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1.
Intern Med J ; 52(11): 1986-1990, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097771

ABSTRACT

We present the first Australian cohort of patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure managed with escalating respiratory support including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on a standard medical ward at a tertiary Sydney hospital during the 2021 COVID-19 Delta variant outbreak. We demonstrate an equivalent mortality to CPAP delivered in intensive care unit and outline our ward structure and management during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Retrospective Studies , Australia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
2.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091648
3.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091647

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Imported, minimally processed food products have been historically associated with several hepatitis A outbreaks in Australia. Here, we report the first known hepatitis A outbreak in Australia linked to consumption of imported fresh Medjool dates. Between June and September 2021, six genetically identical hepatitis A cases were notified in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. All cases reported date consumption during their exposure period. The implicated dates were positive for hepatitis A virus (HAV) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Rapid detection of this outbreak and the swift implementation of control measures was facilitated by two key factors. Firstly, Australian international border closures implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic meant that a common locally-acquired, as opposed to travel-acquired, source for cases was strongly suspected. Secondly, prompt awareness of a hepatitis A outbreak in the United Kingdom (which was found to be associated with date consumption) allowed for early hypothesis generation and investigation. This paper details the epidemiological and microbiological factors involved in this outbreak investigation and the actions taken to mitigate public health risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis A , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090168

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and related disruptions have not only affected university students' learning and academic outcomes, but also other issues, such as food security status, mental health and employment. In Australia, international students faced additional pressures due to sudden border closures and lack of eligibility for government-provided financial support. This study explored the experiences of domestic and international university students residing in Australia during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic across a range of outcomes. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between July and September 2020 at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. The online survey included food insecurity status, mental health (psychological distress), disruptions to study, employment and sleep. A total of 105 students (n = 66 domestic and n = 39 international) completed the survey. Respondents reported having food insecurity (41.9%) and psychological distress (52.2%, with high and very high levels), with international students reporting significantly higher food insecurity (OR = 9.86 (95% CI 3.9-24.8), p < 0.001) and psychological distress scores (t(90) = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.30 to 8.81, p = 0.009) than domestic students. About one quarter of all respondents reported disruptions to study and employment status around the time of the survey. When asked what government support should be provided for international students, 'financial aid' was the most frequently suggested form of support. This research may help governments and educational institutions design appropriate support, particularly financial and psychological, for both international and domestic university students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply , Australia/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Food Insecurity
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276509, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE(S): To use machine learning (ML) to predict short-term requirements for invasive ventilation in patients with COVID-19 admitted to Australian intensive care units (ICUs). DESIGN: A machine learning study within a national ICU COVID-19 registry in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients who were spontaneously breathing and admitted to participating ICUs with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 20 February 2020 to 7 March 2021. Patients intubated on day one of their ICU admission were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six machine learning models predicted the requirement for invasive ventilation by day three of ICU admission from variables recorded on the first calendar day of ICU admission; (1) random forest classifier (RF), (2) decision tree classifier (DT), (3) logistic regression (LR), (4) K neighbours classifier (KNN), (5) support vector machine (SVM), and (6) gradient boosted machine (GBM). Cross-validation was used to assess the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of machine learning models. RESULTS: 300 ICU admissions collected from 53 ICUs across Australia were included. The median [IQR] age of patients was 59 [50-69] years, 109 (36%) were female and 60 (20%) required invasive ventilation on day two or three. Random forest and Gradient boosted machine were the best performing algorithms, achieving mean (SD) AUCs of 0.69 (0.06) and 0.68 (0.07), and mean sensitivities of 77 (19%) and 81 (17%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Machine learning can be used to predict subsequent ventilation in patients with COVID-19 who were spontaneously breathing and admitted to Australian ICUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Australia/epidemiology , Machine Learning
6.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275008, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fly-In-Fly-Out (FIFO) workers travel to work at isolated locations, and rotate continuous workdays with leave periods at home, and such work practice is common in the offshore oil and gas and onshore mining industry worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic and accompanying public health actions appear to have had a negative impact on several health-related behaviours among the general population. However, little is known about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health behaviours of FIFO workers, who have shown higher pre-pandemic rates of risky behaviours than the general population in Australia. This study examined the health-related behaviours of FIFO workers in the mining industry during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. FIFO workers from an Australian mining company who underwent COVID-19 screening between May and November 2020 completed an online survey about their regular health-related behaviours. The independent sample t-test and Pearson's chi-square test where appropriate were conducted to examine the differences between males and females for the behavioural outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 768 FIFO workers (633 males and 135 females) participated in the study. Prevalence of smoking was high (32%). Males smoked more cigarettes per day than females (15.2±7.0 vs 13.1±7.1, p = .174). Most participants (74.7%) drank alcohol on more than two days per week. Compared to females, more males (20.2% vs 8.0%) consumed alcohol at short-term harmful levels (p = .010). About a third (34.4%) of the workers (33.5% of males and 38.5% of females, p = .264) engaged in inadequate moderate-vigorous exercises/physical activity. About a third (33.1%) of workers (33.7% of males and 30.4% of females; p = .699) had multiple risk behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of multiple risk behaviours was high. Interventions aimed at the prevention of risky health-related behaviours should target the different behavioural patterns and may require emphasis on gender-informed techniques particularly when addressing alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diptera , Male , Female , Animals , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Behavior
7.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 157, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) community transmission was eliminated in Australia from 1/11/2020 to 30/6/2021, allowing evaluation of surveillance system performance in detecting novel outbreaks, including against variants of concern (VoCs). This paper aims to define system requirements for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surveillance under future transmission and response scenarios, based on surveillance system performance to date. METHODS: This study described and evaluated surveillance systems and epidemiological characteristics of novel outbreaks based on publicly available data, and assessed surveillance system sensitivity and timeliness in outbreak detection. These findings were integrated with analysis of other critical COVID-19 public health measures to establish future COVID-19 management requirements. RESULTS: Twenty-five epidemiologically distinct outbreaks and five distinct clusters were identified in the study period, all linked through genomic sequencing to novel introductions from international travellers. Seventy percent (21/30) were detected through community testing of people with acute respiratory illness, and 30% (9/30) through quarantine screening. On average, 2.07% of the State population was tested in the week preceding detection for those identified through community surveillance. From 17/30 with publicly available data, the average time from seeding to detection was 4.9 days. One outbreak was preceded by unexpected positive wastewater results. Twenty of the 24 outbreaks in 2021 had publicly available sequencing data, all of which identified VoCs. A surveillance strategy for future VoCs similar to that used for detecting SARS-CoV-2 would require a 100-1000-fold increase in genomic sequencing capacity compared to the study period. Other essential requirements are maintaining outbreak response capacity and developing capacity to rapidly engineer, manufacture, and distribute variant vaccines at scale. CONCLUSIONS: Australia's surveillance systems performed well in detecting novel introduction of SARS-CoV-2 while community transmission was eliminated; introductions were infrequent and case numbers were low. Detection relied on quarantine screening and community surveillance in symptomatic members of the general population, supported by comprehensive genomic sequencing. Once vaccine coverage is maximised, future COVID-19 control should shift to detection of SARS-CoV-2 VoCs, requiring maintenance of surveillance systems and testing all international arrivals, alongside greatly increased genomic sequencing capacity. Effective government support of localised public health response mechanisms and engagement of all sectors of the community is crucial to current and future COVID-19 management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(4): 7657, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081330

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first outbreak of the omicron variant of COVID-19 in the Torres and Cape region of Far North Queensland in Australia was declared in late December 2021. A COVID-19 Care at Home program was created to support the health and non-health needs of people with COVID-19 and their families throughout the mandatory isolation periods and included centralising the coordination and delivery of COVID-19 therapeutics. The therapeutics available included one intravenous monoclonal antibody (sotrovimab) and two oral antiviral therapies: nirmatrelvir and ritonavir (Paxlovid®) and molnupiravir (Lagevrio®). This article describes the uptake and delivery of this therapeutics program. METHODS: COVID-19 cases were documented in a notification database, screened to determine eligibility for COVID-19 therapies and prioritised based on case age, vaccination status, immunosuppression status and existing comorbidities, in line with Queensland clinical guidelines. Eligible cases were individually contacted by phone to discuss treatment options, and administration of therapies were coordinated in partnership with local primary healthcare centres and hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 4744 cases were notified during the outbreak period, of which 217 (4.6%) were deemed eligible for treatment after medical review. Treatment was offered to 148/217 cases (68.2%), with 90/148 cases (60.8%) declining treatment and 53/148 cases (35.8%) receiving therapeutic treatment for COVID-19. Among these 53 cases, 29 received sotrovimab (54.7%), 20 received Paxlovid (37.7%) and four received Lagevrio (7.5%). First Nations people accounted for 48/53 cases (90.6%) who received treatment, and COVID-19 therapeutics were delivered to cases in 16 remote First Nations communities during the outbreak period. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 Care at Home program demonstrated a novel, public health led approach to delivering time-critical medications to individuals across a large, remote and logistically complex region. The application of similar models to outbreaks and chronic conditions of public health importance offers potential to address many health access inequities experienced by remote Australian First Nations communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services, Indigenous , Humans , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Queensland/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents
10.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(4): 7231, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented social and economic disruption, accompanied by the enactment of a multitude of public health measures to restrain disease transmission. These public health and social measures have had a considerable impact on lifestyle and mental wellbeing, which has been well studied with metropolitan populations. However, limited literature concerning such effects on a selectively rural population is presently available. Additionally, the use of a standardised scoring system for lifestyle may be valuable for an overall assessment of lifestyle that may be incorporated into clinical practice. METHODS: This study examined the associations between psychological distress and changes in SNAPS health behaviours (smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity, sleep) since the onset of COVID-19 in Australia. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was distributed online to adults in the Western New South Wales Primary Health Network in August 2020 and included measures of psychological distress, income, disposition and lifestyle factors during the pandemic as well as changes to lifestyle due to COVID-19. A novel Global Lifestyle Score (GLS) was generated as a holistic assessment of lifestyle across multiple domains. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 304 individuals (modal age group 45-54 years, 86.8% female). High distress on the Kessler-5 scale was present in over one-third of participants (n=95, 33.7%). Detrimental change was reported for sleep (22.7%), nutrition (14.5%), alcohol (16.7%), physical exercise (34.0%) and smoking (24.7%) since the onset of the pandemic. Changes in sleep, nutrition, physical activity and smoking were associated with distress. Participants with a poor lifestyle (GLS) during the pandemic were significantly more distressed. Perceived COVID-19 impact was associated with high distress, drought impact and loss of income. Participants who reported negative impact from both COVID-19 and drought were significantly more distressed than those reporting a negative impact from drought alone or neither event. CONCLUSION: High rates of distress among rural Australians during the COVID-19 pandemic was linked to low GLS, worsening lifestyles and loss of income. Healthy lifestyle strategies should be considered by health professionals for the management of crisis-related distress. Further research may explore the impact of COVID-19 on a larger study population with a greater proportion of male participants and to examine the effect of modifying lifestyle factors in reducing distress in the context of a stressor such as this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Droughts , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e051887, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078921

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Women Aware with Their Children study was created because prospective data are required to accurately guide prevention programmes for intimate partner violence (IPV) and to improve the mental health and resettlement trajectories of women from refugee backgrounds in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 1335 women (685 consecutively enrolled from refugee backgrounds and 650 randomly selected Australian-born) recruited during pregnancy from three public antenatal clinics in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. The mean age was 29.7 years among women from refugee backgrounds and 29.0 years among women born in the host nation. Main measures include IPV, mood, panic, post-traumatic stress disorder, disability and living difficulties. FINDINGS TO DATE: Prevalence of IPV at all three time points is significantly higher for refugee-background women. The trend data showed that reported IPV rates among Australian-born women increased from 25.8% at time 1 to 30.1% at time 3, while for refugee-background women this rate declined from 44.4% at time 1 to 42.6% at time 3. Prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) at all three time points is higher for refugee-background women. MDD among Australian-born women significantly declined from 14.5% at time 1 to 9.9% at time 3, while for refugee-background women it fluctuated from 25.1% at time 1 to 17.3% at time 2 and to 19.1% at time 3. FUTURE PLANS: We are currently examining trajectories of IPV and mental disorder across four time points. Time 4 occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, enabling a unique opportunity to examine the impacts of the pandemic over time. Time 5 started in August 2021 and time 6 will begin approximately 12 months later. The children at time 5 are in the early school years, providing the capacity to examine behaviour, development and well-being of the index child.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Intimate Partner Violence , Refugees , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Refugees/psychology
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 313: 115196, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076747

ABSTRACT

What is the impact of social security on public health? And what mechanisms does it operate through? To answer these questions, we take advantage of the unique circumstances of temporary migrant workers two Covid-19 lockdowns in Australia - one in which they were provided with social security, and one in which they were not. We undertook 47 qualitative interviews with South Asian international students who had lost their jobs in two lockdowns in 2020-2021. In Australia, international students represent the largest group of a growing temporary migration program, with many working in low-skilled occupations, in conditions below legal minimum standards. We compare our findings to two models of social security: the self-insurance model and state-insurance model. In first lockdown, without social security, participants struggled to comply with public health orders because of the need to work for income, lack of housing suitable for isolation, and lack of medical leave. Participants tended to avoid testing, and to work while potentially contagious. Participants reported high levels of anxiety, depression and emotional distress caused by job loss and exclusion from an implicit social contract with the rest of Australian society. In contrast, during the second lockdown, where temporary migrants were provided social security payments, participants reported avoiding risky work, undertook Covid-19 testing many times, and self-isolated successfully. There was little evidence of emotional distress. Participants felt like a valued part of Australian society. These results suggest a self-insurance model of social security does not protect the physical and psychological health of vulnerable populations and can exacerbate the spread of communicable diseases. In contrast, state-insurance and social welfare payments to marginalised communities, particularly unemployment benefits and medical leave, are crucial public health policy levers for both protecting vulnerable populations and tackling outbreaks of communicable diseases such as Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Social Security , COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Australia/epidemiology , Students
13.
Public Health Res Pract ; 32(3)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067393

ABSTRACT

Cataract surgery is a safe, effective and common elective procedure in Australia but access is inequitable. True waiting times for cataract care are undisclosed or inconsistently reported by governments. Estimates of true waiting times range from 4 to 30 months and have been extended during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Comparative analysis revealed that reducing waiting periods from 12 to 3 months would result in estimated public health system cost savings of $6.6 million by preventing 50 679 falls. Investment in public cataract services to address current unmet needs would prevent avoidable vision impairment and associated negative consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cataract/epidemiology , Humans , Waiting Lists
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065917

ABSTRACT

Cultural practices and development level can influence a population's household structures and mixing patterns. Within some populations, households can be organized across multiple dwellings. This likely affects the spread of infectious disease through these communities; however, current demographic data collection tools do not record these data. METHODS: Between June and October 2018, the Contact And Mobility Patterns in remote Aboriginal Australian communities (CAMP-remote) pilot study recruited Aboriginal mothers with infants in a remote northern Australian community to complete a monthly iPad-based contact survey. RESULTS: Thirteen mother-infant pairs (participants) completed 69 study visits between recruitment and the end of May 2019. Participants reported they and their other children slept in 28 dwellings during the study. The median dwelling occupancy, defined as people sleeping in the same dwelling on the previous night, was ten (range: 3.5-25). Participants who completed at least three responses (n = 8) slept in a median of three dwellings (range: 2-9). Each month, a median of 28% (range: 0-63%) of the participants travelled out of the community. Including these data in disease transmission models amplified estimates of infectious disease spread in the study community, compared to models parameterized using census data. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of data on mixing patterns in populations where households can be organized across dwellings may impact the accuracy of infectious disease models for these communities and the efficacy of public health actions they inform.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Indigenous Peoples , Infant , Pilot Projects
15.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276077, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065158

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has a substantial and unexpected impact on individuals' daily life around the world. Unprecedented public health restrictions such as lockdowns have the potential to affect multiple dimensions of individuals' well-being, while the severity of such restrictions varies across countries. However, a holistic perspective comparing differences in and drivers of the different dimensions of well-being across countries differentially affected by COVID-19 is missing to date. We address this gap in the literature by examining the mental, social, functional, and financial well-being of 2,100 individuals across Australia, France, Germany, and South Africa by means of a survey administered during May of 2021. Supporting our holistic approach, we find that the different dimensions of well-being are correlated, with survey respondents from France reporting the lowest and those from Australia reporting the highest overall level of well-being. Respondents' subjective and objective evaluations of their living conditions during lockdowns as well as positive health and financial behaviors are positively associated with their well-being during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , South Africa/epidemiology
17.
Aust J Rural Health ; 30(5): 566-569, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063335

ABSTRACT

Thirty years ago the first edition of the Australian Journal of Rural Health (AJRH) was published. Following reviews published in 2002 and 2012, it is again time to review what progress has been made in bringing about improved health outcomes for residents of rural and remote Australia over the past decade. Compounded by the Covid-19 crisis that has affected the health and health care system throughout Australia, this review notes the significant lack of progress over the past decade in ameliorating ongoing problems of poor access to primary health care and associated avoidable hospitalisations, persistent poor health of Indigenous Australians, and the greater prevalence of a range of health risk factors. Following the findings of the recent New South Wales enquiry into rural health, this review highlights what is needed to implement the many recommendations that have emerged from the wealth of evidence-based research published in journals such as the AJRH to improve health outcomes and increase the parity and equity in health between metropolitan and non-metropolitan Australians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rural Health Services , Anniversaries and Special Events , Australia/epidemiology , Humans , Rural Health , Rural Population
18.
Med J Aust ; 217 Suppl 9: S14-S19, 2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056154

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women are at higher risk of severe illness from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than non-pregnant women of a similar age. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, it was clear that evidenced-based guidance was needed, and that it would need to be updated rapidly. The National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce provided a resource to guide care for people with COVID-19, including during pregnancy. Care for pregnant and breastfeeding women and their babies was included as a priority when the Taskforce was set up, with a Pregnancy and Perinatal Care Panel convened to guide clinical practice. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: As of May 2022, the Taskforce has made seven specific recommendations on care for pregnant women and those who have recently given birth. This includes supporting usual practices for the mode of birth, umbilical cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, rooming-in, and using antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate as clinically indicated. There are 11 recommendations for COVID-19-specific treatments, including conditional recommendations for using remdesivir, tocilizumab and sotrovimab. Finally, there are recommendations not to use several disease-modifying treatments for the treatment of COVID-19, including hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin. The recommendations are continually updated to reflect new evidence, and the most up-to-date guidance is available online (https://covid19evidence.net.au). CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT RESULTING FROM THE GUIDELINES: The National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce has been a critical component of the infrastructure to support Australian maternity care providers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Taskforce has shown that a rapid living guidelines approach is feasible and acceptable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pandemics , Australia/epidemiology , Parturition
19.
Med J Aust ; 217(7): 368-378, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056152

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Australian National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce was established in March 2020 to maintain up-to-date recommendations for the treatment of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The original guideline (April 2020) has been continuously updated and expanded from nine to 176 recommendations, facilitated by the rapid identification, appraisal, and analysis of clinical trial findings and subsequent review by expert panels. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: In this article, we describe the recommendations for treating non-pregnant adults with COVID-19, as current on 1 August 2022 (version 61.0). The Taskforce has made specific recommendations for adults with severe/critical or mild disease, including definitions of disease severity, recommendations for therapy, COVID-19 prophylaxis, respiratory support, and supportive care. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS A RESULT OF THE GUIDELINE: The Taskforce currently recommends eight drug treatments for people with COVID-19 who do not require supplemental oxygen (inhaled corticosteroids, casirivimab/imdevimab, molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, regdanvimab, remdesivir, sotrovimab, tixagevimab/cilgavimab) and six for those who require supplemental oxygen (systemic corticosteroids, remdesivir, tocilizumab, sarilumab, baricitinib, casirivimab/imdevimab). Based on evidence of their achieving no or only limited benefit, ten drug treatments or treatment combinations are not recommended; an additional 42 drug treatments should only be used in the context of randomised trials. Additional recommendations include support for the use of continuous positive airway pressure, prone positioning, and endotracheal intubation in patients whose condition is deteriorating, and prophylactic anticoagulation for preventing venous thromboembolism. The latest updates and full recommendations are available at www.covid19evidence.net.au.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Anticoagulants , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Oxygen , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275636, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054391

ABSTRACT

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is an intensive and multi-modal intervention developed for individuals with multiple comorbidities and high-risk behaviours. During pandemic-related lockdowns, many DBT services transitioned to delivering treatment via telehealth, but some did not. The current study sought to explore the experience of DBT teams in Australia and New Zealand who did and did not transition to telehealth during the early stages of the COVID19 pandemic, as the majority of research on DBT via telehealth has originated from North America, and focussed on therapists who did make this transition. DBT team leaders in Australia and New Zealand completed a survey with open-ended questions about the barriers they encountered to delivering DBT via telehealth, and for those teams that implemented telehealth, the solutions to those barriers. Respondents were also asked about specific barriers encountered by Indigenous and Pacific people service users. Of the 73 team leaders who took part, 56 reported providing either individual therapy, skills training or both modalities via video-call during lockdown. Themes emerging from perceived barriers affecting just DBT providers included the assessment & management of emotions and high-risk behaviours, threats to privacy and information security posed by telehealth, logistical issues related to remote sessions, and the remote management of therapy-interfering behaviour. Themes emerging from perceived barriers affecting both providers and service users included disruptions to therapeutic alliance, lack of willingness, lack of technical knowledge, lack of private spaces to do DBT via telehealth, and lack of resources. The solutions most frequently cited were the provision of education and training for therapists and service users in the use of telehealth, and the provision of resources to access telehealth. These findings are relevant to clinical delivery of DBT, as well as planning and funding for DBT telehealth services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dialectical Behavior Therapy , Telemedicine , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics
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