Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 57
Filter
1.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 61(5): 647-661, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether micronutrients (vitamins/minerals) benefit attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and irritability in a North American pediatric sample. METHOD: A 3-site, 8-week, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of micronutrients was conducted in nonmedicated children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD and at least 1 impairing irritability symptom by parent report on the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5). A priori-defined primary outcomes were Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) (CGI-I of 1 or 2 = treatment responder) and parent-rated CASI-5 composite score of ADHD, oppositional defiant, disruptive mood dysregulation, and peer conflict symptoms, including impairment scores. RESULTS: Of 135 randomized (mean age 9.8 years), 126 youths (93%) comprised the modified intention-to-treat population. Blinding was maintained. For the CGI-I, 54% of the micronutrient and 18% of the placebo group were responders (risk ratio = 2.97, 97.5% CI = 1.50, 5.90, p < .001). CASI-5 composite scores improved significantly for both groups (p < .01), with a mean change of -0.31 (95% CI = -0.39, -0.23) in the micronutrient group and a mean change of -0.28 (95% CI = -0.38, -0.19) in the placebo group. However, the between-group difference was not significant (mean change = -0.02; 97.5% CI = -0.16, 0.12, effect size = 0.07, p = .70). The micronutrient group grew 6 mm more than the placebo group (p = .002). No serious adverse events or clinically significant changes from baseline in blood and urine tests occurred. CONCLUSION: Micronutrients showed global benefit over placebo by blinded clinician rating, but not by parent-report CASI-5 composite rating in a population with ADHD and irritability. Micronutrients showed greater height growth. Micronutrients were well tolerated, and the majority of participants adhered to the number of capsules prescribed. This randomized controlled trial replicates safety and efficacy reported for ADHD in 2 smaller trials of a similar formula containing all vitamins and known essential minerals in amounts between the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Upper Tolerable Intake Level. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Micronutrients for ADHD in Youth (MADDY) Study; https://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT03252522.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Adolescent , Affect , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/chemically induced , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Micronutrients/adverse effects , Minerals/pharmacology , Minerals/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22008, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758319

ABSTRACT

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most diagnosed emerging neurodevelopmental disorder in children, is a growing health crisis in the United States. Due to the potential increase in ADHD severity during and post the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed recent national and two state-specific ADHD data distribution among U.S. children and adolescents by investigating a broad range of socioeconomic status (SES) factors. Child and adolescent ADHD diagnosis and treatment data were parent-reported via National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). The nationwide childhood prevalence of ADHD is 8.7%, and 62.1% of diagnosed children are taking medication. Louisiana (15.7%) has the highest percentage of children diagnosed with ADHD and California (5.6%) has the lowest, followed by Nevada (5.9%). Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA, n = 51,939) examining 30 factors highlights four areas of interest at the national and state level: race/ethnicity, financial status, family structure, and neighborhood characteristics. Positive correlations between ADHD diagnosis and unsafe school, unsafe neighborhood, and economic hardship are evident nationally and statewide, while the association between a lack of ADHD diagnosis and higher urban neighborhood amenities are evident nationally, but not in two opposing outlier states-Louisiana or Nevada. National and state-specific hierarchical analyses demonstrate significant correlations between the various SES factors and ADHD outcomes. Since the national analysis does not account for the demographic heterogeneity within regions or individual states, the U.S. should rely on comprehensive, county-specific, near real-time data reporting to effectively model and mitigate the ADHD epidemic and similar national health crises.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , United States
3.
Sch Psychol ; 37(2): 147-159, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735201

ABSTRACT

Among the many impacts of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, one of the most dramatic was the immediate closure of in-person schooling in March/April 2020 when parents were faced with much greater responsibility in supporting their children's learning. Despite this, few studies have examined parents' own perspectives of this experience. The aims of this preliminary study were to (a) identify challenges, benefits, and useful strategies related to remote learning and (b) examine differences in findings across two countries, between parents of youth with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and between parents of children and adolescents. To address these aims, parent responses to open-ended questions on the Home Adjustment to COVID-19 Scale (HACS; Becker, Breaux, et al., 2020) were examined across three studies conducted in the United States and Australia (N = 606, children: 68.5% male, ages 6-17 years). The challenges most frequently expressed by parents included the child's difficulty staying on task (23.8% of parents), lack of motivation (18.3%), remote learning factors (17.8%), and lack of social interaction (14.4%). The most frequently expressed strategy related to using routines and schedules (58.2%) and the biggest benefit was more family time (20.3%). Findings were largely consistent across countries, ADHD status, and age, with a few notable group differences. Given that the most common challenges involved child- (e.g., difficulties with staying on task and motivation), parent- (e.g., balancing remote learning with work responsibilities), and school- (e.g., remote instruction difficulties) related factors, there is a need for improved support across these systems going forward. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140875, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595340

ABSTRACT

Importance: Longitudinal research on specific forms of electronic screen use and mental health symptoms in children and youth during COVID-19 is minimal. Understanding the association may help develop policies and interventions targeting specific screen activities to promote healthful screen use and mental health in children and youth. Objective: To determine whether specific forms of screen use (television [TV] or digital media, video games, electronic learning, and video-chatting time) were associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, irritability, hyperactivity, and inattention in children and youth during COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal cohort study with repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in children and youth aged 2 to 18 years in Ontario, Canada, between May 2020 and April 2021 across 4 cohorts of children or youth: 2 community cohorts and 2 clinically referred cohorts. Parents were asked to complete repeated questionnaires about their children's health behaviors and mental health symptoms during COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The exposure variables were children's daily TV or digital media time, video game time, electronic-learning time, and video-chatting time. The mental health outcomes were parent-reported symptoms of child depression, anxiety, conduct problems and irritability, and hyperactivity/inattention using validated standardized tools. Results: This study included 2026 children with 6648 observations. In younger children (mean [SD] age, 5.9 [2.5] years; 275 male participants [51.7%]), higher TV or digital media time was associated with higher levels of conduct problems (age 2-4 years: ß, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.10-0.35]; P < .001; age ≥4 years: ß, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.11]; P = .007) and hyperactivity/inattention (ß, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.006-0.14]; P = .04). In older children and youth (mean [SD] age, 11.3 [3.3] years; 844 male participants [56.5%]), higher levels of TV or digital media time were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and inattention; higher levels of video game time were associated with higher levels of depression, irritability, inattention, and hyperactivity. Higher levels of electronic learning time were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, higher levels of screen use were associated poor mental health of children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings suggest that policy intervention as well as evidence-informed social supports are needed to promote healthful screen use and mental health in children and youth during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Pandemics , Screen Time , Adolescent , Anxiety/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Child , Conduct Disorder/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580716

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: we aimed to investigate the effects of physical activity on cognitive functions and deficits of healthy population and other needy groups. Secondly, we investigated the relation between healthy habits and psychopathological risks. Finally, we investigated the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on exercise addiction and possible associated disorders. (2) Methods: From April 2021 to October 2021, we conducted a review aimed at identifying the effects of physical exercise on mental health, from cognitive improvements to risk of addiction; we searched for relevant studies on PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINHAL. (3) Results: For the first purpose, results indicated multiple effects such as better precision and response speed in information processing tasks on healthy populations; improvement of executive functions, cognitive flexibility and school performance in children; improvement of attention and executive functions and less hyperactivity and impulsiveness on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); improvement of executive and global functions on adults; improvement of overall cognitive functioning on patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder. Data also demonstrated that exercise addiction seems to be related to low levels of education, low self-esteem, eating disorders and body dysmorphisms. Eventually, it was found that people with lower traits and intolerance of uncertainty show a strong association between COVID-19 anxiety and compulsive exercise and eating disorder. (4) Conclusions: these findings underline on one side the beneficial effects of physical activity on cognitive function in healthy individuals in a preventive and curative key, while on the other side the importance of an adequate evaluation of psychological distress and personality characteristics associated with exercise addiction.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Cognition , Executive Function , Exercise , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Br J Psychiatry ; 218(1): 4-6, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556723

ABSTRACT

Although long-term outcomes of girls with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are understudied, high risk for adolescent and young-adult self-harm is salient. We present data on predictors and mediators of such risk, highlighting a recent dual-process model involving trait impulsivity plus family- and peer-related contributors. We conclude with recommendations for assessment and preventive intervention.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Impulsive Behavior , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted
8.
J Atten Disord ; 25(14): 1951-1954, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546685

ABSTRACT

Previous research demonstrates that ADHD is considered a risk factor for COVID-19. The current study attempts to investigate the relationships between infection, mortality and recovery rates from coronavirus and the prevalence of ADHD at the US statewide level. Based on information from 2011 regarding the prevalence of ADHD across the US by state, findings suggest that, while there are no correlations between ADHD and population size, infection and mortality rates from coronavirus, recovery rates (recovery-population ratio) rise with the prevalence of ADHD. Consequently, a possible explanation is that in coping with the disease, ADHD might provide an evolutionary advantage. An example of this phenomenon can be found in the gene that causes sickle-cell disease, which, as a non-dominant gene, helps cope with infection from malaria. If corroborated, research findings may support the conclusion that coronavirus limitations in special educational frameworks for ADHD would not be required or could be relaxed.JEL Codes: H75, I12.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 679041, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528869

ABSTRACT

Background: The previous and current studies highlight the psychological distress caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated restrictions among the general population, especially among children and adolescents; however, few studies have examined children and adolescents with a mental disorder. The current study aimed to explore whether youth with mental disorders show a higher pandemic-associated psychological burden than healthy children and adolescents and to determine which psychiatric diagnoses are particularly associated with a higher distress level. Methods: In this study, 144 children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 18 years with a mental disorder and 48 children and adolescents within the same age range without a mental disorder, and their caregivers, completed questionnaires assessing the pandemic-associated trauma symptoms (the Child Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms [CROPS] and the Parents Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms [PROPS]). Additionally, we asked specific questions about the pandemic-associated stress factors, such as financial problems, prolonged screen times, or loneliness. Results: Children and adolescents with a mental illness showed a significantly higher psychological burden than their mentally healthy peers. Female gender was a risk factor for a higher self-reported psychological burden, and younger age was associated with a more extensive parent-reported psychological burden. The patients with a depressive disorder showed significantly higher levels of psychological distress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic than the patients with an attention deficit and/or a conduct disorder. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with a mental illness, particularly, female children and individuals with a depressive disorder, are at an increased risk of suffering from pandemic-associated psychological distress. Adequate mental health care options, such as telepsychiatry, are indispensable.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258959, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496520

ABSTRACT

Distance learning in response to the COVID-19 pandemic presented tremendous challenges for many families. Parents were expected to support children's learning, often while also working from home. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at particularly high risk for setbacks due to difficulties with organization and increased risk of not participating in scheduled online learning. This paper explores how smartwatch technology, including timing notifications, can support children with ADHD during distance learning due to COVID-19. We implemented a 6-week pilot study of a Digital Health Intervention (DHI) with ten families. The DHI included a smartwatch and a smartphone. Google calendars were synchronized across devices to guide children through daily schedules. After the sixth week, we conducted parent interviews to understand the use of smartwatches and the impact on children's functioning, and we collected physiological data directly from the smartwatch. Our results demonstrated that children successfully adopted the use of the smartwatch, and parents believed the intervention was helpful, especially in supporting the development of organizational skills in their children. Overall, we illustrate how even simple DHIs, such as using smartwatches to promote daily organization and task completion, have the potential to support children and families, particularly during periods of distance learning. We include practical suggestions to help professionals teach children with ADHD to use smartwatches to improve organization and task completion, especially as it applies to supporting remote instruction.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Child , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parents , Pilot Projects
11.
J Atten Disord ; 26(7): 1011-1017, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484253

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Researchers have speculated that the COVID-19 pandemic may expand the academic performance gap experienced by at-risk students. We examined learning experiences during the 2020 to 2021 school year and the impact the pandemic has had on high school student grade point average (GPA), including predictors of change in GPA from 2019-2020 to 2020-2021. METHOD: Participants were 238 adolescents (55.5% male), 49.6% with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in the United States. Adolescents reported on their GPAs via online surveys. RESULTS: GPA significantly decreased on average from 2019-2020 to 2020-2021 school year. ADHD status and biological sex significantly moderated change-students with ADHD and male students reported decreased GPA, whereas students without ADHD and female students' GPA did not change. Low income and Black/Latinx students had lower GPAs in both school years. CONCLUSION: It is imperative that additional supports be provided for at-risk students to help them catch up on missed learning during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Schools , Students
12.
J Atten Disord ; 26(7): 985-990, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To postulate that ADHD is a potential risk factor for COVID-19 infection; to evaluate the COVID-19 risk factor on drug-treated ADHD subjects. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on ADHD subjects aged 6 to 18 years in Israel, who had undergone at least one COVID-19 test during the study period. RESULTS: Of the 64,409 subjects included in the study, 6,207 (9.64%) had at least one positive COVID-19 test result, 13,300 (20.65%) were diagnosed with ADHD, and of whom 1,751 (13%) had purchased at least two ADHD medications 3 months prior to COVID-19 testing and were defined as being medically treated. Medically-treated ADHD subjects had a significantly lower likelihood to be infected with COVID-19 than untreated subjects. CONCLUSION: Untreated ADHD patients seem to constitute a risk group for COVID-19 infection. Drug treatment ameliorates risk of spreading COVID-19 infection within the pediatric population and secondary spread in the general population.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053737, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are numerous reports on the psychological burden of medical workers after the COVID-19 outbreak; however, no study has examined the influence of developmental characteristics on the mental health of medical workers. The objective of this study was to examine whether the developmental characteristics of medical workers are associated with anxiety and depression after the COVID-19 outbreak. DESIGN: We conducted an online cross-sectional questionnaire survey in October 2020. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The data of 640 medical workers were analysed. The questionnaire included items on sociodemographic data, changes in their life after the COVID-19 outbreak and symptoms of depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits and autism spectrum disorder traits. MAIN OUTCOMES: Depression symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and anxiety symptoms were assessed by the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to test the effects of developmental characteristics on depression and anxiety symptoms after controlling for sociodemographic factors and changes in participants' lives after the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: Increases in physical and psychological burden were observed in 49.1% and 78.3% of the subjects, respectively. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed that ADHD traits were significantly associated with both depression (ß=0.390, p<0.001) and anxiety (ß=0.426, p<0.001). Autistic traits were significantly associated with depression (ß=0.069, p<0.05) but not anxiety. Increased physical and psychological burden, being female, medical workers other than physicians and nurses, fear of COVID-19 and experience of discrimination were also significantly associated with both depression and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Globally, the burden on medical workers increased. This study suggested that medical workers with higher ADHD traits may need special attention during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Atten Disord ; 26(7): 959-975, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to the WHO, the COVID-19 pandemic could have a negative impact on the mental health of individuals, such as an exacerbation of existing difficulties. Individuals with ADHD may be specifically challenged by the pandemic. AIMS: To provide a systematic review of evidence regarding the COVID-19's impact on mental health of individuals with ADHD during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: This registered review (PROSPERO ID CRD42021238770) adhered to Prisma guidelines. Systematic searches in electronic databases PubMed and PsycINFO were carried out. A total of 12 studies covering 3,028 subjects were included. RESULTS: COVID-19 pandemic is associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychological difficulties. Some studies reported that individuals experienced positive outcomes. The methodological quality of the studies was low to moderate. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 can affect the mental health of individuals with ADHD negatively, although methodological limitations should be considered. Further research should generate knowledge about long-term effects impact of the pandemic and about appropriate support.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics
15.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211049065, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467797

ABSTRACT

To investigate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms that impair executive function (EF), emotional state, learning motivation, and the family and parenting environment of children and adolescents with ADHD, both with and without severe difficulties. This will be explored within an online learning environment during the period of COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 183 ADHD children diagnosed using DSM-V criteria were selected and divided into 2 groups high difficulties during online learning (HDOL) and low difficulties during online learning (LDOL) according to the answer of Home Quarantine Investigation of the Pandemic (HQIP). The participants filled out a set of questionnaires to assess their emotional state and learning motivation, and their parents also filled out the questionnaires about ADHD core symptoms, EF, and family and parenting environment. Compared with ADHD children in the LDOL group, the children in the HDOL group had significant symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional defiant, behavioral and emotional problems according to the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP). They also had more severely impaired EF according to the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), more difficulties and disturbances in the family by the Chinese version of Family Environment Scale (FES-CV), and lower parenting efficacy and satisfaction by Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC). With regard to the self-rating questionnaires of children and adolescents, the HDOL group reported lower learning motivation according to the Students Learning Motivation Scale (SLMS). By Screening for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children (DSRSC), those in HDOL presented more negative emotions. The HDOL group spent significantly more time on both video games and social software per day and significantly less time on multiple activities per week, when compared to those in the LDOL group. This study demonstrated that ADHD children and adolescents with HDOL had more inattention-related behaviors, more severe emotional problems and EF impairment, weaker learning motivation, and poorer family and parenting environment. Meanwhile, digital media use should be supervised and appropriate extracurricular activities should be encouraged by parents and schools.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 313-324, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442730

ABSTRACT

There is nationwide concern that the abrupt transition to remote instruction in response to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic will have detrimental impacts on student learning. As a uniquely vulnerable group within schools, students with disabilities like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at enhanced risk for these negative outcomes. The present study features a unique examination of achievement scores, collected for two Cohorts (2018-2019, 2019-2020) of students with ADHD. By collecting achievement data in both the fall and spring for each Cohort, direct comparisons between changes in achievement for Cohort One (2018-2019) can be made to those in Cohort Two (2019-2020). Analyses summarized remote learning practices, within-group changes in achievement data over time for Cohort Two, and between-group differences in score changes over time for Cohorts One and Two. Teachers used a variety of remote learning approaches, including videoconferencing and independently completed assignments. Student achievement scores in both Cohorts significantly improved from fall to spring. No significant differences were found in score growth between the Cohorts, indicating that the move to remote instruction did not have a differentially negative impact on Cohort Two. Implications focus on the promise of well-delivered remote instruction, and the need to examine individual factors (such as poor internet access) that may exacerbate the risk of students with disabilities receiving remote instruction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Academic Success , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/rehabilitation , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Students , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Schools
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409601

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has thrown out a challenge to caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the factors related to the poor general mental health state of the caregivers of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic, including (1) difficulties of caregivers in asking their child to adopt protective behaviors against COVID-19, (2) difficulties of caregivers in managing the child's daily performance, and (3) worsened psychological symptoms in children. In total, 161 caregivers completed an online questionnaire to provide data regarding their general mental health state and difficulties in asking their child with ADHD to adopt protective behaviors against COVID-19 and in managing the child's after-school learning, sleep routine, and internet use, as well as worsened psychological symptoms. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that caregivers' difficulties in managing ADHD children's self-protective behaviors and after-school learning and the children's worsened emotional symptoms were significantly associated with poor caregiver general mental health state. An intervention that enhances the mental health of caregivers of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic by addressing their difficulties in managing the children's behaviors and psychological problems is warranted.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Caregivers , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Atten Disord ; 26(6): 902-914, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This research involved the parents of ADHD students to explore how their children coped with online distance learning during COVID-19 pandemic and what implications this schooling method had on their emotional and behavioral well-being. METHOD: Data were collected during lockdown using an online questionnaire addressed to 100 mothers and were compared with 184 matched controls from a national survey launched in the same period. RESULTS: Attention span, spontaneous commitment, and autonomy in distance learning was found to be more limited in ADHD group. Compared to controls, 21.7% of ADHD students were not assessed and 40.9% did not receive grades. Behavioral changes were reported in both groups (64.2%), represented mainly by restlessness, aggressiveness, and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Distance education increases academic difficulties, especially in ADHD pupils. The effects of lockdown should be adequately evaluated upon school reopening and appropriate recovery interventions should be planned.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16144, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349688

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can involve persistence, sequelae, and other medical complications that last weeks to months after initial recovery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to identify studies assessing the long-term effects of COVID-19. LitCOVID and Embase were searched to identify articles with original data published before the 1st of January 2021, with a minimum of 100 patients. For effects reported in two or more studies, meta-analyses using a random-effects model were performed using the MetaXL software to estimate the pooled prevalence with 95% CI. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 18,251 publications were identified, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of 55 long-term effects was estimated, 21 meta-analyses were performed, and 47,910 patients were included (age 17-87 years). The included studies defined long-COVID as ranging from 14 to 110 days post-viral infection. It was estimated that 80% of the infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 developed one or more long-term symptoms. The five most common symptoms were fatigue (58%), headache (44%), attention disorder (27%), hair loss (25%), and dyspnea (24%). Multi-disciplinary teams are crucial to developing preventive measures, rehabilitation techniques, and clinical management strategies with whole-patient perspectives designed to address long COVID-19 care.


Subject(s)
Alopecia/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Fatigue/diagnosis , Headache/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alopecia/complications , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/complications , Fatigue/complications , Headache/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
20.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3805-3808, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinicians have reported an increase in functional tic-like behaviours in children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe adults developing rapid onset of functional tic-like behaviours between May 2020 and June 2021. METHODS: Data were analysed from the Adult Tic Disorders Registry, a single-site,12-month prospective cohort study that began enrolment in January 2021. We compared clinical features of participants with Tourette syndrome or persistent motor/vocal tic disorder to participants with rapid onset tic-like behaviours. RESULTS: Thirty-three participants registered between January and June of 2021; nine had rapid onset tic-like behaviours, and 24 had Tourette syndrome or persistent motor tic disorder. Participants with rapid onset tic-like behaviours were younger (19.9 vs. 38.6 years, p = 0.003), had older age at onset (15.3 vs. 10.1, p = 0.0009), and were more likely female (p < 0.0001). They had higher motor and vocal tic severity and impairment scores (all p < 0.01) and were more likely to have complex arm/hand motor tics (p < 0.0001), complex vocal tics (p < 0.0001), and coprolalia (p = 0.004). They had significantly higher scores on all mental health symptom self-report measures (all p < 0.05) and were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with depression (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features that help differentiate rapid onset tic-like behaviours from Tourette syndrome or persistent motor tic disorder include their phenomenology, onset age, and clinical course. Rapid onset tic-like behaviours are a distinct subtype of functional neurological disorder that has emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic in young people and appears to be strongly socially influenced.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Tic Disorders , Tics , Tourette Syndrome , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tic Disorders/epidemiology , Tics/epidemiology , Tourette Syndrome/epidemiology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL