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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 799658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573575

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the effects of pandemics sentiment (the World Pandemics Discussion Index) on the returns of the global art market from 1998Q1 to 2021Q2 at the global level. The Ordinary Least Squares and the Quantile Regression estimations indicate that global pandemics sentiment positively affects the returns of the global art market. This evidence means that investing in the art market can hedge the uncertainty shocks related to pandemics at the global level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Attitude , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e057127, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine SARS-CoV-2 vaccine confidence, attitudes and intentions in Australian adults as part of the iCARE Study. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional online survey conducted when free COVID-19 vaccinations first became available in Australia in February 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Total of 1166 Australians from general population aged 18-90 years (mean 52, SD of 19). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: responses to question 'If a vaccine for COVID-19 were available today, what is the likelihood that you would get vaccinated?'.Secondary outcome: analyses of putative drivers of uptake, including vaccine confidence, socioeconomic status and sources of trust, derived from multiple survey questions. RESULTS: Seventy-eight per cent reported being likely to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Higher SARS-CoV-2 vaccine intentions were associated with: increasing age (OR: 2.01 (95% CI 1.77 to 2.77)), being male (1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.72)), residing in least disadvantaged area quintile (2.27 (95% CI 1.53 to 3.37)) and a self-perceived high risk of getting COVID-19 (1.52 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.14)). However, 72% did not believe they were at a high risk of getting COVID-19. Findings regarding vaccines in general were similar except there were no sex differences. For both the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and vaccines in general, there were no differences in intentions to vaccinate as a function of education level, perceived income level and rurality. Knowing that the vaccine is safe and effective and that getting vaccinated will protect others, trusting the company that made it and vaccination recommended by a doctor were reported to influence a large proportion of the study cohort to uptake the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Seventy-eight per cent reported the intent to continue engaging in virus-protecting behaviours (mask wearing, social distancing, etc) postvaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Most Australians are likely to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Key influencing factors identified (eg, knowing vaccine is safe and effective, and doctor's recommendation to get vaccinated) can inform public health messaging to enhance vaccination rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Vaccines , Adult , Attitude , Australia , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Male , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 767447, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581115

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination has been recognized as a vital step for containing the COVID-19 outbreak. To ensure the success of immunization efforts as a public health containment measure, a high level of public vaccination compliance is essential. Targeted educational programs can be utilized to improve attitudes toward vaccination and improve the public's uptake of protective measures. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of a concise educational program on perceived knowledge regarding the COVID-19 vaccine, vaccine importance and trust, protection and fear from COVID-19, trust in authorities, as well as individual resilience. Results: The study evaluated 503 participants that completed the questionnaire before and after viewing a concise video tutorial on vaccination. Following the educational program, scores of five variables increased significantly compared to their pre-viewing level: knowledge, personal resilience, trust in authorities, vaccine importance, as well as perceived protection. Those that were vaccinated and/or intend to be vaccinated (N = 394) report higher levels of knowledge, trust in authorities, vaccine importance, vaccine trust, and fear of being infected as compared to those that are unwilling to get vaccinated. Positive significant correlations were found between resilience and trust in authorities (r = 0.169, p < 0.001), vaccine importance (r = 0.098, p = 0.028), and feeling protected (r = 0.310, p < 0.001). Trust in authorities was positively correlated with vaccine importance (r = 0.589, p < 0.001) and vaccine trust (r = 0.177, p < 0.001). Vaccine importance was positively correlated with vaccine trust (r = 0.149, p = 0.001), but not correlated with knowledge score. Conclusion: The findings of the study demonstrate the benefits of educational programs on improving attitudes toward vaccination acceptability. Incorporation of such concise educational programs by authorities may improve uptake of COVID-19 vaccination and help overcome public vaccine hesitancy. We recommend that such a concise and easily implementable educational program be incorporated as a response component to the current and future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 781827, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581107

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2020. This led to previously unforeseen measures that aimed to curb its spread, such as the lockdown of cities, districts, and international travel. Various researchers and institutions have focused on multidimensional opportunities and solutions in encountering the COVID-19 pandemic. This study focuses on mental health and sentiment validations caused by the global lockdowns across the countries, resulting in a mental disability among individuals. This paper discusses a technique for identifying the mental state of an individual by sentiment analysis of feelings such as anxiety, depression, and loneliness caused by isolation and pauses to the normal chains of operations in daily life. The research uses a Neural Network (NN) to resolve and extract patterns and validate threshold trained datasets for decision making. This technique was used to validate 2,173 global speech samples, and the resulting accuracy of mental state and sentiments are identified with 93.5% accuracy in classifying the behavioral patterns of patients suffering from COVID-19 and pandemic-influenced depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Attitude , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580793

ABSTRACT

Mandatory occupational vaccination for health care workers (HCWs) is a debatable issue, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine Mongolian HCWs' attitudes towards mandatory occupational vaccination, the intention to get the COVID-19 vaccine, and the associated factors. A cross-sectional study based on an online survey with a convenience sampling strategy was conducted from February to April 2021 among 238 Mongolia HCWs. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed for analysis. While only 39.9% of HCWs were aware of recommended occupational vaccinations, they highly agreed with the mandatory occupational vaccination on HCWs (93.7%). The agreement rate is significantly higher than their attitude toward general vaccination (93.7% vs. 77.8%). HCW's willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine was high (67.2%). HCWs aged 26-35 years old who worked in tertiary level hospitals had less willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine (50%). Participants with lower confidence in the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine (ORs = 15.659) and less positive attitudes toward general vaccination (ORs = 5.288) were less likely to get the COVID-19 vaccine. Mongolian HCWs' agreement rate of mandatory occupational vaccination is higher than other countries. Their intention to get the COVID-19 vaccine is high and associated with confidence in the effectiveness of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580711

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the government has provided infection-control guidelines to prevent the spread of the virus. The authors of this study examined the structure (causal relationship) of factors that influence public behavior toward COVID-19 and verified the effect of public empathy with infection-control guidelines in each structure. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire survey from 211 Korean adults. The results showed that (1) the perceived susceptibility and severity of economic damage had a positive effect on infection-prevention attitudes and infection-prevention attitudes had a positive effect on infection-prevention behaviors; (2) the perceived severity of economic damage had a positive effect on infection-prevention attitudes; and (3) public empathy with infection-control guidelines positively moderated the effect of the perceived severity of economic damage on infection-prevention behaviors and that of perceived susceptibility on infection-prevention attitudes. Accordingly, the authors of this study present the following three suggestions to prevent the spread of an infectious disease: engage in risk communication focused on a potential virus infection and cooperation, make multifaceted efforts to increase public empathy with infection-control guidelines, and implement measures to alleviate or reduce economic damage to the public in a viral pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Attitude , Empathy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
J Hum Hypertens ; 35(10): 828-836, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575511

ABSTRACT

Concern has arisen about the role played in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). This study was designed to assess the practice behaviors of physicians toward hypertension treatment with ACE-i or ARBs during the COVID-19 pandemic. A self-administered survey questionnaire consisting of 26 questions about current hypertension treatment with ACE-i/ ARBs was applied to cardiologists, internists, and family physicians in central and western Turkey, between 01 and 19 May 2020. A total of 460 physicians were approached, and 220 (47.8%) participated in the study. Of the total respondents, 78.7% reported that they had not changed their antihypertensive medication prescribing pattern, 8.6% of clinicians had changed ACE-i/ ARBs medicine of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and 12.7% of them were undecided. The median (±interquartile range) score indicating general reliance level of physicians in ACE-i/ARBs therapy was 8 ± 4 (range, 1-10). In multiple comparison analyses, the general reliance level in ACE-i/ARBs, reliance level when starting a new ACEi/ARBs and changing behavior in heart failure patients were significantly different with regard to the specialties (p:0.02, p:0.009, p:0.005 respectively). Although most of the physicians found the publications about ACE-i/ ARBs during the COVID-19 pandemic untrustworthy, there were variable levels of knowledge and reliance among different physicians and specialty groups. In general, the ACE-i/ ARBs prescribing habits were not affected by safety concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Attitude , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23467, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries across the globe have released their own COVID-19 contact tracing apps. This has resulted in the proliferation of several apps that used a variety of technologies. With the absence of a standardized approach used by the authorities, policy makers, and developers, many of these apps were unique. Therefore, they varied by function and the underlying technology used for contact tracing and infection reporting. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze most of the COVID-19 contact tracing apps in use today. Beyond investigating the privacy features, design, and implications of these apps, this research examined the underlying technologies used in contact tracing apps. It also attempted to provide some insights into their level of penetration and to gauge their public reception. This research also investigated the data collection, reporting, retention, and destruction procedures used by each of the apps under review. METHODS: This research study evaluated 13 apps corresponding to 10 countries based on the underlying technology used. The inclusion criteria ensured that most COVID-19-declared epicenters (ie, countries) were included in the sample, such as Italy. The evaluated apps also included countries that did relatively well in controlling the outbreak of COVID-19, such as Singapore. Informational and unofficial contact tracing apps were excluded from this study. A total of 30,000 reviews corresponding to the 13 apps were scraped from app store webpages and analyzed. RESULTS: This study identified seven distinct technologies used by COVID-19 tracing apps and 13 distinct apps. The United States was reported to have released the most contact tracing apps, followed by Italy. Bluetooth was the most frequently used underlying technology, employed by seven apps, whereas three apps used GPS. The Norwegian, Singaporean, Georgian, and New Zealand apps were among those that collected the most personal information from users, whereas some apps, such as the Swiss app and the Italian (Immuni) app, did not collect any user information. The observed minimum amount of time implemented for most of the apps with regard to data destruction was 14 days, while the Georgian app retained records for 3 years. No significant battery drainage issue was reported for most of the apps. Interestingly, only about 2% of the reviewers expressed concerns about their privacy across all apps. The number and frequency of technical issues reported on the Apple App Store were significantly more than those reported on Google Play; the highest was with the New Zealand app, with 27% of the reviewers reporting technical difficulties (ie, 10% out of 27% scraped reviews reported that the app did not work). The Norwegian, Swiss, and US (PathCheck) apps had the least reported technical issues, sitting at just below 10%. In terms of usability, many apps, such as those from Singapore, Australia, and Switzerland, did not provide the users with an option to sign out from their apps. CONCLUSIONS: This article highlighted the fact that COVID-19 contact tracing apps are still facing many obstacles toward their widespread and public acceptance. The main challenges are related to the technical, usability, and privacy issues or to the requirements reported by some users.


Subject(s)
Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Mobile Applications , Privacy , Australia , Data Collection , Disease Outbreaks , Geographic Information Systems , Georgia (Republic) , Humans , Italy , New Zealand , Norway , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Switzerland , Technology , United States , Wireless Technology
9.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 164, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted once more the great need for comprehensive access to, and uncomplicated use of, pre-existing patient data for medical research. Enabling secondary research-use of patient-data is a prerequisite for the efficient and sustainable promotion of translation and personalisation in medicine, and for the advancement of public-health. However, balancing the legitimate interests of scientists in broad and unrestricted data-access and the demand for individual autonomy, privacy and social justice is a great challenge for patient-based medical research. METHODS: We therefore conducted two questionnaire-based surveys among North-German outpatients (n = 650) to determine their attitude towards data-donation for medical research, implemented as an opt-out-process. RESULTS: We observed a high level of acceptance (75.0%), the most powerful predictor of a positive attitude towards data-donation was the conviction that every citizen has a duty to contribute to the improvement of medical research (> 80% of participants approving data-donation). Interestingly, patients distinguished sharply between research inside and outside the EU, despite a general awareness that universities and public research institutions cooperate with commercial companies, willingness to allow use of donated data by the latter was very low (7.1% to 29.1%, depending upon location of company). The most popular measures among interviewees to counteract reservations against commercial data-use were regulation by law (61.4%), stipulating in the process that data are not sold or resold (84.6%). A majority requested control of both the use (46.8%) and the protection (41.5%) of the data by independent bodies. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, data-donation for medical research, implemented as a combination of legal entitlement and easy-to-exercise-right to opt-out, was found to be widely supported by German patients and therefore warrants further consideration for a transposition into national law.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Attitude , Humans , Privacy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572471

ABSTRACT

Human-nature relationships are an important aspect of leisure research. Previous studies also reported that nature-related activities have a health benefit. In this study, we surveyed US-American birdwatchers at two time points during the COVID pandemic (independent samples). During the beginning of the COVID pandemic in spring 2020, we analyzed their comments with an AI sentiment analysis. Approximately one year later (winter 2020/21), during the second wave, the study was repeated, and a second data set was analyzed. Here we show that during the ongoing pandemic, the sentiments became more negative. This is an important result because it shows that despite the positive impact of nature on mental health, the sentiments become more negative in the enduring pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Attitude , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572463

ABSTRACT

A so-called COVID-19 passport or Immunity passport (IP) has been proposed to facilitate the mobility of individuals while the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic persists. A COVID-19 passport can play a key role in the control of the pandemic, specifically in areas with a high density of population, and the help of smart city technology could be very useful to successfully implement IPs. This research studies the impact of ethical judgments on user attitudes toward using vaccine passports based on a Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES) that contains five ethical constructs: moral equity, relativism, egoism, utilitarianism, and contractualism. Regression analysis shows that MES satisfactorily explains attitude (R2 = 87.82%, p < 0.001) and that a positive evaluation in moral equity, egoism and utilitarianism is significant (p < 0.001). The objective of the passport (variable leisure) shows a significant negative moderating effect on moral equity (coefficient = -0.147, p = 0.0302) and a positive one on relativism (coefficient = 0.158, p = 0.0287). Adjustment by means of fsQCA shows that five ethical constructs satisfactorily explain both favorable and unfavorable attitudes toward IPs. Solutions explaining acceptance attain an overall consistency (cons) = 0.871 and coverage (cov) = 0.980. In the case of resistance, we found that cons = 0.979 and cov = 0.775. However, that influence is asymmetrical. To have a positive attitude toward the passport, it is a sufficient condition to attain a positive evaluation on a single ethical factor. On the other hand, when explaining resistance, and with the exception of the recipe ~utilitarianism (cons = 0.911 and cov = 0.859), explanatory prime implications require the interaction of at least two variables. Likewise, the context in which the passport is required is significant to explain rejection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attitude , Humans , Morals , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555026

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 vaccine has become a strategic vehicle for reducing the spread of the pandemic. However, the uptake of the vaccine by the public is more complicated than simply making it available. Based on social learning theory, this study examines the role of communication sources and institutional trust as barriers and incentives as motivators of people's attitudes toward vaccination and actual vaccination. Data were collected via an online panel survey among Israelis aged 18-55 and then analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings show that social media trust negatively mediates the effect of exposure to information on the vaccine on attitudes toward vaccination. However, mass media trust and institutional trust positively mediate this relationship. Incentives were effective motivators for forming positive attitudes and moderating the effect of institutional trust on attitude toward vaccination. This study facilitates a deeper understanding of health communication theory in pandemics and makes important recommendations for practitioners and policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Attitude , Humans , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , Vaccination
13.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 4321131, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553710

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating effect on many people, creating severe anxiety, fear, and complicated feelings or emotions. After the initiation of vaccinations against coronavirus, people's feelings have become more diverse and complex. Our aim is to understand and unravel their sentiments in this research using deep learning techniques. Social media is currently the best way to express feelings and emotions, and with the help of Twitter, one can have a better idea of what is trending and going on in people's minds. Our motivation for this research was to understand the diverse sentiments of people regarding the vaccination process. In this research, the timeline of the collected tweets was from December 21 to July21. The tweets contained information about the most common vaccines available recently from across the world. The sentiments of people regarding vaccines of all sorts were assessed using the natural language processing (NLP) tool, Valence Aware Dictionary for sEntiment Reasoner (VADER). Initializing the polarities of the obtained sentiments into three groups (positive, negative, and neutral) helped us visualize the overall scenario; our findings included 33.96% positive, 17.55% negative, and 48.49% neutral responses. In addition, we included our analysis of the timeline of the tweets in this research, as sentiments fluctuated over time. A recurrent neural network- (RNN-) oriented architecture, including long short-term memory (LSTM) and bidirectional LSTM (Bi-LSTM), was used to assess the performance of the predictive models, with LSTM achieving an accuracy of 90.59% and Bi-LSTM achieving 90.83%. Other performance metrics such as precision,, F1-score, and a confusion matrix were also used to validate our models and findings more effectively. This study improves understanding of the public's opinion on COVID-19 vaccines and supports the aim of eradicating coronavirus from the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deep Learning , Social Media , Attitude , Attitude to Health , Databases, Factual , Humans , Language , Models, Statistical , Neural Networks, Computer , Public Opinion , Reproducibility of Results , Vaccination
14.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542688

ABSTRACT

A strong sociocultural context could affect an individual's aesthetic standards. In order to achieve a socially recognized ideal appearance, obligatory exercisers might increase dieting behavior when exercise actions are disturbed, thereby placing the individual at risk of eating disorders. The current study mainly examined the relationship between obligatory exercise and eating attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and considered the mediating role of externalized sociocultural attitudes towards appearance between the two. A total of 342 participants (175 females, 167 males) from various regions of China were invited to fill out the questionnaires including the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire, the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3, and the Eating Attitudes Test. In total, 51.5% of the participants presented symptoms of an obligatory exercise behavior. Among them, males, young adults, and the participants with lower BMI had higher OEQ scores, whereas females and young adults had higher EAT-26 scores. Meanwhile, 9.4% of the participants might have had an eating disorder. The OEQ score was positively correlated with the EAT-26 total score as well as SATAQ-3 'Pressures' and 'Information' subscales. In addition, the EAT-26 total score was positively correlated with the SATAQ-3 'Pressures' and 'Information' subscales. Externalized sociocultural attitudes towards appearance served as a mediator between obligatory exercise behavior and eating attitudes, and the mediation effect accounted for 56.82% of the total effect. Obligatory exercise behavior may have an indirect effect on eating attitudes through sociocultural attitudes towards appearance. Given the sociocultural information and pressures, in order to maintain or pursue an ideal appearance, many people tend to keep a pathological diet. Thus, forming a positive and healthy social aesthetic orientation is beneficial in helping obligatory exercisers to develop reasonable eating habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 745149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533722

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study aimed to (1) assess the non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI) measures that were used by the Jordanian population against COVID-19, and (2) determine the sociodemographic and behavioral predictors of contracting COVID-19 with a focus on the utilization of personal precautionary measures. Methods: A descriptive questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was used in this study. A structured web-based questionnaire was disseminated to the Jordanian community through social media platforms. Participants were asked a series of questions about socio-demographic characteristics, in addition to the knowledge, attitudes, and commitment toward using various personal precautionary measures (e.g., face mask, hand washing, social distancing) against the COVID-19. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation, and binary logistic regression through SPSS®. Results: Responses from 7,746 participants were included in our final analyses. Descriptive statistics showed that most participants (82.6%) believed that face mask protects against COVID-19. Around 69.5% of the participants were completely committed to wearing a face mask, while 65% of the participants were completely committed to hand washing. The results of the regression analysis revealed that female gender (AOR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.07-1.35; p = 0.002), having a family member infected with COVID-19 (AOR = 8.5; 95% Cl: 7.51-9.70; p = 0.001), having a health-related work or study (AOR = 1.2; 95% Cl: 1.09-1.38; p = 0.001), believing that face masks do not protect against COVID-19 (AOR = 1.3; 95% Cl: 1.12-1.47; p = 0.001), and partial commitment to handwashing (AOR = 1.2; 95% Cl: 1.11-1.75; p = 0.006) were all associated with an increased odds of contracting COVID-19 among the participants. Conclusion: Overall, commitment to non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI) measures, such as wearing a face mask, hand washing, and physical distancing, was not optimal among Jordanians. This might explain the dramatic increase in the infectivity rate of the COVID-19 virus in the past few months in the country. More sustainable efforts regarding health promotion and strict policies are required to prevent a third wave of hitting the country and to prevent similar infectious threats in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Masks , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1776-1783, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a priority group, healthcare personnel (HCP) will be key to the success of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination programs. This study assessed HCP willingness to get vaccinated and identified specific concerns that would undermine vaccination efforts. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCP, including clinical and nonclinical staff, researchers, and trainees, between 23 November and 5 December 2020. The survey evaluated attitudes, beliefs, and willingness to get vaccinated. RESULTS: There were 5287 respondents with a mean (SD) age of 42.5 (13.56) years; 72.8% were female (n = 3842). Overall, 57.5 % of individuals expressed intent to receive COVID-19 vaccine; 80.4% were physicians and scientists representing the largest group. 33.6% of registered nurses, 31.6% of allied health professionals, and 32% of master's level clinicians were unsure they would take the vaccine (P < .001). Respondents who were older, male, White, or Asian were more likely to get vaccinated than other groups. Vaccine safety, potential adverse events, efficacy, and speed of vaccine development dominated concerns listed by participants. Fewer (54.0%) providers of direct care versus non-care providers (62.4%) and 52.0% of those who had provided care for COVID-19 patients (vs 60.6% of those who had not) indicated they would take the vaccine if offered (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that self-reported willingness to receive vaccination against COVID-19 differs by hospital roles, with physicians and research scientists showing the highest acceptance. These findings highlight important heterogeneity in personal attitudes among HCPs around COVID-19 vaccines and highlight a need for tailored communication strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Vaccination
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 741188, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518572

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The first year of the COVID-19 pandemic has been highly disruptive for people with cancer. Furthermore, it has been shown that accrual to cancer trials dropped substantially in 2020. Building on findings from a previous pilot survey, the present study used qualitative methods to gain insights into attitudes towards participation in research studies amongst people who have experienced cancer, in the context of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: We interviewed 13 participants from the UK, who were purposively sampled, including a broad sample of cancer types, and a mixture of individuals who have and have not taken part in research previously. Participants underwent semi-structured interviews (median interview duration: 47 min) and were asked open-ended questions about their attitude towards and experiences with COVID-19, and their attitude towards research participation. In addition to this, prompts were used to ask participants about concerns that were highlighted by our previous quantitative work on this topic, such as concerns about being older or having to travel to participate. Interview transcripts were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Results: Our findings suggest that cancer patient decision-making about research participation during an infectious disease pandemic may be a function of a basic cost-benefit analysis, which considers the benefit of taking part, either personally to themselves or to wider society. The benefit may then be weighed by the patient against the risk of being infected, which may be influenced by trust in the relevant clinicians/researchers; familiarity with the study location; provision of detailed information on safety protocols for infectious disease; and, in particular, the availability of safe transport to and from the study location. Discussion: Some cancer patients say that they would be less likely to participate in a research study in the middle of an infectious disease pandemic due to an increased risk to themselves. Patients' perceived risk to themselves from participating may be ameliorated via the provision of certain practical solutions that can be considered at the study protocol design stage, such as safe travel, information, and the use of staff and study sites familiar to the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Neoplasms , Attitude , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Orv Hetil ; 162(46): 1842-1847, 2021 11 14.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518389

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Manapság, a COVID-19-járvány közepette, a megfelelo kézmosás segít megelozni vagy legalábbis lassítani a fertozo betegségek, például a SARS-CoV-2-fertozés terjedését. A kézmosás rutinjának megfelelo oktatás multilaterális tevékenységet igényel, amely a fiatalok ismeretén, egészségmagatartásán, attitudjein, tapasztalatain és motivációján alapul. A TANTUdSZ Ifjúsági Egészségnevelési Program kortársoktató pedagógiai és egészségtudományi egyetemi karok hallgatóival, valamint középiskolai kortárssegítokkel és mintegy 3000, magyarországi óvodás, általános és középiskolás diák bevonásával valósult meg, különbözo egészségfejlesztési területeken. A vizsgálatok egyik célja az oktatási program hatékonyságának értékelése érdekében a gyermekek kézhigiénés ismereteinek és készségeinek elemzése és összehasonlítása volt a beavatkozások elott és után. A jelen közleményben ismertetett longitudinális felmérés alsó tagozatos tanulók (n = 165) kézmosási készségének és attitudváltozásainak rövid és hosszú távú változását értékeli három idopontban. A mérések önkitöltos, anonim kérdoívvel és kéziszkenner-technológiával (Semmelweis Scanner) készültek, mely utóbbi mérési eszköz a különbözo kézterületek tisztaságát kvantitatív és digitális értékelésekkel detektálta. A beavatkozás eredményes volt mind rövid, mind hosszú távon a bemeneti (kezdeti) mérésekhez képest. Az eredmények azonban különbséget mutattak a gyakorlati készségek elsajátításának folyamatában. Jelentos elorelépés történt a kézmosás attitudjének változásában. Az életkor-specifikus egészségfejlesztési oktatási programokban, különösen a gyermekpopulációban, hangsúlyt kell fektetni az elméleti, a gyakorlati ismeretek, valamint az egészségmagatartás hosszú távú megorzésére is. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(46): 1842-1847. Summary. Presently, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, proper hand washing helps prevent or at least slow the spread of infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2 infection. Proper education in hand washing routines requires multilateral action based on young people's knowledge, health behaviors, attitudes, experiences, and motivations. The TANTUdSZ Youth Health Education Program was implemented with students of contemporary teaching faculties of pedagogical and health sciences as well as with secondary school peer helpers and with the involvement of about 3000 pre-school, primary and secondary school students in Hungary in various fields of health development. One of the aims of the studies was to analyze and compare children's hand hygiene knowledge and skills before and after the pedagogical interventions in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational program. The longitudinal survey described in this paper assesses the short- and long-term changes of primary school students' (from class 1 to 4; n = 165) hand washing skills and the attitudinal changes in their health behaviors at three time points. Measurements were performed using a self-completion, anonymous questionnaire and hand-held scanner technology (Semmelweis Scanner), the latter measuring device detecting the purity of different hand areas with quantitative and digital evaluations. The educational intervention was effective in both short and long term compared to input (initial) measurements. However, the results showed a difference in the process of acquiring practical skills. There has been a significant progress in changing attitudes to hand washing. Age-specific health promotion education programs, especially in the pediatric population, should also focus on the long-term preservation of theoretical, practical knowledge, and health behaviors. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(46): 1842-1847.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Adolescent , Attitude , Child , Humans , Hungary , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259675, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518358

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a pandemic is usually accompanied by different measures-economic, social, preventive, and (self)protective. In the case of the COVID-19, several preventive measures were formally enforced by state authorities in the majority of countries worldwide. Thus, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the intertwining of formal and informal social control could be observed. Hence, in this study a cross-sectional design was chosen to explore the issue in Slovenia. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first in the current literature to empirically test the general deterrence theory in pandemic circumstances (as external factors predicting individuals' compliance with the COVID-19 preventive measures). The results suggest an important role of informal punishment, with perceived informal severity being the only statistically significant factor from the general deterrence theory. In contrast to external factors, internal factors play a significantly greater role in promoting people's self-protective behavior in pandemic circumstances. During the unknown, the uncertain and delicate situations with which people have no previous experience, both personal beliefs about the effectiveness of measures and perceived self-efficacy are more important than fear of formal sanctions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Motivation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Reproducibility of Results , Slovenia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512298

ABSTRACT

Oral health concerns in Eritrean refugees have been an overlooked subject. This qualitative study explored the access of Eritrean refugees and asylum-seekers (ERNRAS) to oral health care services in Heidelberg, Germany, as well as their perceptions and attitudes towards oral health care. It involved 25 participants. We employed online semi-structured interviews (n = 15) and focus group discussions (n = 2). The data was recorded, transcribed, and analysed, using thematic analysis. The study found out that most of the participants have a relatively realistic perception and understanding of oral health. However, they have poor dental care practices, whilst a few have certain misconceptions of the conventional oral hygiene tools. Along with the majority's concerns regarding psychosocial attributes of poor oral health, some participants are routinely consuming Berbere (a traditional spice-blended pepper) to prevent bad breath. Structural or supply-side barriers to oral healthcare services included: communication hurdles; difficulty in identifying and navigating the German health system; gaps in transculturally, professionally, and communicationally competent oral health professionals; cost of dental treatment; entitlement issues (asylum-seekers); and appointment mechanisms. Individual or demand-side barriers comprised: lack of self-sufficiency; issue related to dental care beliefs, trust, and expectation from dentists; negligence and lack of adherence to dental treatment follow-up; and fear or apprehension of dental treatment. To address the oral health burdens of ERNRAS, it is advised to consider oral health education, language-specific, inclusive, and culturally and professionally appropriate healthcare services.


Subject(s)
Refugees , Attitude , Germany , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Qualitative Research
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