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1.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 101(6): 657-692, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831950

ABSTRACT

In recent years, LASER has been introduced as a minimally invasive treatment for a broad range of vaginal and vulvar symptoms and diseases. However, the efficacy and safety of vaginal and vulvar LASER has continuously been questioned. The aim of this study is to create an overview of the current literature and discuss the controversies within the use of LASER for genitourinary syndrome of menopause, vulvovaginal atrophy, urinary incontinence and lichen sclerosus. A search string was built in PubMed. The search was commenced on August 25, 2021 and closed on October 27, 2021. Two authors screened the studies in Covidence for inclusion according to the eligibility criteria in the protocol. The data were extracted from the studies and are reported in both text and tables. This review included 114 papers, of which 15 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The effect of LASER as a vaginal treatment was investigated for genitourinary syndrome of menopause in 36 studies (six RCTs), vulvovaginal atrophy in 34 studies (four RCTs) and urinary incontinence in 30 studies (two RCTs). Ten studies (three RCTs) investigated the effect of vulvar treatment for lichen sclerosus. Half of the included RCTs, irrespective of indication, did not find a significant difference in improvement in women treated with vaginal CO2 or Er:YAG LASER compared with their respective controls. However, most non-comparative studies reported significant improvement after exposure to vaginal or vulvar LASER across all indications. Included studies generally had a short follow-up period and only a single RCT followed their participants for more than 6 months post treatment. Adverse events were reported as mild and transient and 99 studies including 51 094 patients provided information of no serious adverse events. In conclusion, this review found that the effect of vaginal and vulvar LASER decreases with higher study quality where potential biases have been eliminated. We therefore stress that all patients who are treated with vaginal or vulvar LASER should be carefully monitored and that LASER for those indications as a treatment should be kept on a research level until further high-quality evidence is available.


Subject(s)
Laser Therapy , Lasers, Solid-State , Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus , Urinary Incontinence , Atrophy , Female , Humans , Laser Therapy/methods , Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus/pathology , Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus/surgery , Menopause , Syndrome , Urinary Incontinence/surgery , Vagina/surgery
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731785

ABSTRACT

Confirmed SARS-coronavirus-2 infection with gastrointestinal symptoms and changes in microbiota associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity have been previously reported, but the disease impact on the architecture and cellularity of ileal Peyer's patches (PP) remains unknown. Here we analysed post-mortem tissues from throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of patients who died with COVID-19. When virus was detected by PCR in the GI tract, immunohistochemistry identified virus in epithelium and lamina propria macrophages, but not in lymphoid tissues. Immunohistochemistry and imaging mass cytometry (IMC) analysis of ileal PP revealed depletion of germinal centres (GC), disruption of B cell/T cell zonation and decreased potential B and T cell interaction and lower nuclear density in COVID-19 patients. This occurred independent of the local viral levels. The changes in PP demonstrate that the ability to mount an intestinal immune response is compromised in severe COVID-19, which could contribute to observed dysbiosis.


Subject(s)
Atrophy/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Peyer's Patches/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Humans , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
3.
Nutr Health ; 28(2): 199-206, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714561

ABSTRACT

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has put millions of people, especially children at risk of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) by pushing them into poverty and disrupting the global food supply chain. The thymus is severely affected by nutritional deficiencies and is known as a barometer of malnutrition. Aim: The present commentary provides a novel perspective on the role of malnutrition-induced thymic dysfunction, involution and atrophy on the risk and severity of disease in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A review of pertinent indexed literature including studies examining the effects of malnutrition on the thymus and immune dysfunction in COVID-19. Results: Protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies of zinc, iron and vitamin A are known to promote thymic dysfunction and thymocyte loss in children. Malnutrition- and infection-induced thymic atrophy and immune dysfunction may increase the risk of first, progression of COVID-19 disease to more severe forms including development of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); second, slow the recovery from COVID-19 disease; and third, increase the risk of other infections. Furthermore, malnourished children may be at increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection due to socioeconomic conditions that promote viral transmission amongst contacts and create barriers to vaccination. Conclusion: National governments and international organizations including WHO, World Food Program, and UNICEF should institute measures to ensure provision of food and micronutrients for children at risk in order to limit the health impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Protein-Energy Malnutrition , Atrophy/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cachexia/complications , Cachexia/etiology , Child , Humans , Inflammation , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Micronutrients , Pandemics , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/complications , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 34(3): 153-162, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) influenced cognitive function in the elderly. However, the effect of COVID-19-related fear on brain atrophy has not been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the relation between brain atrophy and the effect of COVID-19-related fear by analysing changes in brain volume over time using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Participants were 25 Japanese patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or subjective cognitive decline (SCD), who underwent 1.5-tesla MRI scan twice, once before and once after the pandemic outbreak of COVID-19, and the Fear of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Scale (FCV-19S) assessment during that period. We computed regional brain atrophy per day between the 1st and 2nd scan, and evaluated the relation between the FCV-19S scores and regional shrinkage. RESULTS: There was significant positive correlation between the total FCV-19S score and volume reduction per day in the right posterior cingulate cortex. Regarding the subscales of FCV-19S, we found significant positive correlation between factor 2 of the FCV-19S and shrinkage of the right posterior cingulate cortex. CONCLUSIONS: There was positive correlation between the FCV-19S score and regional brain atrophy per day. Although it is already known that the psychological effects surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic cause cognitive function decline, our results further suggest that anxiety and fear related to COVID-19 cause regional brain atrophy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Atrophy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Fear/psychology , Humans , Pandemics
5.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 398, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546777

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study knowledge regarding genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and the treatments for it and to analyze treatment adherence during the COVID-19 confinement. METHODS: Multi-center observational study including women between 35 and 75 years. An extension study of treatment adherence was conducted during the coronavirus pandemic between March and April 2020. RESULTS: A sample of 2355 women were included. Vaginal dryness was the most frequently identified symptom (74.3%). Lubricants were the best-known treatments (69.6%), followed by local estrogens (25.7%); 66% of the women did not speak to their gynecologist about sexuality. Comparative analyses were conducted according to age, menopausal status, type of menopause, place of residence, type of health care received and level of education. During the coronavirus confinement period, adherence to treatments for vulvovaginal atrophy was poor in 72.5% asked (n = 204). Reduced sexual activity (p > 0.001) and coronavirus diagnosis (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with poorer treatment compliance. CONCLUSIONS: There is great lack of knowledge of the treatments used for GSM. Most women do not talk to their gynecologist about sexuality. Adherence to treatments during the coronavirus confinement has been worryingly low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Atrophy , Female , Humans , Menopause , SARS-CoV-2 , Vagina/pathology
6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 210, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The thymic microenvironment is mainly comprised of thymic epithelial cells, the cytokines, exosomes, surface molecules, and hormones from the cells, and plays a vital role in the development, differentiation, maturation and homeostasis of T lymphocytes. However, the thymus begins to degenerate as early as the second year of life and continues through aging in human beings, leading to a decreased output of naïve T cells, the limited TCR diversity and an expansion of monoclonal memory T cells in the periphery organs. These alternations will reduce the adaptive immune response to tumors and emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, also it is easier to suffer from autoimmune diseases in older people. In the context of global aging, it is important to investigate and clarify the causes and mechanisms of thymus involution. MAIN BODY: Epigenetics include histone modification, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA effects, and chromatin remodeling. In this review, we discuss how senescent thymic epithelial cells determine and control age-related thymic atrophy, how this process is altered by epigenetic modification. How the thymus adipose influences the dysfunctions of the thymic epithelial cells, and the prospects of targeting thymic epithelial cells for the treatment of thymus atrophy. CONCLUSION: Epigenetic modifications are emerging as key regulators in governing the development and senescence of thymic epithelial cells. It is beneficial to re-establish effective thymopoiesis, identify the potential therapeutic strategy and rejuvenate the immune function in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , Epigenesis, Genetic/physiology , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Thymus Gland/pathology , Atrophy , Humans
7.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 42(3): 301-303, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291550

ABSTRACT

Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) resulting from estrogen deprivation at menopause often results in distressing vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. Fewer than 25% of affected women seek help for this condition citing embarrassment, cultural values, an aging or unavailable partner and concerns about use of estrogens following the Women's Health Initiative. Available non-hormonal treatments, such as moisturizers, while affording some relief can be messy to apply and do not prevent disease progression. A new oral selective estrogen receptor modulator, ospemifene, has been found to have strong estrogenic activity in vaginal tissues without adverse estrogenic effects at other sites.


Subject(s)
Atrophy/drug therapy , Menopause , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/analogs & derivatives , Vagina/drug effects , Vulva/drug effects , Aged , Atrophy/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dyspareunia/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Menopause/physiology , Middle Aged , Postmenopause , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Tamoxifen/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Vagina/pathology , Vulva/pathology
9.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 391-398, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics, underlying comorbidities, and outcomes of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reported 62 pediatric patients (age <14 years) with confirmed COVID-19 between March 2 and July 1, 2020, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Comorbid conditions, including cardiac, neurological, respiratory, and malignant disorders, were reported in 9 patients (14.5%). The most prominent presenting complaints were fever (80.6%) and cough (48.4%). Most of our patients (80.6%) had mild disease, 11.3% had moderate disease, and 8.1% exhibited severe and critical illness. Twenty-one patients (33.9%) were hospitalized, with 4 patients (6.5%) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 3 (4.8%) patients died. CONCLUSION: All pediatric age groups are susceptible to COVID-19, with no gender difference. COVID-19 infection may result in critical illness and even mortality in subsets of pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Atrophy , Brain/pathology , Bronchiolitis Obliterans/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydrocephalus/epidemiology , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Rhinorrhea/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/physiopathology
10.
Reprod Sci ; 28(10): 2735-2742, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014275

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which resulted from the pandemic outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causes a massive inflammatory cytokine storm leading to multi-organ damage including that of the brain and testes. While the lungs, heart, and brain are identified as the main targets of SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathogenesis, reports on its testicular infections have been a subject of debate. The brain and testes are physiologically synchronized by the action of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones. Though the evidence for the presence of the viral particles in the testicular biopsies and semen samples from COVID-19 patients are highly limited, the occurrence of testicular pathology due to abrupt inflammatory responses and hyperthermia has incresingly been evident. The reduced level of testosterone production in COVID-19 is associated with altered secretion of gonadotropins. Moreover, hypothalamic pathology which results from SARS-CoV-2 infection of the brain is also evident in COVID-19 cases. This article revisits and supports the key reports on testicular abnormalities and pathological signatures in the hypothalamus of COVID-19 patients and emphasizes that testicular pathology resulting from inflammation and oxidative stress might lead to infertility in a significant portion of COVID-19 survivors. Further investigations are required to monitor the reproductive health parameters and HPG axis abnormalities related to secondary pathological complications in COVID-19 patients and survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fertility , Hypothalamus/pathology , Infertility, Male/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Testis/pathology , Animals , Atrophy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Gonadotropins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/pathology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/virology , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Hypothalamus/physiopathology , Hypothalamus/virology , Incidence , Infertility, Male/pathology , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/virology , Male , Testis/metabolism , Testis/physiopathology , Testis/virology , Testosterone/metabolism
13.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(2): 279-284, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Various patterns of leukoencephalopathy have been described in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this article, we aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of acute disseminated leukoencephalopathy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and the imaging evolution during a short-term follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified and reviewed the clinical data, laboratory results, imaging findings, and outcomes for 8 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with acute disseminated leukoencephalopathy. RESULTS: All patients demonstrated multiple areas of white matter changes in both cerebral hemispheres; 87.5% (7/8) of patients had a posterior predilection. Four patients (50%) had short-term follow-up imaging within a median of 17 days after the first MR imaging; they developed brain atrophy, and their white matter lesions evolved into necrotizing cystic cavitations. All (8/8) patients had inflammatory cytokine release syndrome as demonstrated by elevated interleukin-6, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and ferritin levels. Most (7/8; 87.5%) patients were on prolonged ventilator support (median, 44.5 days; interquartile range, 20.5 days). These patients had poor functional outcomes (6/8 [75%] patients were discharged with mRS 5) and high mortality (2/8, 25%). CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 can develop acute disseminated leukoencephalopathy that evolves into cystic degeneration of white matter lesions with brain atrophy during a short period, which we dubbed virus-associated necrotizing disseminated acute leukoencephalopathy. This may be the result of COVID-19-related endothelial injury, cytokine storm, or thrombotic microangiopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Atrophy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Leukoencephalopathies/mortality , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Treatment Outcome , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
14.
Neuroradiology ; 63(1): 147-148, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757901

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic evolves, our knowledge of the respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms continues to grow. One such symptom, anosmia, may be a neurologic marker of coronavirus infection and the initial presentation of infected patients. Because this symptom is not routinely investigated by imaging, there is conflicting literature on neuroimaging abnormalities related to COVID-19-related anosmia. We present a novel case of COVID-19 anosmia with definitive olfactory bulb atrophy compared with pre-COVID imaging. The patient had prior MR imaging related to a history of prolactinoma that provided baseline volumes of her olfactory bulbs. After a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 and approximately 2 months duration of anosmia, an MRI was performed that showed clear interval olfactory bulb atrophy. This diagnostic finding is of prognostic importance and indicates that the olfactory entry point to the brain should be further investigated to improve our understanding of COVID infectious pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Atrophy/diagnostic imaging , Atrophy/etiology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Olfactory Bulb/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
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