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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(57): 85717-85726, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148928

ABSTRACT

Through administrative research and media records, this paper aims to examine and highlight the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on Malaysian workers, property development, construction sites, and the national economy. The development of real estate and the construction industry can significantly impact socio-economic growth and infrastructure development. Adequate building and infrastructure construction can ensure national economic stability, job creation, community cohesion, and higher living standards. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began in 2019, many countries, including Malaysia, have reported an increased number of virus cases. According to the Ministry of Health, 9316 cases and 314 COVID-19 clusters were discovered in Malaysia, with a 38.55-48.06% prevalence for factories, a 12.55-15.29% prevalence for community spreading, an 8.6-11.56% prevalence for construction sites, a 5.53-7.96% prevalence for educational sites, and a 7.01% prevalence for shopping areas. Several governments-imposed lockdowns, movement, and proximity restrictions during the pandemic due to the high infection rates at property development sites. However, due to inactivity in various sectors such as the construction industry, these measures have significantly impacted the national economy. As a result, the pandemic has had an impact on workers, production costs, and project completion timelines, resulting in operational issues and policy concerns. Overall, the records reviewed revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted real estate development, the housing market, and the construction industry. As a result, sustained and targeted policies are required to support Malaysia's construction industry's socio-economic growth and infrastructure development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Malaysia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Attitude
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277969, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140677

ABSTRACT

Nudging is a method for eliciting a desired behavior. One approach to nudging involves information provision. When information presented for this purpose is designed from an evolutionary perspective, it may reveal a deeper level of rationality within human decision-making that might otherwise appear to be irrational. Based on insights from the evolution of altruism, we previously designed a message to remind people of the benefits they have received from the actions of relatives to realize industrialization. We then demonstrated that using this message in Japan was effective at moderating extreme risk-averse attitudes toward air pollution resulting from industrialization. However, the universality of the intervention effect, including whether it could be affected by exogenous factors, was not explored. Therefore, in the present study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial based on an online survey carried out in Japan, Canada, and the US. The intervention was shown to be effective in all the three countries, but the effect size varied according to segment. Although women showed more intervention effects than men in Japan and the US, no significant sex difference was observed in Canada. In terms of personality traits, higher agreeableness significantly contributed to the intervention effects. The influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, which necessitated many lifestyle changes, was found to weaken the intervention effect by increasing the message effect in the control group. We propose that this effect was caused by an increased perception of familial support in everyday life. These results suggest that the nudge message was universally effective, although the effect size might have been affected by cultural factors and social events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Female , Male , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Promotion , Attitude
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1027694, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123479

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Live-streaming fitness is perceived by the Chinese government as an invaluable means to reduce the prevalence of physical inactivity amid the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to investigate the public altitudes of the Chinese people toward live-streaming fitness and provide future health communication strategies on the public promotion of live-streaming fitness accordingly. Methods: This study collected live-streaming fitness-related microblog posts from July 2021 to June 2022 in Weibo, the Chinese equivalent to Twitter. We used the BiLSTM-CNN model to carry out the sentiment analysis, and the structured topic modeling (STM) method to conduct content analysis. Results: This study extracted 114,397 live-streaming fitness-related Weibo posts. Over 80% of the Weibo posts were positive during the period of the study, and over 85% were positive in half of the period. This study finds 8 topics through content analysis, which are fitness during quarantine; cost reduction; online community; celebrity effect; Industry; fitness injuries; live commerce and Zero Covid strategy. Conclusions: It is discovered that the public attitudes toward live-streaming fitness were largely positive. Topics related to celebrity effect (5-11%), fitness injuries (8-16%), live commerce (5-9%) and Zero Covid strategy (16-26%) showed upward trends in negative views of the Chinese people. Specific health communication strategy suggestions are given to target each of the negative topics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Attitude
7.
Health Promot Int ; 37(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117863

ABSTRACT

As new coronavirus variants continue to emerge, in order to better address vaccine-related concerns and promote vaccine uptake in the next few years, the role played by online communities in shaping individuals' vaccine attitudes has become an important lesson for public health practitioners and policymakers to learn. Examining the mechanism that underpins the impact of participating in online communities on the attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines, this study adopted a two-stage hybrid structural equation modeling (SEM)-artificial neural networks (ANN) approach to analyze the survey responses from 1037 Reddit community members. Findings from SEM demonstrated that in leading up to positive COVID-19 vaccine attitudes, sense of online community mediates the positive effects of perceived emotional support and social media usage, and perceived social norm mediates the positive effect of sense of online community as well as the negative effect of political conservatism. Health self-efficacy plays a moderating role between perceived emotional support and perceived social norm of COVID-19 vaccination. Results from the ANN model showed that online community members' perceived social norm of COVID-19 vaccination acts as the most important predictor of positive COVID-19 vaccine attitudes. This study highlights the importance of harnessing online communities in designing COVID-related public health interventions and accelerating normative change in relation to vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Latent Class Analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Attitude , Neural Networks, Computer
8.
Work ; 73(3): 1075-1083, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the years, persons with disabilities have suffered unjustifiably due to a low employment rate, largely the result of unsupportive and negative attitude from employers. Such attitudes are exacerbated during periods of economic stress, with a case par excellence being the current COVID-19 pandemic. Prior studies have addressed common concerns of employers within the workplace. However, the dimensions of these concerns extend beyond the internal working environment, to the outward-facing work environment, involving interactions with customers and suppliers. These concerns have not, thus far, been properly addressed. OBJECTIVE: To develop the Service from People With Visual Impairment (SPVI) psychometric measure, a 6-item employers' attitude assessment tool. METHODS: This study is based on 1,036 questionnaires collected using Online Panel Data (OPD), from managers who have hiring authority. We performed Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) for discriminant and convergent validity. Finally, we present an empirical model comprising a stable single factor and establish predictive validity using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). RESULTS: CFA showed good fit to the observed data; CMIN/DF = 1.94, p > 0.05, CFI = 1, TLI = 0.99, NFI = 1, RMSEA = 0.03. SEM showed good fit; CMIN/DF = 1.91, CFI = 1, TLI = 0.99, NFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.03. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the instrument could become a pragmatic tool to assess employer attitudes to employ people with visual impairment or blindness due to external work environment concerns. The tool is relevant to a wide range of circumstances, including economic downturns. Practical considerations are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Attitude , Psychometrics , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Blindness , Reproducibility of Results
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e40701, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social media provide an ideal medium for breeding and reinforcing vaccine hesitancy, especially during public health emergencies. Algorithmic recommendation-based technology along with users' selective exposure and group pressure lead to online echo chambers, causing inefficiency in vaccination promotion. Avoiding or breaking echo chambers largely relies on key users' behavior. OBJECTIVE: With the ultimate goal of eliminating the impact of echo chambers related to vaccine hesitancy on social media during public health emergencies, the aim of this study was to develop a framework to quantify the echo chamber effect in users' topic selection and attitude contagion about COVID-19 vaccines or vaccinations; detect online opinion leaders and structural hole spanners based on network attributes; and explore the relationships of their behavior patterns and network locations, as well as the relationships of network locations and impact on topic-based and attitude-based echo chambers. METHODS: We called the Sina Weibo application programming interface to crawl tweets related to the COVID-19 vaccine or vaccination and user information on Weibo, a Chinese social media platform. Adopting social network analysis, we examined the low echo chamber effect based on topics in representational networks of information, according to attitude in communication flow networks of users under different interactive mechanisms (retweeting, commenting). Statistical and visual analyses were used to characterize behavior patterns of key users (opinion leaders, structural hole spanners), and to explore their function in avoiding or breaking topic-based and attitude-based echo chambers. RESULTS: Users showed a low echo chamber effect in vaccine-related topic selection and attitude interaction. For the former, the homophily was more obvious in retweeting than in commenting, whereas the opposite trend was found for the latter. Speakers, replicators, and monologists tended to be opinion leaders, whereas common users, retweeters, and networkers tended to be structural hole spanners. Both leaders and spanners tended to be "bridgers" to disseminate diverse topics and communicate with users holding cross-cutting attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines. Moreover, users who tended to echo a single topic could bridge multiple attitudes, while users who focused on diverse topics also tended to serve as bridgers for different attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: This study not only revealed a low echo chamber effect in vaccine hesitancy, but further elucidated the underlying reasons from the perspective of users, offering insights for research about the form, degree, and formation of echo chambers, along with depolarization, social capital, stakeholder theory, user portraits, dissemination pattern of topic, and sentiment. Therefore, this work can help to provide strategies for public health and public opinion managers to cooperate toward avoiding or correcting echo chamber chaos and effectively promoting online vaccine campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Emergencies , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Attitude
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099551

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we investigate the relationship between a person's psychological distress, subjective physical health and their attitudes towards the COVID-19 pandemic. The evaluation was performed on the basis of data from two waves of the Saxon Longitudinal Study, carried out in 2019 (pre-pandemic) and 2021. The number of study participants in both waves was 291. We tested in autoregressive cross-lagged models the stability of the respondents' health status before and during the pandemic and reviewed their influence on attitudes towards COVID-19. Our results show that COVID-19-related concerns are controlled by subjective physical health, while pandemic denial is linked to psychological distress. In an unknown and critical situation, with limited control over the situation, the strategy of avoidance or suppression may be used by individuals for protection by psychologically downplaying the stressor and danger.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Longitudinal Studies , Attitude , Anxiety , Depression
11.
Clin Interv Aging ; 17: 1581-1588, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098929

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Immunization is one of the main components of preventive medicine measures. Influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus, and shingles vaccines are recommended for older adults routinely. This study aimed to show the knowledge and attitudes of the physicians to older adults' vaccination schemes. Patients and Methods: An electronic self-reported questionnaire was sent to physicians between March and July 2021 in Turkey. Sociodemographic characteristics, professional experience, area of expertise, and practice setting of the participants were recorded. As multiple-choice questions; the routinely recommended vaccines, and vaccines suggested in their daily practice before and after the COVID-19 pandemic were enquired. Results: A total of 435 participants were included in the study. 43.9% of the patients were primary family physicians, and 36.8% were internists. 63.4% of the participants had reported reviewing the National Vaccination Scheme. 94.5% of the medical doctors indicated that they had recommended any vaccination to their patients. 20.9% of the practitioners could select four or five of the routinely recommended vaccines. Reviewing the National Adult Vaccination Scheme and being an internist were positively related to predicting the recommended vaccines. The recommendation rates of influenza and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) were seen at 88% and 78%, respectively. Except for PCV13, recommendation rates of other routine vaccines were decreased after the pandemic. Conclusion: Awareness of routine vaccination schedules should be improved among health-care professionals, and reminders for immunization should be provided periodically in each health-care setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Physicians , Humans , Aged , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Attitude
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098776

ABSTRACT

Formal education is crucial for the development of nurses' professional identity and can play a decisive role in attracting students to the nursing profession. This is even more important during a public health emergency such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate nursing students' attitudes and feelings toward their future profession and academic studies during the first COVID-19 lockdown. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 361 nursing students. The data were collected through the Students' attitudes toward the nursing profession during the COVID-19 outbreak scale, and the Satisfaction with online learning scale. Nursing students expressed higher levels of commitment and dedication to their profession compared to perceived job security. They were generally satisfied with their distance learning experience in terms of accessibility of study materials, adaptation of lectures and quality of communication with academic staff. However, students perceived the ICT-supported distance learning as moderately effective. Students' satisfaction with online learning was positively related to their perceived professional commitment. In times of health crisis, faculties should consider students' perceived quality of nursing education and attitudes toward future profession to promote appropriate professional identity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Students, Nursing , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Communicable Disease Control , Attitude
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277183, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098775

ABSTRACT

Disposable plastics are drawing considerable attention as a source of environmental risk despite their benefits in daily life. Banning the use of disposable plastics could increase other types of risks, which may damage the public good in the long run. Considering the trade-off of the risks and benefits, one way to improve social welfare is to conduct proper recycling and to continue using plastics but limit them to essential use, avoiding an unnecessary ban. A potential barrier to such a policy might be risk-averse attitudes toward actions that are perceived to threaten future generations, which is a well-known phenomenon. We previously designed a framework for information provision using messages that remind individuals about familial support, which had significant effects in multiple countries on increasing positive attitudes toward air pollution caused by industrialization. We hypothesized that this information provision could also be effective for disposable plastic use. Thus, we conducted a randomized controlled trial via online surveys in Japan, Canada, and the US to identify the effects of our designed messages about recycling on increasing positive attitudes toward disposable plastics. The intervention effects were measured by the difference-in-difference method and panel analysis based on linear regression models using the respondents' attributes and personality traits. The effects were consistently correlated with a sense of familial support, with the effect sizes varying according to country (US > Japan > Canada). Attributes that positively contributed to the message being more effective were higher agreeableness, lower Machiavellianism, lower psychopathy, and being a woman. Although personal fear about COVID-19 moderated the message effects, concern about the threats to relatives and family boosted the effects. Although the effect sizes were influenced by external factors, the results suggested that our proposed framework for information provision has the potential to be applied to a wider variety of risk-related topics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plastics , Female , Humans , Conservation of Natural Resources , Cross-Cultural Comparison , COVID-19/prevention & control , Attitude
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276863, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098765

ABSTRACT

This study explores pandemic-related changes in Twitter communication by examining differences in emotional, psychological and social sentiment between alcohol-related tweets and a random sample of non-alcohol tweets during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Two equivalent size sets of English-language, COVID-specific tweets posted between February 1st and April 20th, 2020 are examined. The first set includes 1.5 million tweets containing alcohol-related keywords, while the second set does not contain such references. LIWC software analyzed the tweets for sentiment factors. ANCOVAs were used to determine whether language use significantly differed between the sets, considering differences in the pandemic period (before or after the pandemic declaration) while controlling for the number of tweets. The study found that tweets in the 40 days after March 11, 2020 contained more authentic language, more affiliation-oriented language, and exhibited more positive emotion than tweets in the 40 days pre-declaration. Alcohol-related status was a significant factor only when tweets contained personal concerns, regardless of pandemic period. Authenticity levels increased significantly in alcohol-related tweets post-declaration. The findings suggest alcohol may play a lesser role in the expression of psychological, social, and emotional sentiment than the pandemic period, but interaction between authentic language and alcohol references may reflect an increased use of alcohol for coping.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communication , Attitude
15.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e13, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096600

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the consequences of conspiracy theories and the COVID-19 pandemic raised this interest to another level. In this article, I will outline what we know about the consequences of conspiracy theories for individuals, groups, and society, arguing that they are certainly not harmless. In particular, research suggests that conspiracy theories are associated with political apathy, support for non-normative political action, climate denial, vaccine refusal, prejudice, crime, violence, disengagement in the workplace, and reluctance to adhere to COVID-19 recommendations. In this article, I will also discuss the challenges of dealing with the negative consequences of conspiracy theories, which present some opportunities for future research.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Behavior , Politics , Prejudice , Vaccination Refusal , Apathy , Attitude , Climate Change , Crime , Culture , Denial, Psychological , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Personnel Loyalty , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 966779, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089933

ABSTRACT

The 21st century has seen a lot of innovations, among which included the advancement of social media platforms. These platforms brought about interactions between people and changed how news is transmitted, with people now able to voice their opinion as opposed to before where only the reporters were speaking. Social media has become the most influential source of speech freedom and emotions on their platforms. Anyone can express emotions using social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. The raw data is increasing daily for every culture and field of life, so there is a need to process this raw data to get meaningful information. If any nation or country wants to know their people's needs, there should be mined data showing the actual meaning of the people's emotions. The COVID-19 pandemic came with many problems going beyond the virus itself, as there was mass hysteria and the spread of wrong information on social media. This problem put the whole world into turmoil and research was done to find a way to mitigate the spread of incorrect news. In this research study, we have proposed a model of detecting genuine news related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Arabic Text using sentiment-based data from Twitter for Gulf countries. The proposed sentiment analysis model uses Machine Learning and SMOTE for imbalanced dataset handling. The result showed the people in Gulf countries had a negative sentiment during COVID-19 pandemic. This work was done so government authorities can easily learn directly from people all across the world about the spread of COVID-19 and take appropriate actions in efforts to control it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Data Mining , Attitude
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 300: 135-148, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089734

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the views of the general population of two countries (US and Japan), concerning handling of their medical records electronically, disclosure of the name of disease, secondary usage of information, compiling their records into a lifelong medical record, access to their medical records on the internet, questionnaire filling for delicate history, comprehensive consent for laboratory results, chart and genome profile, and AI use in diagnosis and explanation. METHODS: The authors contacted people nationwide in the United States at random via Random Digit Dialing (RDD) in 2008. Same questionnaire plus some new items were surveyed in 2022 by mail invited web entry. The authors had also surveyed people in Japan in 2007 and 2017 using same questionnaires sent by mail. RESULTS: In US, accessing own chart by internet became accepted (positive 52% to 61%) and popular in these 14 years. Japan showed small change, as regional medical record sharing is yet to come. About medical records in un-identifiable manner to be used for the purpose of medical error precautions, infectious disease measures and device/drug developments, in US, positive answers are constantly low, even for infectious disease prevention like CoVID-19. About preference to compile medical record into one file as a lifelong medical record, sharp contrast was observed. US people became favor of lifelong record (46% to 71%), while Japanese people decreased (76% to 57%). As for comprehensive consent, Japan positive answers are more than US for all situations, except if genome profile is included. US answers are almost same, even genome profile is included. About AI (artificial intelligence) application to healthcare, both US and Japan survey showed best preferred is "Doctor may use AI and everything, and explains in person". Japanese people largely prefer explanation in person, while US showed small preference.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Humans , United States , Japan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Attitude , Surveys and Questionnaires , Electronics
18.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276737, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089445

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic changed school contexts and social opportunities dramatically for adolescents around the world. Thus, certain adolescents may have been more susceptible to the stress of the pandemic as a function of differences in schooling. We present data from 1256 United States adolescents (ages 14-16) to examine how the 2020-2021 school context (in-person, hybrid, or virtual) related to feelings of school satisfaction and success, social connection, mental health, and media use. We also examine differences as a function of gender identity. Results demonstrate that school context, particularly in-person compared to virtual schooling, was related to higher school satisfaction and academic success, stronger feelings of social connection and inclusion, lower levels of anxiety and depression, and less problematic media use. Interestingly, adolescents did seem to use media as a tool to support social connection when in hybrid or virtual school contexts, but they also reported higher rates of problematic media use, thus suggesting that media use needs to be examined more carefully to understand its role as a potential protective mechanism for adolescents' social connection and mental health. These findings provide baseline information about how schools' responses to the COVID-19 pandemic may have created disparities among youth. These findings have implications for current school interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Adolescent , Female , United States/epidemiology , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gender Identity , Pandemics , Schools , Attitude
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276439, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089427

ABSTRACT

This study examines how broad attitude networks are affected by tailored interventions aimed at variables selected based on their connectiveness with other variables. We first computed a broad attitude network based on a large-scale cross-sectional COVID-19 survey (N = 6,093). Over a period of approximately 10 weeks, participants were invited five times to complete this survey, with the third and fifth wave including interventions aimed at manipulating specific variables in the broad COVID-19 attitude network. Results suggest that targeted interventions that yield relatively strong effects on variables central to a broad attitude network have downstream effects on connected variables, which can be partially explained by the variables the interventions were aimed at. We conclude that broad attitude network structures can reveal important relations between variables that can help to design new interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Attitude
20.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6987-6997, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086811

ABSTRACT

Attitudes toward vaccination are doubtless an important determinant of public health, and this became evident after the first year of the last COVID-19 pandemic. The issue, long-debated within European societies, especially with respect to occasional surges of diseases in given years, has become a crucial determinant of the wellbeing of a country since 2021. In this study, using microdata from a 2019 Eurobarometer survey, we frame and deepen our knowledge about the main determinants of vaccination attitudes as observed by the related literature. We argue that a positive attitude toward vaccination may be due to individualistic or altruistic reasons, or various incentives; our analysis aims to improve our knowledge about the determinants of such a complex decision. Our findings, obtained by means of a quantitative analysis that employs Ordered Probit, Ordered Logit and Generalized Ordered Logit estimations, provide complete support for some of the theories that have been debated in the literature, limited support for others because of mixed evidence, and no support for some.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Altitude , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Attitude
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