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Yale J Biol Med ; 96(1): 137-149, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279527


Natriuretic peptides (NPs) encompass a family of structurally related hormone/paracrine factors acting through the natriuretic peptide system regulating cell proliferation, vessel tone, inflammatory processes, neurohumoral pathways, fluids, and electrolyte balance. The three most studied peptides are atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-Type natriuretic peptide (CNP). ANP and BNP are the most relevant NPs as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure and underlying cardiovascular diseases, such as cardiac valvular dysfunction, hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, persistent arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathies. Cardiac dysfunctions related to cardiomyocytes stretching in the atria and ventricles are primary elicitors of ANP and BNP release, respectively. ANP and BNP would serve as biomarkers for differentiating cardiac versus noncardiac causes of dyspnea and as a tool for measuring the prognosis of patients with heart failure; nevertheless, BNP has been shown with the highest predictive value, particularly related to pulmonary disorders. Plasma BNP has been reported to help differentiate cardiac from pulmonary etiologies of dyspnea in adults and neonates. Studies have shown that COVID-19 infection also increases serum levels of N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and BNP. This narrative review assesses aspects of ANP and BNP on their physiology, and predictive values as biomarkers. We present an overview of the NPs' synthesis, structure, storage, and release, as well as receptors and physiological roles. Following, considerations focus on ANP versus BNP, comparing their relevance in settings and diseases associated with respiratory dysfunctions. Finally, we compiled data from guidelines for using BNP as a biomarker in dyspneic patients with cardiac dysfunction, including its considerations in COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Natriuretic Peptides , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/metabolism , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/complications , Biomarkers
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 23(5): 321-334, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910825


Natriuretic peptide system (NPS) is a group of peptide hormones or paracrine factors, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and natriuretic peptide precursor C (NPC), that are structurally related. The physiological effects of NPS include natriuresis, increased glomerular filtration rate, inhibition release of renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone, sympathetic inhibition, vasodilatations, and prevents cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. ANP has immunological effects, as it is produced locally from immune cells; it regulates innate and adaptive immune responses. Metabolism and degradation of ANP are achieved by neutral endopeptidase (NEP), also known as neprilysin. Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic may lead to acute lung injury (ALI) and/or respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The underlying causes of inflammatory and immunological disorders in patients with severe Covid-19 are connected to the immune over-stimulation with the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Covid-19 severity is linked with high ANP serum levels regardless of acute cardiac injury. Inflammatory stimuli appear to be linked with the release of NPs, which anti-inflammatory effects prevent the development of ALI/ARDS in Covid-19. Therefore, neprilysin inhibitors like sacubitril increase endogenous NPs and may reduce the risk of ALI in Covid-19 due to the potentiation of endogenous anti-inflammatory effects of NPs. However, sacubitril increases gastrin-releasing peptide, cathepsin G and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are inactivated by neprilysin. In conclusion, NPs and neprilysin have cardio-pulmonary protective effects against Covid-19-induced ALI/ARDS. Neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril has dual protective and harmful effects regarding metabolizing vasoactive peptides by neprilysin. These findings require potential reevaluation of the effect of neprilysin inhibitors in managing Covid-19.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Heart Failure , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aldosterone , Aminobutyrates , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds , Cathepsin G , Cytokines , Gastrin-Releasing Peptide/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/therapeutic use , Natriuretic Peptides , Neprilysin/metabolism , Neprilysin/therapeutic use , Renin/therapeutic use , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use
Int Heart J ; 62(1): 148-152, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054895


Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is erupting and spreading globally. Cardiovascular complications secondary to the infection have caught notice. This study aims to delineate the relationship of cardiac biomarkers and outcomes in severe cases of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). One hundred forty-eight critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. From these patients, the demographic data, symptoms, cardiac biomarkers, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Four patients in the non-survivor group were selected, and their cardiac biomarkers were collected and analyzed. Among the 148 patients, the incidence of cardiovascular complications was 19 (12.8%). Five of them were survivors (5.2%), and 14 of them were non-survivors (26.9%). Compared with the survivors, the non-survivors had higher levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB, myoglobin, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (P < 0.05). The occurrence of cardiovascular events began at 11-15 days after the onset of the disease and reached a peak at 14-20 days. COVID-19 not only is a respiratory disease but also causes damage to the cardiovascular system. Cardiac biomarkers have the potential for early warning and prognostic evaluation in patients with COVID-19. It is recommended that cardiac biomarker monitoring in patients with COVID-19 should be initiated at least from the 11th day of the disease course.

Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/metabolism , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/nursing , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Protein Precursors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Survival Rate , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Troponin I/metabolism