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1.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 48, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879266

ABSTRACT

The interactions between emotion and attention are complex due to the multifaceted nature of attention. Adding to this complexity, the COVID-19 pandemic has altered the emotional landscape, broadly heightening health and financial concerns. Can the heightened concerns about COVID-19 impair one or more of the components of attention? To explore the connection between heightened concerns about COVID-19 and attention, in a preregistered study, we collected survey responses from 234 participants assessing levels of concerns surrounding COVID-19, followed by four psychophysics tasks hypothesized to tap into different aspects of attention: visual search, working memory, sustained attention, and cognitive control. We also measured task-unrelated thoughts. Results showed that task-unrelated thoughts, but not survey reports of concern levels, negatively correlated with sustained attention and cognitive control, while visual search and working memory remained robust to task-unrelated thoughts and survey-indicated concern levels. As a whole, these findings suggest that being concerned about COVID-19 does not interfere with cognitive function unless the concerns are active in the form of task-unrelated thoughts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attention/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Humans , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Pandemics
2.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 26(4): 1496-1505, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878965

ABSTRACT

Deep learning based methods have shown great promise in achieving accurate automatic detection of Coronavirus Disease (covid) - 19 from Chest X-Ray (cxr) images.However, incorporating explainability in these solutions remains relatively less explored. We present a hierarchical classification approach for separating normal, non-covid pneumonia (ncp) and covid cases using cxr images. We demonstrate that the proposed method achieves clinically consistent explainations. We achieve this using a novel multi-scale attention architecture called Multi-scale Attention Residual Learning (marl) and a new loss function based on conicity for training the proposed architecture. The proposed classification strategy has two stages. The first stage uses a model derived from DenseNet to separate pneumonia cases from normal cases while the second stage uses the marl architecture to discriminate between covid and ncp cases. With a five-fold cross validation the proposed method achieves 93%, 96.28%, and 84.51% accuracy respectively over three large, public datasets for normal vs. ncp vs. covid classification. This is competitive to the state-of-the-art methods. We also provide explanations in the form of GradCAM attributions, which are well aligned with expert annotations. The attributions are also seen to clearly indicate that marl deems the peripheral regions of the lungs to be more important in the case of covid cases while central regions are seen as more important in ncp cases. This observation matches the criteria described by radiologists in clinical literature, thereby attesting to the utility of the derived explanations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Pneumonia , Algorithms , Attention , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2 , X-Rays
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 858780, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809625

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic interfered with normal campus life, resulting in the need for the course to be conducted in an ideal online format. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of different styles of online political course videos on students' attention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Four college students participated in this small sample study. They were required to conduct two sessions of the experiment, in which they were required to watch three different styles of course videos in each session. While watching the videos, their EEG signals were acquired. For the acquired EEG signals, the sample entropy (SampEn) features were extracted. On the other hand, Mayer's theories of multimedia technology provide guidance for teachers' online courses to enhance students' attention levels. The results of EEG signals analysis and Mayer's theories of multimedia technology were combined to compare and analyze the effects of three styles of instructional videos. Results: Based on comparisons of the SampEn and Mayer's theories of multimedia technology analysis, the results suggest that online instruction in a style where the instructor and content appear on the screen at the same time and the instructor points out the location of the content as it is explained is more likely to elicit higher levels of students' attention. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, online instructional methods have an impact on students' classroom attention. It is essential for teachers to design online instructional methods based on students' classroom attention levels and some multimedia instructional techniques to improve students' learning efficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attention , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Students
5.
J Biomed Inform ; 130: 104079, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed the capacity of healthcare resources and posed a challenge for worldwide hospitals. The ability to distinguish potentially deteriorating patients from the rest helps facilitate reasonable allocation of medical resources, such as ventilators, hospital beds, and human resources. The real-time accurate prediction of a patient's risk scores could also help physicians to provide earlier respiratory support for the patient and reduce the risk of mortality. METHODS: We propose a robust real-time prediction model for the in-hospital COVID-19 patients' probability of requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). The end-to-end neural network model incorporates the Multi-task Gaussian Process to handle the irregular sampling rate in observational data together with a self-attention neural network for the prediction task. RESULTS: We evaluate our model on a large database with 9,532 nationwide in-hospital patients with COVID-19. The model demonstrates significant robustness and consistency improvements compared to conventional machine learning models. The proposed prediction model also shows performance improvements in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) compared to various deep learning models, especially at early times after a patient's hospital admission. CONCLUSION: The availability of large and real-time clinical data calls for new methods to make the best use of them for real-time patient risk prediction. It is not ideal for simplifying the data for traditional methods or for making unrealistic assumptions that deviate from observation's true dynamics. We demonstrate a pilot effort to harmonize cross-sectional and longitudinal information for mechanical ventilation needing prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attention , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Retrospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2479-2486, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797827

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a threatening impact on a global scale, largely due to the emergence of newly SARS-CoV-2 variants. The Mu (PANGO lineage B.1.621), was first identified in Colombia in January 2021 and was classified as a variant of interest (VOI) in August 2021, due to a constellation of mutations that likely-mediate an unexpectedly enhanced immune resistance to inactivated vaccine-elicited antibodies. Despite recent studies suggesting that the Mu variant appears to have less infectivity than the Delta variant, here we examined the structural effect of the Mu spike protein mutations and predicted the potential impact on infectivity of the Mu variant compared with the Delta and Delta plus spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Attention , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752827

ABSTRACT

An under-representation of women and a lack of sex-specific analyses in COVID-19 trials has been suggested. However, the higher number of men than women who are severely affected by COVID-19 and the restricted information in scientific publications may have biased these suggestions. Therefore, we evaluated sex proportionality and sex-specific efficacy and safety data in trials of COVID-19 treatments and vaccines using both publicly available regulatory documents and confidential documents used by regulators in their review of medicinal products. Included were two treatments (ie, remdesivir and dexamethasone) and four vaccines (ie, BNT162b2 mRNA (BioNTech/Pfizer), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), ChAdOx1-S (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2-S (Janssen)) that received marketing authorisation by the European Commission at the time of the study conduct. An under-representation of women was shown in three of the nine data sets for one treatment (ie, remdesivir), but the proportion of women included was representative in each of the data sets for the other five products. This indicates that there is no structural under-representation of women in the COVID-19 trials. Currently, sex-specific efficacy data are available for five of the six assessed products and sex-specific safety data are available for half of the products only. It is important that this information will also be made available for the other products. There are only small differences in efficacy and safety between men and women which are likely to be of limited clinical relevance. Sex-specific efficacy information can generally be found in the publicly available regulatory documents other than the Summary of Product Characteristics, for which more awareness might be required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attention , Female , Humans , Male
9.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(4): 27, 2022 03.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744257
10.
Cortex ; 149: 173-187, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739650

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, we have been confronted with faces covered by surgical-like masks. This raises a question about how our brains process this kind of visual information. Thus, the aims of the current study were twofold: (1) to investigate the role of attention in the processing of different types of faces with masks, and (2) to test whether such partial information about faces is treated similarly to fully visible faces. Participants were tasked with the simple detection of self-, close-other's, and unknown faces with and without a mask; this task relies on attentional processes. Event-related potential (ERP) findings revealed a similar impact of surgical-like masks for all faces: the amplitudes of early (P100) and late (P300, LPP) attention-related components were higher for faces with masks than for fully visible faces. Amplitudes of N170 were similar for covered and fully visible faces, and sources of brain activity were located in the fusiform gyri in both cases. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) revealed that irrespective of whether the algorithm was trained to discriminate three types of faces either with or without masks, it was able to effectively discriminate faces that were not presented in the training phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DiGeorge Syndrome , Attention , Evoked Potentials , Humans , Masks , Pandemics
11.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(3): 606-613, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The excess of visceral adipose tissue might hinder and delay immune response. How people with abdominal obesity (AO) will respond to mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is yet to be established. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were evaluated after the first and second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, comparing the response of individuals with AO with the response of those without, and discerning between individuals with or without prior infection. METHODS: Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-neutralizing antibodies against the Trimeric complex (IgG-TrimericS) were measured at four time points: at baseline, at day 21 after vaccine dose 1, and at 1 and 3 months after dose 2. Nucleocapsid antibodies were assessed to detect prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Waist circumference was measured to determine AO. RESULTS: Between the first and third month after vaccine dose 2, the drop in IgG-TrimericS levels was more remarkable in individuals with AO compared with those without AO (2.44-fold [95% CI: 2.22-2.63] vs. 1.82-fold [95% CI: 1.69-1.92], respectively, p < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression confirmed this result after inclusion of assessed confounders (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The waning antibody levels in individuals with AO may further support recent recommendations to offer booster vaccines to adults with high-risk medical conditions, including obesity, and particularly to those with a more prevalent AO phenotype.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , Attention , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
12.
Nature ; 587(7834): 331, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671516
13.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 213: 107121, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611660

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 12-years-old patient who subacutely developed a positive and negative myoclonus of limbs and face, drowsiness and memory deficits after getting infected by SARS-CoV-2. On admission, nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2, brain and spinal MRI with and without contrast, EEG, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound were negative. CSF physical-chemical examination, culture, PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens, and oligoclonal IgG bands were negative as well. A full panel blood test, including clotting, autoimmunity and paraneoplastic blood studies, did not show any alteration. The neuropsychological examination showed an impairment in memory, visual-motor coordination, inductive reasoning skills, attention, and concentration. The patient was first treated with clonazepam and then with intravenous methylprednisolone for five days, with poor response. For this reason, he then received a cycle of IVIG, thus reaching a gradual and complete recovery. To date, this is the first case of a COVID-19 associated myoclonus affecting a paediatric patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/virology , Myoclonus/virology , Attention , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Myoclonus/diagnosis , Myoclonus/therapy , Neuropsychological Tests , Psychomotor Performance , Syndrome
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e047037, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595822

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the management of type 2 diabetes, autonomy-supporting interventions may be a prerequisite to achieving more long-term improvement. Preliminary evidence has shown that the guided self-determination (GSD) method might have an effect on haemoglobin A1c and diabetes distress in people with type 1 diabetes. Previous trials were at risk of uncertainty. Thus, the objective is to investigate the benefits and harms of a GSD intervention versus an attention control group intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This trial protocol is guided by the The Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for International Trials Statement. We describe the protocol for a pragmatic randomised, dual-centre, parallel-group, superiority clinical trial testing a GSD intervention versus an attention control for people with type 2 diabetes in outpatient clinics. The participants (n=224) will be recruited from two diverse regions of Denmark. The experimental stepped-care intervention will consist of three to five GSD sessions lasting up to 1 hour with a trained GSD facilitator. The sessions will be conducted face to face, by video conference or over the telephone. The attention controls will receive three to five sessions lasting up to an hour with a communication-trained healthcare professional provided face to-face, by video conference, or over the telephone. Participants will be included if they have type 2 diabetes,>18 years old, are not pregnant. Participants will be assessed before randomisation, at 5-month, and 12-month follow-up, the latter being the primary. The primary outcome is diabetes distress. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, depressive symptoms and non-serious adverse events. Exploratory outcomes are haemoglobin A1c, motivation and serious adverse events. Data will be collected using REDCap and analysed using Stata V.16. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial will be conducted in compliance with the protocol, the Helsinki Declaration in its latest form, International Harmonisation of Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the applicable regulatory requirement(s). The trial has been approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (P-2020-864). The Ethics Committee of the Capital Region of Denmark reviewed the trial protocol, but exempted the trial protocol from full review (H-20003638). The results of the trial will be presented at the outpatient clinics treating people with type 2 diabetes, at national and international conferences as well as to associations for people with diabetes and their relatives. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04601311.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Attention , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Pregnancy , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580507

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread to almost all countries of the World and affected people both mentally and economically. The primary motivation of this research is to construct a model that takes reviews or evaluations from several people who are affected with COVID-19. As the number of cases has accelerated day by day, people are becoming panicked and concerned about their health. A good model may be helpful to provide accurate statistics in interpreting the actual records about the pandemic. In the proposed work, for sentimental analysis, a unique classifier named the Sentimental DataBase Miner algorithm (SADBM) is used to categorize the opinions and parallel processing, and is applied on the data collected from various online social media websites like Twitter, Facebook, and Linkedin. The accuracy of the proposed model is validated with trained data and compared with basic classifiers, such as logistic regression and decision tree. The proposed algorithm is executed on CPU as well as GPU and calculated the acceleration ratio of the model. The results show that the proposed model provides the best accuracy compared with the other two models, i.e., 96% (GPU).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , Attention , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 2592-2596, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566189

ABSTRACT

For COVID-19 prevention and treatment, it is essential to screen the pneumonia lesions in the lung region and analyze them in a qualitative and quantitative manner. Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) volumes can provide sufficient information; however, extra boundaries of the lesions are also needed. The major challenge of automatic 3D segmentation of COVID-19 from CT volumes lies in the inadequacy of datasets and the wide variations of pneumonia lesions in their appearance, shape, and location. In this paper, we introduce a novel network called Comprehensive 3D UNet (C3D-UNet). Compared to 3D-UNet, an intact encoding (IE) strategy designed as residual dilated convolutional blocks with increased dilation rates is proposed to extract features from wider receptive fields. Moreover, a local attention (LA) mechanism is applied in skip connections for more robust and effective information fusion. We conduct five-fold cross-validation on a private dataset and independent offline evaluation on a public dataset. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms other compared methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attention , Humans , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561277

ABSTRACT

It has been suggested that mindfulness is a predictive factor in self-reported perceived stress. The present study aimed to investigate the link between mindful attention awareness, perceived stress and subjective wellbeing without the presence of a complementary intervention to promote mindfulness-based strategies. METHODS: The online survey participants (N = 257) were university students enrolled in initial teacher training. Self-report measures included the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI). RESULTS: PWI was negatively correlated with PSS (r = -0.550, p = .001), MAAS was negatively correlated with PSS (r = -0.567, p = .001) and positively correlated with PWI (r = 0.336, p = .001). The mean score for PSS (M = 20.61, SD = 6.62) was above the reported norm (14.2). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that higher levels of mindful attention awareness may be associated with lower levels of perceived stress and higher subjective wellbeing levels and lower levels of perceived stress may be associated with higher subjective wellbeing. The findings confirm that pre-service teachers are a demographic that experiences elevated levels of perceived stress regardless of the stage in initial teacher training programs.


Subject(s)
Educational Personnel , Mindfulness , Attention , Awareness , Humans , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(3): 606-613, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The excess of visceral adipose tissue might hinder and delay immune response. How people with abdominal obesity (AO) will respond to mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is yet to be established. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were evaluated after the first and second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, comparing the response of individuals with AO with the response of those without, and discerning between individuals with or without prior infection. METHODS: Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-neutralizing antibodies against the Trimeric complex (IgG-TrimericS) were measured at four time points: at baseline, at day 21 after vaccine dose 1, and at 1 and 3 months after dose 2. Nucleocapsid antibodies were assessed to detect prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Waist circumference was measured to determine AO. RESULTS: Between the first and third month after vaccine dose 2, the drop in IgG-TrimericS levels was more remarkable in individuals with AO compared with those without AO (2.44-fold [95% CI: 2.22-2.63] vs. 1.82-fold [95% CI: 1.69-1.92], respectively, p < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression confirmed this result after inclusion of assessed confounders (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The waning antibody levels in individuals with AO may further support recent recommendations to offer booster vaccines to adults with high-risk medical conditions, including obesity, and particularly to those with a more prevalent AO phenotype.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , Attention , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1229, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Survey studies have found that vaccinated persons tend to report more side effects after being given information about side effects rather than benefits. However, the impact of high media attention about vaccine-related side effects on the utilization of health care is unknown. We aimed to assess whether utilization of health care services for newly vaccinated health care workers changed after media attention about fatal side effects of the AstraZeneca vaccine on March 11th, 2021, and whether changes differed by age, sex, or occupation. METHODS: We utilized individual-level data on health care use, vaccination, employment, and demographics available in the Norwegian emergency preparedness register Beredt C19. In all 99,899 health care workers in Norway who were vaccinated with AstraZeneca between February 11th and March 11th, we used an event-study design with a matched comparison group to compare the change in primary and inpatient specialist care use from 14 days before to 14 days after the information shock on March 11th, 2021. RESULTS: Primary health care use increased with 8.2 daily consultations per 1000 health care workers (95% CI 7.51 to 8.89) the week following March 11th for those vaccinated with AstraZeneca (n = 99,899), compared with no increase for the unvaccinated comparison group (n = 186,885). Utilization of inpatient care also increased with 0.8 daily hospitalizations per 1000 health care workers (95% CI 0.37 to 1.23) in week two after March 11th. The sharpest increase in daily primary health care use in the first week after March 11th was found for women aged 18-44 (10.6 consultations per 1000, 95% CI 9.52 to 11.68) and for cleaners working in the health care sector (9.8 consultations per 1000, 95% CI 3.41 to 16.19). CONCLUSIONS: Health care use was higher after the media reports of a few cases of fatal or severe side effects of the AstraZeneca vaccine. Our results suggest that the reports did not only lead vaccinated individuals to contact primary health care more, but also that physicians referred and treated more cases to specialist care after the new information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Attention , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Vaccination
20.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(106): 329-339, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498355

ABSTRACT

The present article offers an analysis from a bioethical perspective of the treatment provided to senior citizens in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. To begin with, the article highlights the paradox that exists when measures are adopted for the care of elderly people during a pandemic, and in some occasions the age of the patient is the determining factor for deciding whether to provide care or not in cases of scarcity. The question that arises then is: What is the adequate treatment for senior citizens? Using the Inter-American Convention on the Protection of the Human Rights of Elderly Persons as a point of reference, this article assesses the problem of the scarce resource allocation in the Third Age during a pandemic. As a conclusion, the pandemic is a great opportunity to reflect on the respect that we should give to every human being at every stage of his/her life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Attention , Female , Human Rights , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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