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Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233259


The human gut microbiome contains the largest number of bacteria in the body and has the potential to greatly influence metabolism, not only locally but also systemically. There is an established link between a healthy, balanced, and diverse microbiome and overall health. When the gut microbiome becomes unbalanced (dysbiosis) through dietary changes, medication use, lifestyle choices, environmental factors, and ageing, this has a profound effect on our health and is linked to many diseases, including lifestyle diseases, metabolic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and neurological diseases. While this link in humans is largely an association of dysbiosis with disease, in animal models, a causative link can be demonstrated. The link between the gut and the brain is particularly important in maintaining brain health, with a strong association between dysbiosis in the gut and neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases. This link suggests not only that the gut microbiota composition can be used to make an early diagnosis of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases but also that modifying the gut microbiome to influence the microbiome-gut-brain axis might present a therapeutic target for diseases that have proved intractable, with the aim of altering the trajectory of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, among others. There is also a microbiome-gut-brain link to other potentially reversible neurological diseases, such as migraine, post-operative cognitive dysfunction, and long COVID, which might be considered models of therapy for neurodegenerative disease. The role of traditional methods in altering the microbiome, as well as newer, more novel treatments such as faecal microbiome transplants and photobiomodulation, are discussed.

Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Microbiota , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Animals , Humans , Brain-Gut Axis , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Dysbiosis/metabolism , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/metabolism , Brain/metabolism
Nature ; 602(7896): 268-273, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671587


Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with hundreds of genes spanning a wide range of biological functions1-6. The alterations in the human brain resulting from mutations in these genes remain unclear. Furthermore, their phenotypic manifestation varies across individuals7,8. Here we used organoid models of the human cerebral cortex to identify cell-type-specific developmental abnormalities that result from haploinsufficiency in three ASD risk genes-SUV420H1 (also known as KMT5B), ARID1B and CHD8-in multiple cell lines from different donors, using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of more than 745,000 cells and proteomic analysis of individual organoids, to identify phenotypic convergence. Each of the three mutations confers asynchronous development of two main cortical neuronal lineages-γ-aminobutyric-acid-releasing (GABAergic) neurons and deep-layer excitatory projection neurons-but acts through largely distinct molecular pathways. Although these phenotypes are consistent across cell lines, their expressivity is influenced by the individual genomic context, in a manner that is dependent on both the risk gene and the developmental defect. Calcium imaging in intact organoids shows that these early-stage developmental changes are followed by abnormal circuit activity. This research uncovers cell-type-specific neurodevelopmental abnormalities that are shared across ASD risk genes and are finely modulated by human genomic context, finding convergence in the neurobiological basis of how different risk genes contribute to ASD pathology.

Autism Spectrum Disorder , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Neurons , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Autism Spectrum Disorder/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/cytology , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , GABAergic Neurons/metabolism , GABAergic Neurons/pathology , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics , Humans , Neurons/classification , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Organoids/cytology , Proteomics , RNA-Seq , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcription Factors/genetics
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 96: 251-310, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240122


Since the discovery of manifest Zn deficiency in 1961, the increasing number of studies demonstrated the association between altered Zn status and multiple diseases. In this chapter, we provide a review of the most recent advances on the role of Zn in health and disease (2010-20), with a special focus on the role of Zn in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, diabetes and obesity, male and female reproduction, as well as COVID-19. In parallel with the revealed tight association between ASD risk and severity and Zn status, the particular mechanisms linking Zn2+ and ASD pathogenesis like modulation of synaptic plasticity through ProSAP/Shank scaffold, neurotransmitter metabolism, and gut microbiota, have been elucidated. The increasing body of data indicate the potential involvement of Zn2+ metabolism in neurodegeneration. Systemic Zn levels in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease were found to be reduced, whereas its sequestration in brain may result in modulation of amyloid ß and α-synuclein processing with subsequent toxic effects. Zn2+ was shown to possess adipotropic effects through the role of zinc transporters, zinc finger proteins, and Zn-α2-glycoprotein in adipose tissue physiology, underlying its particular role in pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. Recent findings also contribute to further understanding of the role of Zn2+ in spermatogenesis and sperm functioning, as well as oocyte development and fertilization. Finally, Zn2+ was shown to be the potential adjuvant therapy in management of novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19), underlining the perspectives of zinc in management of old and new threats.

Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Reproduction , Zinc/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/metabolism , Nutritional Status , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Zinc/deficiency , Zinc/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment