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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785625

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) covers a range of neurodevelopmental disorders that begin in early childhood and affects developmental activities. This condition can negatively influence the gaining of knowledge, skills, and abilities, such as communication. Over time, different techniques and methods have been put into practice to teach and communicate with children with ASD. With the rapid advancement in the field of technology, specifically in smartphones, researchers have generated creative applications, such as mobile serious games, to help children with ASD. However, usability and accessibility have not been often taken into account in the development of this type of applications. For that reason, in this work we considered that both, usability and especially accessibility are a very important differentiators for the quality and efficiency of mobile serious games. Our approach has two important contributions, the incorporation of accessibility as a fundamental requirement in the development of a mobile serious game and the proposal of a method for the development of this type of applications for children with ASD, a method that can be used by other developers.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Child , Child, Preschool , Communication , Humans , Research Design , Technology
4.
Autism ; 26(3): 640-653, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759642

ABSTRACT

LAY ABSTRACT: Cognitive behavioral therapy helps to treat anxiety symptoms in autistic youth, but it is difficult for families to access cognitive behavioral therapy in the community. Training school providers to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy may help autistic youth and their families to access these programs. Unfortunately, we do not know how cognitive behavioral therapy programs can be delivered by school providers and how these programs help the autistic students who access them. This study addressed this gap and was part of a larger study that looked at the effectiveness of Facing Your Fears-School-Based in 25 public schools. The study goals were to understand whether Facing Your Fears-School-Based helped students and the factors that made it easy or difficult to deliver Facing Your Fears-School-Based in schools. Thirty providers participated in interviews guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework. Participants shared information that fell into several major categories that included (1) delivering Facing Your Fears-School-Based to many different students; (2) the positive impact of Facing Your Fears-School-Based on students' school participation; and (3) plans to continue using Facing Your Fears-School-Based. School providers also shared that Facing Your Fears-School-Based was easy to use for non-mental health providers and reported adapting Facing Your Fears-School-Based to meet student needs. The results of this study suggest that Facing Your Fears-School-Based may help autistic students and highlight the importance of using mental health programs in schools that are flexible, able to be adapted, and that are able to be used by many different types of school providers.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Adolescent , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Autistic Disorder/therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Humans , Students
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(3): 581-584, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754324

ABSTRACT

Augmentative and Alternative Communication is an aided or unaided means of communication which supports existing communication abilities of an individual or replaces natural speech due to any speech and language disorder. The deficit could be developmental or acquired such as autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, learning difficulties, dysarthria, dyspraxia or due to any acquired neurological condition such as aphasia and other degenerative disorders. Furthermore, it may be due to surgical procedures such as laryngectomy. Alternate means of communication have also been successfully used with COVID-19 patients. These tools may include pictures, symbols, signs or voice output devices. Parents of children with special needs and medical professionals have been reluctant in implementing the approach due to certain misconceptions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence for the use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication with a range of disorders in relation to in relation to Pakistan.


Subject(s)
Communication Aids for Disabled , Communication Disorders , Language Therapy , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , COVID-19/complications , Child , Communication , Communication Disorders/etiology , Communication Disorders/rehabilitation , Humans , Language Therapy/instrumentation , Language Therapy/methods , Pakistan , Speech , Speech Therapy/instrumentation , Speech Therapy/methods
6.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(3): 199-210, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are no approved pharmacological therapies to support treatment of the core communication and socialisation difficulties associated with autism spectrum disorder in adults. We aimed to assess the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of balovaptan, a vasopressin 1a receptor antagonist, versus placebo in autistic adults. METHODS: V1aduct was a phase 3, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, conducted at 46 sites across six countries (the USA, the UK, France, Italy, Spain, and Canada). Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older with an intelligence quotient (IQ) of 70 or higher, and met the criteria for moderate-to-severe autism spectrum disorder (DSM-5 and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule). Participants were randomly allocated (1:1), with an independent interactive voice or web-based response system, to receive balovaptan (10 mg) or placebo daily for 24 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by an individual's baseline Vineland-II two-domain composite (2DC) score (<60 or ≥60), sex, region (North America or rest of world), and age (<25 years or ≥25 years). Participants, study site personnel, and the sponsor were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in Vineland-II 2DC score (the mean composite score across the Vineland-II socialisation and communication domains) at week 24. The primary analysis was done with ANCOVA in the intention-to-treat population. The V1aduct study was terminated for futility after around 50% of participants completed the week 24 visit. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03504917). FINDINGS: Between Aug 8, 2018, and July 1, 2020, 540 people were screened for eligibility, of whom 322 were allocated to receive balovaptan (164 [51%]) or placebo (158 [49%]). One participant from the balovaptan group was not treated before trial termination and was excluded from the analysis. 60 participants in the balovaptan group and 55 in the placebo group discontinued treatment before week 24. The sample consisted of 64 (20%) women and 257 (80%) men, with 260 (81%) participants from North America and 61 (19%) from Europe. At baseline, mean age was 27·6 years (SD 9·7) and mean IQ score was 104·8 (18·1). Two (1%) participants were American Indian or Alaska Native, eight (2%) were Asian, 15 (5%) were Black or African American, 283 (88%) were White, four (1%) were of multiple races, and nine (3%) were of unknown race. Mean baseline Vineland-II 2DC scores were 67·2 (SD 15·3) in the balovaptan group and 66·2 (17·7) in the placebo group. The interim futility analysis showed no improvement for balovaptan versus placebo in terms of Vineland-II 2DC score at week 24 compared with baseline, with a least-squares mean change of 2·91 (SE 1·52) in the balovaptan group (n=79) and 4·75 (1·60) in the placebo group (n=71; estimated treatment difference -1·84 [95% CI -5·15 to 1·48]). In the final analysis, mean change from baseline in Vineland-II 2DC score at week 24 was 4·56 (SD 10·85) in the balovaptan group (n=111) and 6·83 (12·18) in the placebo group (n=99). Balovaptan was well tolerated, with similar proportions of participants with at least one adverse event in the balovaptan group (98 [60%] of 163) and placebo group (104 [66%] of 158). The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis (14 [9%] in the balovaptan group and 19 [12%] in the placebo group), diarrhoea (11 [7%] and 14 [9%]), upper respiratory tract infection (ten [6%] and nine [6%]), insomnia (five [3%] and eight [5%]), oropharyngeal pain (five [3%] and eight [5%]), and dizziness (two [1%] and ten [6%]). Serious adverse events were reported for two (1%) participants in the balovaptan group (one each of suicidal ideation and schizoaffective disorder), and five (3%) participants in the placebo group (one each of suicidal ideation, panic disorder, limb abscess, urosepsis, colitis [in the same participant with urosepsis], and death by suicide). No treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Balovaptan did not improve social communication in autistic adults. This study provides insights into challenges facing autism spectrum disorder trials, including the considerable placebo response and the selection of appropriate outcome measures. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.


Subject(s)
Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Autism Spectrum Disorder/drug therapy , Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage , Communication Disorders/drug therapy , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Triazoles/administration & dosage , Adult , Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Benzodiazepines/adverse effects , Communication Disorders/etiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Pyridines/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Triazoles/adverse effects
7.
Rev Neurol ; 74(6): 181-188, 2022 03 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743201

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The state of emergency and national lockdown declared in Spain over the coronavirus pandemic markedly impaired routines and access towards health services supports for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This population is of particular vulnerability towards sudden changes and is distinguished by their complex management. OBJECTIVES: The main goal was to qualitatively assess the psychosocial and mental state of children diagnosed with ASD affiliated to the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, during and after the first lockdown period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A survey was administered to relatives of 65 boys and girls with a main diagnosis of ASD. RESULTS: A worsening of key A symptoms was reported during lockdown. In addition, the use of new technologies, intake between meals, and anxiety symptoms increased. Recovery after lockdown was not complete in our sample. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the need for planning specific supports for minors with ASD and for resources to reverse the effects on routines, habits, and school returnal.


TITLE: Análisis del impacto de la COVID-19 en menores de edad con trastorno del espectro autista.Introducción. La declaración del confinamiento domiciliario a raíz de la pandemia de la COVID-19 alteró profundamente las rutinas y el acceso a soportes sociosanitarios en menores de edad con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA). Esta población se distingue por su elevada complejidad de manejo y vulnerabilidad ante cambios. Objetivos. Evaluar cualitativamente el estado psicosocial en menores con TEA atendidos en el Hospital Clínic de Barcelona durante el confinamiento y pasado éste. Pacientes y métodos. Se administró una encuesta, elaborada específicamente para este estudio, a los cuidadores principales de 65 niños y niñas con diagnóstico principal de TEA. Resultados. Se observó una regresión en la sintomatología nuclear del TEA. Además, aumentó el uso de nuevas tecnologías y la ingesta entre comidas, y apareció una sintomatología ansiosa. La recuperación tras el confinamiento no fue total en nuestra muestra. Conclusiones. Los resultados ponen de relieve la necesidad de planificación de soportes específicos para los menores con TEA y de recursos para revertir las afectaciones en las rutinas, los hábitos y la incorporación escolar.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , COVID-19 , Quarantine/psychology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Spain
8.
Res Dev Disabil ; 124: 104200, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considering the fact that family members necessarily spend more time together during the pandemic, this study aims to reveal the perceptions of parents with children who have autism spectrum disorder of the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey and their experiences of the difficulties during the pandemic. METHOD: A qualitative phenomenology design was used in the study. Seven mothers and one father gave their consent and participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: The results of the analysis were collected in two broad themes using 68 codes. The perspective of the parents, who evaluated the pandemic process positively in the beginning, became negative as lockdown lengthened. The issues and adverse effects of the pandemic that they most talked about were the increasing roles and responsibilities of parents, the deep impact on their mental health, and the problems experienced in distance education. CONCLUSIONS: During this period, parents who were psychologically depressed wanted to feel that they were not alone. Parents made many suggestions and recommendations so that others would not have the same experience.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715312

ABSTRACT

Functional analyses (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) are the most commonly used behavioral assessment and treatment approaches via telehealth for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who display challenging behavior. The FA + FCT telehealth model has been shown to maintain treatment effectiveness (i.e., child behavioral outcomes and parent acceptability), as well as demonstrate treatment efficiency (i.e., cost savings). However, the majority of these studies have been conducted in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes obtained with the telehealth FA + FCT model that included global applications. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results of the 199 participants who enrolled in the telehealth project across all project sites. The results showed that behavioral outcomes and parent acceptability maintained at similar levels to previous studies across all sites. Additionally, very few differences were found across project sites in relation to drop-out rates, visit cancellations, and technology issues. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the FA + FCT telehealth model for addressing the challenging behavior needs of children with ASD globally and highlight areas in need of additional evaluation (e.g., drop-outs, cancellations) to determine the conditions under which telehealth could be best used.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Problem Behavior , Telemedicine , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Behavior Therapy/methods , Child , Humans , Telemedicine/methods
11.
J Med Life ; 15(1): 43-51, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706536

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to reveal and investigate mothers' experiences of students with severe disabilities regarding learning in distance education in Lima-Peru. This is a phenomenological study focused on understanding the world of mothers regarding the education of their children with severe disabilities. Their discourse focused on four categories: being the mother of a child with severe disability, pandemic category, virtual education, and family prospects. The participants were three mothers of children with Down Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Cerebral Palsy. An in-depth interview structured in 26 questions was used, applied face to face. With distance education, the mothers consider that their children's abilities and skills have assumed a leading role, developed creativity, and employed various strategies to comply with school activities. In addition, it also strengthened their family ties despite the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Mothers , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Pediatr Phys Ther ; 34(2): 246-251, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707744

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: After the COVID-19 pandemic, several randomized controlled trials came to a halt; however, we chose to reinvent our study and shifted to a home-based, telehealth intervention delivery format to support children with autism spectrum disorder and their families. Children with autism spectrum disorder have social communication impairments as well as perceptuomotor and cognitive comorbidities. Continued access to care is crucial for their long-term development. METHODS: We created a general movement intervention to target strength, endurance, executive functioning, and social skills through goal-directed games and activities delivered using a telehealth intervention model. FINDINGS: Our family-centered approach allowed for collaboration between trainers and caregivers and made it easy for families to replicate training activities at home. CONCLUSIONS: While more studies comparing telehealth and face-to-face interventions are needed, we encourage researchers and clinicians to consider family-centered telehealth as a valid and feasible intervention delivery method, to increase the likelihood of carryover of skills into the daily lives of children and ultimately enhance their long-term development.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Social Skills
14.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263062, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considering the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the reliability, validity, social validity, and feasibility of using telehealth to diagnose ASD is a critical public health issue. This paper examines evidence supporting the use of telehealth methods to diagnose ASD and outlines the necessary modifications and adaptations to support telehealth diagnosis. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Studies were identified by searching PubMed and PsychInfo electronic databases and references lists of relevant articles. Only peer reviewed articles published in English with a focus on using telehealth for the purposes of diagnosing ASD were included. Searches were conducted through June 3rd, 2021. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Of the eight papers that reported on reliability (e.g., accuracy), telehealth methods to diagnose ASD were between 80-91% accurate when compared with traditional in-person diagnosis. Six studies reported on validity (i.e., sensitivity and/or specificity). All six studies calculated sensitivity, with values ranging from 75% and 100%. Five of the six studies calculated specificity, with values ranging from 68.75% and 100%. The seven papers that reported social validity indicated that caregivers, as well as adult participants and clinicians, were mostly satisfied with telehealth. Feasibility was reported by seven studies and suggests that telehealth methods appear largely viable, though some challenges were reported. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Although findings reviewed here are promising, more research is needed to verify the accuracy, validity, and feasibility of utilizing telehealth to diagnose ASD. Studies with larger sample sizes and samples across sites will be critical, as these will allow clinicians to identify subjects most likely to benefit from telehealth as well as those more likely to require an in-person assessment. This research is important not only due to the current pandemic, but also due to increased prevalence rates of ASD and an insufficient number of diagnostic providers-particularly in rural and/or otherwise under-served communities.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Telemedicine , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Reproducibility of Results
15.
Clin Ter ; 173(1): 88-90, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687410

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social interaction and communication deficits and restricted, repetitive interests and behaviors (1). It is very common for children with ASD to present with several comorbidities, including sleep disorders. During the Covid-19 pandemic, children with ASD have been particularly at risk of adverse effects because of their difficulties in adapting to changes in daily habits and routines. Methods and aim: Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate sleep habits during the Covid-19 pandemic by administering the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) to parents. Results: Twenty-five children of 28 (89.3%) had a score above 41 during the pandemic. Of these, 11 children also had clinically signifi-cant scores before the pandemic. Discussion: Our data confirm that sleep disturbances have been very common in autistic children during the Covid-19 pandemic and suggest new considerations. In particular, in our clinical sample, sleep habits seemed to improve or not change significantly during the Covid-19 pandemic in a population with a high prevalence of cli-nically significant sleep disturbances. These data confirm that in this particular context, a supportive environment (family, parent training, tele-rehabilitation) is very important for autistic people and a predicta-ble routine can help prevent stress, anxiety, and behavioral problems.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(2): 982-990, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671668

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is critical to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the use of telediagnostic assessments in clinical settings. This study aimed to characterize caregiver satisfaction with a telediagnostic assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: Twelve families completed a telediagnostic assessment of ASD through Illinois' Early Intervention program including a caregiver interview, administration of the TELE-ASD-PEDS, and a feedback visit. Following the evaluation, caregivers rated their satisfaction with the telediagnostic assessment. RESULTS: Caregivers reported that the evaluation met their expectations, and they were satisfied with the assessment and feedback visit. However, caregiver satisfaction with the telehealth platform varied, and the majority of caregivers reported a preference for in-person visits. Qualitative analysis of caregiver responses noted the benefits and areas of improvement of telediagnostic assessment. Thematic analysis revealed the strengths of the telediagnostic assessment, including the logistical convenience of the teleassessment, ease of administration, rapport with and expertise of the clinicians, and qualification for intervention services. Although caregivers' perspectives varied, diagnostic accuracy and the amount of information provided about the diagnosis were reported areas of improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, telediagnostic assessments were well received by families. Caregivers' preference for in-person visits highlights the need to incorporate caregiver-reported areas of improvement in the development and administration of telediagnostic assessments.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Caregivers , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nature ; 602(7896): 268-273, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671587

ABSTRACT

Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with hundreds of genes spanning a wide range of biological functions1-6. The alterations in the human brain resulting from mutations in these genes remain unclear. Furthermore, their phenotypic manifestation varies across individuals7,8. Here we used organoid models of the human cerebral cortex to identify cell-type-specific developmental abnormalities that result from haploinsufficiency in three ASD risk genes-SUV420H1 (also known as KMT5B), ARID1B and CHD8-in multiple cell lines from different donors, using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of more than 745,000 cells and proteomic analysis of individual organoids, to identify phenotypic convergence. Each of the three mutations confers asynchronous development of two main cortical neuronal lineages-γ-aminobutyric-acid-releasing (GABAergic) neurons and deep-layer excitatory projection neurons-but acts through largely distinct molecular pathways. Although these phenotypes are consistent across cell lines, their expressivity is influenced by the individual genomic context, in a manner that is dependent on both the risk gene and the developmental defect. Calcium imaging in intact organoids shows that these early-stage developmental changes are followed by abnormal circuit activity. This research uncovers cell-type-specific neurodevelopmental abnormalities that are shared across ASD risk genes and are finely modulated by human genomic context, finding convergence in the neurobiological basis of how different risk genes contribute to ASD pathology.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Autistic Disorder/metabolism , Humans , Neurons/metabolism , Proteomics , Transcription Factors/metabolism
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 328-330, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) and severe COVID-19 outcomes, 30-day readmission, and/or increased length of stay (LOS) using a large electronic administrative database. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were identified between March 2020 and June 2021 from more than 900 hospitals in the United States. IDDs included intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and other intellectual disabilities. Outcomes included intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), 30-day readmission, mortality, and LOS. RESULTS: Among 643,765 patients with COVID-19, multivariate models showed that patients with any IDD were at a significantly greater risk of at least 1 severe outcome, 30-day readmission, or longer LOS than patients without any IDD. Compared with those without any IDD, patients with Down syndrome had the greatest odds of ICU admission (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.96 [1.73-2.21]), IMV (OR: 2.37 [2.07-2.70]), and mortality (OR: 2.33 [2.00-2.73]). Patients with ASD and those with Down syndrome both had over a 40% longer mean LOS. Patients with intellectual disabilities had a 23% (12-35%) increased odds of 30-day readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with IDD have a significantly increased risk of severe outcomes, 30-day readmission, and longer LOS.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Patient Readmission , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599612

ABSTRACT

Parents of children with ASD experience a higher incidence of mental health difficulties, including stress, depression, and anxiety, than parents of children without ASD. According to studies related to ASD, parent-child physical activity programs are an effective approach to encourage both parents and their children with ASD to exercise together, thus improving the mental health of parents due to this interactive family activity. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of this web-based parent-child physical activity program on the mental health of parents of children with ASD. A total of 94 parent-child pairs consented to participate in this study, and 75 parent-child pairs completed the study. Three instruments-DASS-21, PSI-4-SF, and WHOQOL-26-were used to measure mental health, parental stress, and quality of life, respectively. A randomized controlled trial design was implemented to examine the effectiveness of the 10-week web-based parent-child physical activity program on improving the mental health of parents of children with ASD. The results showed that after the 10-week parent-child physical activity program, there were significant differences in overall DASS-21 and PSI-4-SF for the experimental group, compared with control group (p < 0.05), which indicated that the parent-child physical activity program has a positive influence on mental health in parents of children with ASD. One sub-area of WHOQOL-26 between the experimental and control groups across pre-/post-testing intervals also showed greater reductions in the item of psychological health (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings demonstrated the efficacy of the web-based parent-child physical activity program for improving mental health in parents of children with ASD.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Mental Health , Exercise , Humans , Internet , Parent-Child Relations , Quality of Life
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 127: 108500, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586248

ABSTRACT

SYNGAP1-developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (SYNGAP1-DEE) has been recently featured as a distinct genetic disease characterized by global psychomotor delay mainly involving language, moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorder, and a generalized epilepsy with spontaneous and reflex seizures. The severity and variability of function impairment and the impact on patients' and caregivers' daily life are still poorly acknowledged. The SYNGAP1 Italian Family Association developed a survey, shared online with caregivers, exploring several issues, including: epilepsy outcome, comorbidities, daily-living skills, hospitalizations, rehabilitation treatments, economic burden, and COVID-19 pandemic impact. Caregivers of 13 children and adolescents participated in the survey. They most often show a fine and gross-motor impairment and a drug-resistant epilepsy with possibility to experience pluridaily absence seizures that may lead to periods of psychomotor regressions. Eating and sleep problems are reported in the majority. Most parents are concerned about language impairment, behavioral issues and lack of autonomy in daily-living activities. Specific neuropsychological evaluations for autism should be early considered in order to identify intervention strategies involving alternative communication strategies, which can positively affect behavior and quality of life. Rehabilitation treatment should aim to the acquisition and consolidation of personal autonomy.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Epilepsy, Generalized , ras GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics , Adolescent , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Child , Epilepsy, Generalized/complications , Humans , Italy , Quality of Life
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