: patients with therapeutic anticoagulation before admission (7.9%, N=480), or those without (92.1%, N=5,615). Propensity score matched analysis was conducted to assess the association of anticoagulation before admission and in-hospital mortality (N=296 in each group). Multiple imputation for missing data was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 480 patients (7.9%) received anticoagulation before admission. Patients with anticoagulation before admission were older (72.1±14.7 years vs. 63.1±17.2 years), and had more comorbidities including chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure (all p< 0.05). Notably, patients with anticoagulation before admission had lower D-dimer [1.48 (IQR 0.75, 2.79) µg/mL vs 1.66 (0.89, 3.52) µg/mL, p=0.002]. In a propensity score matched analysis (N=296 in each group), in-hospital mortality was not significantly different in patients with anticoagulation before admission compared to those without (28.4% vs 31.1%, p=0.53). In addition, inverse probability weighted analysis and multiple imputation for missing data did not change the result. Furthermore, these differences were not significant after excluding endotracheal intubation from both groups. CONCLUSION: Anticoagulation before admission was not associated with lower risk of in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients. Further investigation is needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 254, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of developing a stroke by 20%. AF related strokes are associated with greater morbidity. Historically, warfarin was the anticoagulant of choice for stroke prevention in patients with AF but lately patients are being switched or started on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). DOACs are promoted as safer alternatives to warfarin and it is expected that they will be associated with fewer challenges both for patients and healthcare professionals. This systematic narrative review aimed to explore perspectives of patients and professionals on medicines optimisation of oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists and DOACs in atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Prospero registration CRD42018091591. Systematic searches undertaken of research studies (qualitative and quantitative), published February 2018 to November 2020 from several databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Medline Via Ovid, CINHAL via Ebsco, and PubMED via NCBI) following PRISMA methodology. Data were organised using Covidence software. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies and synthesized the findings (thematic analysis approach). RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Studies were critically appraised using established critical appraisal tools (Qualsyst) and a risk of bias was assigned. Clinicians considered old age and the associated complexities such as co-morbidities and the increased potential for bleeding as potential barriers to optimising anticoagulation. Whereas patients' health and medication beliefs influenced adherence. Notably, structured patient support was important in enhancing safety and effective anticoagulation. For both patients and clinicians, confidence and experience of safe anticoagulation was influenced by the presence of co-morbidities,  poor knowledge and understanding of AF and the purpose of anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Age, complex multimorbidity and polypharmacy influence prescribing, with DOACs being perceived to be safer than warfarin. This systematic narrative review suggests that interventions are needed to support patient self-management. There are residual anxieties associated with long term anticoagulation in the context of complexities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Humans , Stroke/prevention & control , Warfarin/therapeutic use
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(24): e023235, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574529

ABSTRACT

Background Adherence to oral anticoagulation (OAC) is critical for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. However, the COVID-19 pandemic may have disrupted access to such therapy. We hypothesized that our analysis of a US nationally representative pharmacy claims database would identify increased incidence of lapses in OAC refills during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods and Results We identified individuals with atrial fibrillation prescribed OAC in 2018. We used pharmacy dispensing records to determine the incidence of 7-day OAC gaps and 15-day excess supply for each 30-day interval from January 1, 2019 to July 8, 2020. We constructed interrupted time series analyses to test changes in gaps and supply around the pandemic declaration by the World Health Organization (March 11, 2020), and whether such changes differed by medication (warfarin or direct OAC), prescription payment type, or prescriber specialty. We identified 1 301 074 individuals (47.5% women; 54% age ≥75 years). Immediately following the COVID-19 pandemic declaration, we observed a 14% decrease in 7-day OAC gaps and 56% increase in 15-day excess supply (both P<0.001). The increase in 15-day excess supply was more marked for direct OAC (69% increase) than warfarin users (35%; P<0.001); Medicare beneficiaries (62%) than those with commercial insurance (43%; P<0.001); and those prescribed OAC by a cardiologist (64%) rather than a primary care provider (48%; P<0.001). Conclusions Our analysis of nationwide claims data demonstrated increased OAC possession after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings may have been driven by waivers of early refill limits and patients' tendency to stockpile medications in the first weeks of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Medicare , Pandemics , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Warfarin/therapeutic use
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