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1.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 34(4): 306-312, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922409

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide primary care providers (PCPs) with updated practical guidance around the assessment and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents and young adults (AYA). RECENT FINDINGS: Of the three different presentations of ADHD delineated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the Predominantly Inattentive presentation is the most common among AYA. Multiple rating scales exist to assist clinicians in identifying ADHD symptoms and monitoring treatment effects. Importantly, ADHD frequently persists into adulthood with negative impacts in many life domains if left untreated. It is important for PCPs to provide support for AYA as they transition to adulthood, as treatment adherence often drops sharply at that time, and, once treatment is discontinued, it is rarely restarted. Further, clinicians should be aware of the negative psychological, behavioral, and social impacts that COVID-19 has had on AYA with ADHD. SUMMARY: AYA with ADHD often seek care first from PCPs. However, diagnosis and management of ADHD among AYA are challenging, and many clinicians feel ill-equipped, creating concern that many youth may go undiagnosed and untreated. Despite these long-standing challenges, recent advances have opened up critical opportunities for PCPs to proactively address ADHD in primary care settings and make a profound impact on youth as they seek to realize their full potential.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Humans , Mental Health , Primary Health Care , Young Adult
2.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 47(8): 892-904, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infectious diseases, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are commonly transmitted by respiratory droplets and contact with contaminated surfaces. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to be infected with COVID-19 and experience more hospitalizations than individuals without ADHD. The current study investigated the role of ADHD symptomatology and executive functioning (EF) in germ spreading behavior frequency among young children with and without ADHD and parenting responses to these behaviors. METHODS: Participants included 53 children diagnosed with ADHD and 47 typically developing (TD) children between the ages of 4-5 years (76% male; Mage = 4.62; 86% Hispanic/Latinx). Parents and teachers reported on children's ADHD symptomatology and children completed three EF tasks. Germ spreading behavior frequency (direct contact of hand to face and toy in mouth) and parenting responses (verbal and nonverbal behaviors) were observed during a 5-min parent-child play situation. RESULTS: Negative binomial regression analyses indicated that both ADHD diagnostic status and poor metacognition predicted both higher rates of toy to mouth (ß = 1.94, p < .001; ß = 0.03, p = .004) and face touching frequency (ß = 0.60, p = .03; ß = 0.03, p = .004), respectively. Additionally, poor attention and worse cognitive flexibility only predicted higher rates of toy to mouth frequency (ß = 0.09, p < .001; ß = -0.04, p = .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Young children with ADHD are at high risk for spreading germs via putting toys in their mouth and touching their face. Particularly, high levels of inattention and poor EF appear to be associated with higher rates of germ spreading behaviors.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Child, Preschool , Executive Function , Female , Humans , Individuality , Male , Parents/psychology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869611

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in youths likely leads to disruptive mood dysregulation, especially among those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whether IGD mediates the pathways leading ADHD to disruptive emotional dysfunction remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the direct or indirect influence of IGD on ADHD; (2) Method: The Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Version IV questionnaire was used to evaluate symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and the Chen gaming disorder scale was used to measure IGD. A psychiatrist diagnosed ADHD, IGD, and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD)-like symptoms. Structural equation modeling was applied to evaluate the role of IGD in mediating ADHD progression to disruptive mood dysregulation; (3) Results: Among a total of 102 ADHD youths, 53 (52%) of them with IGD were significantly more likely to have poor interpersonal relationships (p < 0.01) and DMDD-like symptoms (p < 0.01) than ADHD youths without IGD. IGD played a mediating role in increasing the risk of disruptive mood dysregulation in ADHD youths; (4) Conclusions: The findings suggest that IGD mediates ADHD's progression to disruptive mood dysregulation. Intensive biopsychosocial interventions are warranted for ADHD youths with IGD. More children and adolescents became mood-dysregulated after excessive gaming during the COVID-19 pandemic; this study's results suggest that child mental health experts develop earlier detection and prevention strategies for children and adolescents hidden behind internet addiction.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Latent Class Analysis , Pandemics
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809899

ABSTRACT

This study examined the difficulty encountered by caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in managing children's smartphone use during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the caregiver- and children-related factors that influence this difficulty. In total, 252 caregivers of children with ADHD were recruited into this study. The caregivers completed a research questionnaire to provide data regarding the difficulty they encountered in managing the smartphone use of children during the COVID-19 pandemic, their general mental health and parenting styles, and the ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms of the children they are caring for. The results indicated that almost 45% of the caregivers of children with ADHD sometimes or often found it difficult to manage the smartphone use of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic. For the caregivers, a short duration of education, poor general mental health, unaffectionate/uncaring and overprotective parenting styles, older children, and inattention and ODD symptoms were significantly associated with increased difficulty in managing their children's smartphone use during the COVID-19 pandemic. On the basis of the relevant factors identified in this study, an intervention should be developed to enhance the skills of caregivers of children with ADHD with respect to the management of children's smartphone use during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting , Smartphone
5.
J Atten Disord ; 26(11): 1381-1393, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test whether parental factors including internalizing symptoms, parenting style, and confidence in assisting with remote learning conferred risk/resilience for children with/without ADHD's learning and emotional outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: 291 parents of children (ages 6-13; n = 180 males) with (n = 148) and without ADHD completed questionnaires online (April-July 2020). RESULTS: Structural equation modeling identified parental risk/resilience factors. Across groups, risk predicted greater difficulties with learning, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, while parent confidence in educating their child predicted better outcomes. A positive association was observed between parental involvement and child difficulties, which was stronger in families of children with ADHD. Children with/without ADHD did not differ in remote learning difficulties. CONCLUSION: Parent factors impacted child emotional and learning outcomes during the pandemic. With increases in remote learning practices, there is a need for improved understanding of how parent factors impact outcomes of children with/without ADHD.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Child , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e058102, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741641

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: It is unclear how pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions compare with each other in terms of efficacy and tolerability for core symptoms and additional problems in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aim to conduct the first network meta-analysis (NMA) comparing pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions (or their combinations) in adults with ADHD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for NMAs. We will search a broad set of electronic databases/registries and contact drug companies and experts in the field to retrieve published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (parallel or cross-over) of medications (either licensed or unlicensed) and any non-pharmacological intervention in adults (≥18 years) with ADHD. Primary outcomes will be: (1) change in severity of ADHD core symptoms, and (2) acceptability (all-cause discontinuation). Secondary outcomes will include tolerability (drop-out due to side effects) and change in the severity of emotional dysregulation, executive dysfunctions and quality of life. The risk of bias in each individual RCT included in the NMA will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool-version 2. We will evaluate the transitivity assumption comparing the distribution of possible effect modifiers across treatment comparisons. We will perform Bayesian NMA for each outcome with random-effects model in OpenBUGS. Pooled estimates of NMA will be obtained using the Markov Chains Monte Carlo method. We will judge the credibility in the evidence derived from the NMA using the CINeMA tool (which includes assessment of publication bias). We will conduct a series of sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the findings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As this is the protocol for an aggregate-data level NMA, ethical approval will not be required. Results will be disseminated at national/international conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021265576.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Network Meta-Analysis , Quality of Life , Systematic Reviews as Topic
7.
OTJR (Thorofare N J) ; 42(3): 219-227, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724300

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects emotional status and quality of life (QOL) as reported in various countries. Less is known about the relations between gender, emotional status, and QOL in vulnerable groups. The objectives of this study are to compare emotional status and QOL between women with and without ADHD, during COVID-19, to correlate between emotional status, daily life, and QOL of women with ADHD, and to predict their QOL by COVID-19 constraints and emotional status. This cross-sectional online survey included 46 with ADHD and 183 typically functioning women, aged 19 to 60, who completed the sociodemographic health and daily life during COVID-19 questionnaires; the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale - 21, and the WHOQOL-BREF. Women with ADHD had significantly higher stress and anxiety and lower physical and psychological QOL. Emotional status and daily constraints predicted their QOL. COVID-19 emotional impacts should receive greater attention in vulnerable groups, as women with ADHD, to enhance resilience, participation, and QOL.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Atten Disord ; 26(9): 1223-1234, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582635

ABSTRACT

We examined COVID-19 symptoms and infection rates, disruptions to functioning, and moderators of pandemic response for 620 youth with ADHD and 614 individually matched controls (70% male; Mage = 12.4) participating in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. There were no group differences in COVID-19 infection rate; however, youth with ADHD were more likely to exhibit COVID-19 symptoms (d = 0.25), greater sleep problems (d = -0.52), fear and negative emotions to infection risk (d = -0.56), trouble with remote learning (d = -0.54), rule-breaking behavior related to COVID-19 restrictions (d = -0.23), family conflict (d = -0.13), and were less prepared for the next school year (d = 0.38). Youth with ADHD were less responsive to protective environmental variables (e.g., parental monitoring, school engagement) during the pandemic and may need more specialized support with return to in-person schooling and daily activities.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Child , Female , Humans , Learning , Male , Pandemics , Schools
9.
J Atten Disord ; 26(6): 902-914, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This research involved the parents of ADHD students to explore how their children coped with online distance learning during COVID-19 pandemic and what implications this schooling method had on their emotional and behavioral well-being. METHOD: Data were collected during lockdown using an online questionnaire addressed to 100 mothers and were compared with 184 matched controls from a national survey launched in the same period. RESULTS: Attention span, spontaneous commitment, and autonomy in distance learning was found to be more limited in ADHD group. Compared to controls, 21.7% of ADHD students were not assessed and 40.9% did not receive grades. Behavioral changes were reported in both groups (64.2%), represented mainly by restlessness, aggressiveness, and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Distance education increases academic difficulties, especially in ADHD pupils. The effects of lockdown should be adequately evaluated upon school reopening and appropriate recovery interventions should be planned.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(3): 177-188, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263645

ABSTRACT

Background: Indole tryptophan metabolites (ITMs), mainly produced at the gastrointestinal level, participate in bidirectional gut-brain communication and have been implicated in neuropsychiatric pathologies, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 179 children, 5-14 years of age, including a healthy control group (CG, n = 49), and 107 patients with ADHD participated in the study. The ADHD group was further subdivided into predominantly attention deficit (PAD) and predominantly hyperactive impulsive (PHI) subgroups. Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 hours, and urine was collected between blood draws, at baseline and after 4.63 ± 2.3 months of methylphenidate treatment in the ADHD group. Levels and daily fluctuations of ITM were measured by tandem mass spectrometer, and S100B (as a glial inflammatory marker) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Factorial analysis of variance (Stata 12.0) was performed with groups/subgroups, time (baseline/after treatment), hour of day (morning/evening), and presence of depressive symptoms (DS; no/yes) as factors. Results: Tryptamine and indoleacetic acid (IAA) showed no differences between the CG and ADHD groups. Tryptamine exhibited higher evening values (p < 0.0001) in both groups. No changes were associated with methylphenidate or DS. At baseline, in comparison with the rest of study sample, PHI with DS+ group showed among them much greater morning than evening IAA (p < 0.0001), with treatment causing a 50% decrease (p = 0.002). Concerning indolepropionic acid (IPA) MPH was associated with a morning IPA decrease and restored the daily profile observed in the CG. S100B protein showed greater morning than evening concentrations (p = 0.001) in both groups. Conclusion: Variations in ITM may reflect changes associated with the presence of DS, including improvement, among ADHD patients.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage , Depression/psychology , Methylphenidate/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Impulsive Behavior/drug effects , Indoles/metabolism , Male , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/metabolism , Time Factors , Tryptophan/metabolism
11.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 52(5): 2149-2155, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252167

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, many schools were closed to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Japan, and it is predicted that many children, especially those with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), will be affected emotionally and behaviorally. Here, we examined the impact of school closures due to COVID-19 on school-aged children with NDDs using the Child Behavior Checklist. Totally, data on 121 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and/or intellectual disorder were analyzed and it was found that externalizing and aggressive behavior increased in all NDDs, regardless of the type of diagnosis. A clear prospect is important for children with NDDs children to lead a stable life, and more generous supports for children with NDDs and their families are needed.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/psychology
12.
Global Health ; 17(1): 48, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191808

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the influences of digital media use on the core symptoms, emotional state, life events, learning motivation, executive function (EF) and family environment of children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHOD: A total of 192 participants aged 8-16 years who met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD were included in the study. Children scoring higher than predetermined cut-off point in self-rating questionnaires for problematic mobile phone use (SQPMPU) or Young's internet addiction test (IAT), were defined as ADHD with problematic digital media use (PDMU), otherwise were defined as ADHD without PDMU. The differences between the two groups in ADHD symptoms, EF, anxiety and depression, stress from life events, learning motivation and family environment were compared respectively. RESULTS: When compared with ADHD group without PDMU, the group with PDMU showed significant worse symptoms of inattention, oppositional defiant, behavior and emotional problems by Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP), more self-reported anxiety by screening child anxiety-related emotional disorders (SCARED) and depression by depression self-rating scale for children (DSRSC), more severe EF deficits by behavior rating scale of executive function (BRIEF), more stress from life events by adolescent self-rating life events checklist (ASLEC), lower learning motivation by students learning motivation scale (SLMS), and more impairment on cohesion by Chinese version of family environment scale (FES-CV). The ADHD with PDMU group spent significantly more time on both video game and social media with significantly less time spend on physical exercise as compared to the ADHD without PDMU group. CONCLUSION: The ADHD children with PDMU suffered from more severe core symptoms, negative emotions, EF deficits, damage on family environment, pressure from life events, and a lower motivation to learn. Supervision of digital media usage, especially video game and social media, along with increased physical exercise, is essential to the management of core symptoms and associated problems encountered with ADHD.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19 , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/psychology , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249237, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150558

ABSTRACT

Advances in digital health have enabled clinicians to move away from a reliance on face to face consultation methods towards making use of modern video and web-based conferencing technology. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, remote telecommunication methods have become much more common place in mental health settings. The current study sought to investigate whether remote telecommunication methods are preferable to face to face consultations for adults referred to an Autism and ADHD Service during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, whether there are any differences in preferred consultation methods between adults who were referred for an assessment of Autism as opposed to ADHD. 117 service users who undertook assessment by the ADHD and Autism Service at South West Yorkshire NHS Partnership Foundation Trust from April to September 2020 completed an adapted version of the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ). Results demonstrated that service users found remote telecommunication to be useful, effective, reliable and satisfactory. Despite this, almost half of service users stated a general preference for face to face consultations. There was no difference in the choice of methods of contact between Autism and ADHD pathways. Remote telecommunication methods were found to be an acceptable medium of contact for adults who undertook an assessment of Autism and ADHD at an NHS Service during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Autistic Disorder/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/pathology , Autistic Disorder/diagnosis , Autistic Disorder/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Remote Consultation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 31(7): 1-12, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 epidemic has spread worldwide since December 2019. To contain it, preventive measures including social distancing, economic shutdown, and school closures were introduced, carrying the risk of mental health burden in adults and children. Although the knowledge base regarding children's response to trauma and adverse events in general has broadened, descriptions of their mental health during epidemics remain scarce. In particular, the role of family socioeconomic characteristics and parental mental health are poorly understood. METHODS: We assessed the correlates of children's emotional difficulties and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention during the COVID-19 lockdown in a French community-based sample. Data came from 432 community-based parents (27-46 years, TEMPO cohort) and their children (mean age 6.8 ± 4.1) interviewed online. Children's symptoms of emotional difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention were assessed using the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire during the 5th week of home confinement. Family socioeconomic characteristics and parental mental health and substance use were assessed weekly during the first 5 weeks of home confinement. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: 7.1% of children presented symptoms of emotional difficulties and 24.7% symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention. Family financial difficulties and parental symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as children's sleeping difficulties and screen time, were associated with the presence of psychological difficulties. CONCLUSION: Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are associated with parental mental health and socioeconomic difficulties. In the unprecedented situation of the COVID-19 epidemic, parents and professionals involved in caring for children should pay special attention to their mental health needs.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Protective Factors
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090337

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: COVID-19 may deteriorate some aspects among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although some positive aspects were reported during the pandemic, it remains unclear how COVID-19 qualitatively influences their living context; (2) Methods: this study employed interviews with four participants with ADHD during the declaration of emergency issued in Japan. The study was a part of ongoing coaching as a psychosocial intervention for ADHD, which was initiated long before the pandemic. The data were the answers to the question: "how are things going with participants during this pandemic?". In a qualitative analysis, the researchers coded the data to identify different themes and sub-themes; (3) Results and Discussion: the qualitative data analysis yielded five themes: (1) Terrible feeling caused by frustration, stress, and anger; (2) Closeness due to the internal difficulties and conflict; (3) Deteriorating ADHD symptoms and executive function related matters; (4) Condition is the same as usual; and (5) Positive aspects associated with the self-lockdown. As a whole, these results show that the COVID-19 pandemic could be a factor in inducing psychological distress in the participants who adjust relatively better at work/school but did not do well at home before the pandemic; (4) Conclusions: this study indicates the need for special support for individuals with ADHD, especially those who originally had difficulties at home.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19 , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Emotions , Executive Function , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Young Adult
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 136: 190-197, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083959

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: ADHD symptom severity appears to be exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study surveyed top problems experienced by adolescents and young adults (A/YAs) with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify possible reasons for symptom escalation and potential targets for intervention. We also explored perceived benefits of the pandemic for A/YAs with ADHD. METHOD: At the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-June 2020), we administered self and parent ratings about current and pre-pandemic top problem severity and benefits of the pandemic to a sample of convenience (N = 134 A/YAs with ADHD participating in a prospective longitudinal study). RESULTS: The most common top problems reported in the sample were social isolation (parent-report: 26.7%; self-report: 41.5%), difficulties engaging in online learning (parent-report: 23.3%, self-report: 20.3%), motivation problems (parent-report: 27.9%), and boredom (self-report: 21.3%). According to parent (d = 0.98) and self-report (d = 1.33), these top problems were more severe during the pandemic than in prior months. Contrary to previous speculation, there was no evidence that pandemic-related changes mitigated ADHD severity. Multi-level models indicated that A/YAs with higher IQs experienced severer top problems exacerbations at the transition to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: For A/YAs with ADHD, several risk factors for depression and school dropout were incurred during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. A/YAs with ADHD should be monitored for school disengagement and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recommended interventions attend to reducing risk factors such as increasing social interaction, academic motivation, and behavioral activation among A/YAs with ADHD.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Boredom , COVID-19/epidemiology , Motivation , Pandemics , Adolescent , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prospective Studies , Self Report , Young Adult
17.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S85-S92, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065059

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the French government has decided a general lockdown. This unprecedented situation has raised concerns about children's and adolescent's mental health. Children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may find this context of restrained activity particularly tricky. The objectives of our study are to gather information about the well-being and global life conditions of children and adolescents with ADHD during the COVID-19 outbreak in France. METHODS: We designed a survey including both open-ended questions and questionnaire items for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD. Parents responded to the following open-ended questions: 1) "How is your child doing since the lockdown?" 2) "How is life at home since the lockdown?" 3) "If you had a remote service provision with a mental health professional (e.g. by telephone or video technology), please share your thoughts and any suggestions with us" 4) "Please share any other items that you think are important about ADHD symptoms of your child and the lockdown situation". This survey was posted on social media on the 6th of April and disseminated by French ADHD-parent and patient organizations. The present article reports the descriptive, qualitative and textometrical analyses of the survey. RESULTS: Between day 20 and 30 of lockdown, 538 parents responded to the survey, and we included 533 responses in the final analysis. The vast majority of responders were women 95 % (95 % CI 93,50; 97,18) with children whose mean age was 10,5 (95 % CI 7.58; 13.44). Since the lockdown, 34.71 % (95 % CI 30.70; 38.94) of children experienced a worsening in well-being, 34.33 % (95 % CI 30.34; 38.56) showed no significant changes and 30.96 % (95 % CI 27.09; 35.10) were doing better according to their parents. The thematic analysis showed that an improvement of their children's anxiety was one of the main topics addressed by parents. This improvement related to less school-related strain and flexible schedules that respected their children's rhythm. Improved self-esteem was another topic that parents linked with a lesser exposure of their children to negative feed-back. Parents repeatedly reported both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. However, optimal lockdown life conditions seemed to compensate for the impact of ADHD symptoms (e.g. sufficient space at home, presence of a garden). Some parents reported worsening of general well-being in their children, and this manifested as oppositional/defiant attitudes and emotional outbursts. Parents also cited sleep problems and anxiety in this context. As regards everyday life during lock-down, at-home schooling was another major topic-parents described that their children struggled to complete school-related tasks and that teachers seemed to have forgotten about academic accommodations. The lockdown situation seems to have raised parents' awareness of the role of inattention and ADHD symptoms in their children's learning difficulties. Due to potential selection biases, the results of our survey may not be generalizable to all children and adolescents with ADHD. The main strengths of this rapid survey-based study lies in the reactivity of the participants and the quality and diversity of their responses to the open-ended questions. CONCLUSIONS: According to their parents, most children and adolescents with ADHD experience stability or improvement of their well-being. An improvement in school-related anxiety and the flexible adjustment to the children's' rhythms as well as parents' increased awareness of the difficulties their children experience are among the key topics in parents' descriptions.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Attitude , Boredom , COVID-19 , Child , Education , Family Relations , Female , France , Housing , Humans , Leisure Activities , Male , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Concept , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113692, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989073

ABSTRACT

The current study examined the impact of the lockdown due to the Covid-19 disease on mood state and behaviours of children and adolescents with ADHD. Nine hundred ninety-two parents of children and adolescents with ADHD filled out an anonymous online survey through the ADHD family association website. The survey investigated the degree of severity of six emotional and mood states (sadness, boredom, little enjoyment/interest, irritability, temper tantrums, anxiety) and five disrupted behaviours (verbal and physical aggression, argument, opposition, restlessness) based on their frequency/week (absent; low: 1-2 days/week; moderate: 3-4 days/week; severe: 5-7 days/week) before and during the lockdown. Important fluctuations were found in all dimensions during the lockdown independently by the severity degree. Subjects with previous low severity degree of these behaviors significantly worsened in almost all dimensions during the lockdown. On the contrary, ADHD patients with moderate and severe degree showed important improvement during the lockdown. Little enjoyment/interests and boredom resulted the dimensions more strongly affected by the condition of restriction, overall in children. Children vs. adolescents showed substantially similar trend but the former resulted significantly more vulnerable to emotive changes. The results provided both the individuation of domains affected, and the indirect benefits produced by restriction condition.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Behavior Disorders/psychology , Social Isolation , Adolescent , Aggression/psychology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Boredom , Child , Female , Humans , Irritable Mood , Male , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(6): 769-777, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856802

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined remote learning practices and difficulties during initial stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Participants were 238 adolescents (132 males; 118 with ADHD) aged 15.64-17.99 years and their parents. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires in May/June 2020 when in-person schools were closed in the U.S. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of families incurred financial costs to support remote learning, and only 59% of school-based services received before COVID-19 continued during COVID-19 remote learning. Adolescents with ADHD had fewer routines and more remote learning difficulties than adolescents without ADHD. Parents of adolescents with ADHD had less confidence in managing remote learning and more difficulties in supporting home learning and home-school communication. Thirty-one percent of parents of adolescents with ADHD with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or receiving academic accommodations (504 Plan) reported remote learning to be very challenging, compared with 18% of parents of adolescents with ADHD without an IEP/504 Plan, and only 4% of parents of adolescents with neither ADHD nor an IEP/504 Plan. Fewer adolescent routines, higher negative affect, and more difficulty concentrating because of COVID-19 were each associated with greater adolescent remote learning difficulties only in adolescents with ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial findings of the nature and impact of remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is imperative for schools and communities to provide the necessary supports to adolescents, particularly those with mental health and/or learning difficulties, and to their parents.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Learning , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Education, Distance/economics , Female , Humans , Male , Parents/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 45(9): 983-989, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We recently transitioned from in-person delivery of a brief behavioral parent intervention to telepsychology delivery to meet families' needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this topical review, we describe how we used treatment fidelity as a guiding principle to orient adaptations for telepsychology, as well as preliminary findings and early lessons learned in this implementation. Methods: Using rapid-cycle quality improvement methods, we adapted a brief parent training group (Bootcamp for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; BC-ADHD) to three groups of caregivers (i.e., 5-7 families) of school-aged children with ADHD (n = 20; 85% males). Families were from the following ethnic backgrounds: 75% White non-Hispanic, 15% White Hispanic, and 10% Black. Clinicians completed measures on their implementation experience. Observers completed measures on content/process fidelity and attendance. Caregivers completed measures on demographics, treatment satisfaction, and telepsychology experience. RESULTS: Telepsychology BC-ADHD can be implemented with comparably high levels of content and process fidelity and treatment satisfaction to in-person groups; and it appears to be feasible and acceptable to caregivers. Caregiver and clinician qualitative feedback revealed themes of appreciating the convenience of telepsychology, while experiencing some challenges in relating to others and sharing over video. CONCLUSIONS: When treatment fidelity is used as a guiding tool, telepsychology parent training groups can be delivered with high fidelity and appear to be acceptable and feasible to caregivers and clinicians. Future research using larger and more diverse samples, multimethod and multi-informant measurement approaches, and controlled designs is needed to further assess the generalizability and efficacy of telepsychology parent training groups.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Behavior Therapy/methods , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Psychotherapy, Group/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
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