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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1058759, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231772

ABSTRACT

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially life-threatening blistering disorder characterized by autoantibodies directed against cell-cell adhesion molecules that serves as an excellent model to study human autoimmune development. Numerous studies have identified specific Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes, in particular DRB1*0402 and DQB1*0503, that confer disease risk. Although HLA is required, it is not sufficient for the initiation of disease. As with all autoimmune diseases, the etio-pathogenesis of PV is complex, meaning it is multifactorial. Susceptibility is polygenic, and the search for non-HLA disease-linked genes continues. Moreover, twin studies across autoimmune conditions indicate that non-genetic environmental and lifestyle factors, which can be collectively grouped under the term "exposome", are also major contributors to disease development. The literature presents evidence for the potential role of multiple triggers such as medications, infections, stress, diet, immunizations, and sleep to influence the etiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis of PV. However, a clear understanding of the degree to which specific factors impact PV is lacking. In this investigation, we comprehensively review the environmental elements listed above and consider the strength of evidence for these factors. The overall goals of this work are to provide greater insights into the factors that influence disease susceptibility, disease development and disease course and ultimately help to better guide clinicians and inform patients in the management of PV.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Exposome , Pemphigus , Humans , Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Diet , Disease Susceptibility
2.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 261(5): 1381-1389, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323659

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) in the patients treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IDI). METHOD: Twenty-one eyes of 11 AIR patients treated with at least 1 injection of IDI were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes before and after treatment, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optic coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), full-field electroretinography (ff-ERG), and visual field (VF) at last visit within 6 and/or 12 months, were recorded. RESULTS: Among all the patients, 3 had cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) and 8 had non-paraneoplastic-AIR (npAIR) with mean followed up of 8.52 ± 3.03 months (range 4-12 months). All patients achieved improved or stable BCVA within 6 and/or 12 months after the treatment. Cystoid macular edema (CME) in 2 eyes and significant retinal inflammation in 4 eyes were markedly resolved after single injection. Central retinal thickness (CFT) in all eyes without CME, ellipsoid zone (EZ) on OCT in 71.4% of eyes, ERG response in 55% of eyes, and VF in 50% of eyes were stable or improved within 6 months after treatment. At last visit within 12 months, both BCVA and CFT remained stable in the eyes treated with either single or repeated IDI; however, progression of EZ loss and damage of ERG response occurred in some patients with single IDI. CONCLUSION: Clinical outcomes, including BCVA and parameters of OCT, ERG, and VF, were stable or improved after IDI in a majority of AIR patients. Local treatment of AIR with IDI was a good option to initiate the management or an alternative for the patients' refractory to the systemic therapy but with limited side effect.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Retinal Diseases , Humans , Dexamethasone , Glucocorticoids , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/complications , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/etiology , Retina , Intravitreal Injections , Drug Implants/therapeutic use , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications
3.
Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 66(3): 218-228, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307729

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders. They include, in particular, Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis with a wide range of different functional status ranging from subclinical biochemical abnormalities to severe hyperthyroidism or severe hypothyroidism respectively. Furthermore, other conditions more frequently infectious or drug related can cause an immune reaction in the thyroid tissue. In AITDs, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) does not play a primary role for disease diagnosis or management, but accidental findings can occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, and they should be recognized and well interpreted. A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed databases was conducted to identify papers (systematic review, prospective and retrospective study, case report) evaluating the role of PET/CT in thyroid autoimmune diseases. Thyroid diffuse uptake of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) has been shown to be frequently associated with AITDs, but also with immune-induced thyroid disorders related to SARS-CoV-2 or immunotherapy, while malignant lesions more often have a focal aspect. Other radiopharmaceuticals as [68Ga]-DOTA-peptides, [68Ga]-fibroblast activation protein inhibitors (FAPIs) and [68Ga]-prostate specific membrane antigen ([68Ga]-PSMA) showed similar findings. In conclusion, PET/CT scan in AITDs does not play a primary role in the diagnosis, but the occasional finding of a thyroid uptake must always be described in the report and possibly investigated for a better patient's management.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Graves Disease , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Graves Disease/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Prospective Studies , Radiopharmaceuticals , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Autoimmun Rev ; 22(3): 103259, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291252

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) can affect women and men during fertile age, therefore reproductive health is a priority issue in rheumatology. Many topics need to be considered during preconception counselling: fertility, the impact of disease-related factors on pregnancy outcomes, the influence of pregnancy on disease activity, the compatibility of medications with pregnancy and breastfeeding. Risk stratification and individualized treatment approach elaborated by a multidisciplinary team minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). Research has been focused on identifying biomarkers that can be predictive of APO. Specifically, preeclampsia and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy tend to develop more frequently in women with ARD. Placental insufficiency can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and small-for-gestational age newborns. Such APO have been shown to be associated with maternal disease activity in different ARD. Therefore, a key message to be addressed to the woman wishing for a pregnancy and to her family is that treatment with compatible drugs is the best way to ensure maternal and fetal wellbeing. An increasing number of medications have entered the management of ARD, but data about their use in pregnancy and lactation are scarce. More information is needed for most biologic drugs and their biosimilars, and for the so-called small molecules, while there is sufficient evidence to recommend the use of TNF inhibitors if needed for keeping maternal disease under control. Other issues related to the reproductive journey have emerged as "unmet needs", such as sexual dysfunction, contraception, medically assisted reproduction techniques, long-term outcome of children, and they will be addressed in this review paper. Collaborative research has been instrumental to reach current knowledge and the future will bring novel insights thanks to pregnancy registries and prospective studies that have been established in several Countries and to their joint efforts in merging data.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , Rheumatic Diseases , Male , Child , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reproductive Health , Placenta , Pregnancy Outcome , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
5.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 56(2): 236-245, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298597

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a dysregulated autoimmune-mediated illness in genetically susceptible patients following COVID-19 with an interval of 2-6 weeks. The median age of patients with MIS-C is 6-11 years. Most common manifestations are involvement of gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, hematological system, and mucocutaneous system. Respiratory tract, neurological system, musculoskeletal system, and kidney are less frequently affected. Mucocutaneous manifestations and coronary artery abnormalities characteristic for Kawasaki disease (KD) may be observed in a significant proportion of MIS-C patients that may make the differential diagnosis be difficult for some patients, especially in the post-pandemic era. The mortality rate is 1-3%. Management and prognosis of MIS-C are similar to that of KD. MIS-C and KD may share a common pathogenic process. Based on the observation of MIS-C-like illness in uninfected neonates, i.e. multisystem inflammatory syndrome in neonates, both MIS-C and KD may be a consequence of dysregulated, over-exaggerated humoral immune responses triggered by a specific infectious agent.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis
6.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 26(4): 727-739, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281204

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare pain intensity among individuals with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs), and without rheumatic disease (wAIDs). METHODS: Data were collected from the COVID-19 Vaccination in Autoimmune Diseases (COVAD) study, an international cross-sectional online survey, from December 2020 to August 2021. Pain experienced in the preceding week was assessed using numeral rating scale (NRS). We performed a negative binomial regression analysis to assess pain in IIMs subtypes and whether demographics, disease activity, general health status, and physical function had an impact on pain scores. RESULTS: Of 6988 participants included, 15.1% had IIMs, 27.9% had other AIRDs, and 57.0% were wAIDs. The median pain NRS in patients with IIMs, other AIRDs, and wAIDs were 2.0 (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.0-5.0), 3.0 (IQR = 1.0-6.0), and 1.0 (IQR = 0-2.0), respectively (P < 0.001). Regression analysis adjusted for gender, age, and ethnicity revealed that overlap myositis and antisynthetase syndrome had the highest pain (NRS = 4.0, 95% CI = 3.5-4.5, and NRS = 3.6, 95% CI = 3.1-4.1, respectively). An additional association between pain and poor functional status was observed in all groups. Female gender was associated with higher pain scores in almost all scenarios. Increasing age was associated with higher pain NRS scores in some scenarios of disease activity, and Asian and Hispanic ethnicities had reduced pain scores in some functional status scenarios. CONCLUSION: Patients with IIMs reported higher pain levels than wAIDs, but less than patients with other AIRDs. Pain is a disabling manifestation of IIMs and is associated with a poor functional status.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Myositis , Rheumatic Diseases , Humans , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/complications , Myositis/diagnosis , Myositis/epidemiology , Myositis/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/diagnosis , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/complications
7.
Life Sci ; 319: 121531, 2023 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281080

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus has attracted a lot of attention globally due to the autoimmune and inflammatory processes that were observed during the development of Covid-19 disease. Excessive activation of immune response and triggering of autoantibodies synthesis as well as an excessive synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and the onset of cytokine storm has a vital role in the disease outcome and the occurring autoimmune complications. This scenario is reminiscent of infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes in specific organs and the increased production of autoantibodies and chemoattractants noted in other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The main goal of this study is to investigate the complex inflammatory processes that occur in Covid-19 disease and to find similarities with other inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Kawasaki syndrome to advance existing diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. The therapy with Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and the use of S1P receptor modulators showed promising results. However, there are many unknowns about these mechanisms and possible novel therapies. Therefore, the inflammation and autoimmunity triggered by Covid-19 should be further investigated to improve existing diagnostic procedures and therapeutic protocols for Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines , Inflammation , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoantibodies
8.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 117, 2023 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19 infection is associated with the development of autoimmune diseases. A recent systematic review reported that the new-onset autoimmune disorders during or after COVID-19 infection included inflammatory myopathies such as immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies. CASE PRESENTATION: We described a 60-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 infection and later presented with a two-week history of myalgia, progressive limb weakness, and dysphagia. He had a Creatinine Kinase (CK) level of more than 10,000 U/L, was strongly positive for anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) and anti-Ro52 antibody, and a muscle biopsy revealed a paucity-inflammation necrotizing myopathy with randomly distributed necrotic fibers, which was consistent with necrotizing autoimmune myositis (NAM). He responded well clinically and biochemically to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids and immunosuppressant and he was able to resume to his baseline. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with late-onset necrotizing myositis, mimicking autoimmune inflammatory myositis.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Myositis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Myositis/complications , Myositis/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/complications , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Autoantibodies
9.
Rheumatol Int ; 43(7): 1197-1207, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258887

ABSTRACT

Consequences of Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) in patients with rheumatic diseases (RDs) are clinically diverse. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with various autoimmune and rheumatic manifestations over the past three years. Emerging evidence points to the possibility of Long COVID predisposition in rheumatic patients due to the changes in immune regulatory response. The aim of this article was to overview data on the pathobiology of Long COVID in patients with RDs. Related risk factors, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of Long COVID in RDs were analyzed. Relevant articles were retrieved from Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Diverse mechanisms of viral persistence, chronic low-grade inflammation, lasting production of autoantibodies, endotheliopathy, vascular complications, and permanent tissue damage have been described in association with Long COVID. Patients with RDs who survive COVID-19 often experience severe complications due to the immune disbalance resulting in multiple organ damage. Regular monitoring and treatment are warranted in view of the accumulating evidence.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
10.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 37(2): 101742, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252910

ABSTRACT

Breakdown of self-tolerance to thyroid antigens (thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and the thyrotropin-receptor) is the driver of thyroid autoimmunity. It has been suggested that infectious disease might trigger autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Involvement of the thyroid has been reported during severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, in the form of subacute thyroiditis in subjects with mild coronavirus disease 19 disease (COVID-19) and of painless, destructive thyroiditis in hospitalized patients with severe infection. In addition, cases of AITD, both Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), have been reported in association with (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this review, we focus on the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and occurrence of AITD. Nine cases of GD strictly related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and only three cases of HT associated to COVID-19 infection have been reported. No study has demonstrated a role of AITD as a risk factor for a poor prognosis of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Graves Disease , Hashimoto Disease , Humans , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Hashimoto Disease/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/complications
11.
JAMA ; 329(13): 1098-1113, 2023 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249466

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acute myocarditis, defined as a sudden inflammatory injury to the myocardium, affects approximately 4 to 14 people per 100 000 each year globally and is associated with a mortality rate of approximately 1% to 7%. Observations: The most common causes of myocarditis are viruses, such as influenza and coronavirus; systemic autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus; drugs, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors; and vaccines, including smallpox and mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Approximately 82% to 95% of adult patients with acute myocarditis present with chest pain, while 19% to 49% present with dyspnea, and 5% to 7% with syncope. The diagnosis of myocarditis can be suggested by presenting symptoms, elevated biomarkers such as troponins, electrocardiographic changes of ST segments, and echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities or wall thickening. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or endomyocardial biopsy are required for definitive diagnosis. Treatment depends on acuity, severity, clinical presentation, and etiology. Approximately 75% of patients admitted with myocarditis have an uncomplicated course, with a mortality rate of approximately 0%. In contrast, acute myocarditis that is complicated by acute heart failure or ventricular arrhythmias is associated with a 12% rate of either in-hospital mortality or need for heart transplant. Approximately 2% to 9% of patients have hemodynamic instability, characterized by inability to maintain adequate end-organ perfusion, and require inotropic agents, or mechanical circulatory devices, such as extracorporeal life support, to facilitate functional recovery. These patients have an approximately 28% rate of mortality or heart transplant at 60 days. Immunosuppression (eg, corticosteroids) is appropriate for patients who have myocarditis characterized by eosinophilic or giant cell myocardial infiltrations or due to systemic autoimmune disorders. However, the specific immune cells that should be targeted to improve outcomes in patients with myocarditis remain unclear. Conclusions and Relevance: Acute myocarditis affects approximately 4 to 14 per 100 000 people per year. First-line therapy depends on acuity, severity, clinical presentation, and etiology and includes supportive care. While corticosteroids are often used for specific forms of myocarditis (eg, eosinophilic or giant cell infiltrations), this practice is based on anecdotal evidence, and randomized clinical trials of optimal therapeutic interventions for acute myocarditis are needed.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Adult , Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocardium/pathology , Acute Disease
12.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 40(10): 1911-1920, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242606

ABSTRACT

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterised by microvasculopathy, immune dysregulation, and skin and visceral organ fibrosis. Every year novel insights into the pathogenesis, organ involvement and treatment of this severe disease are published in the scientific community.In this review we report an overview of some of the most relevant contributions published in 2021.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Scleroderma, Systemic , Humans , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnosis , Scleroderma, Systemic/therapy , Fibrosis , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Skin/pathology
14.
Endocr Pract ; 29(5): 349-352, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2220680

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Graves disease (GD), an autoimmune disease of the thyroid, is likely caused by a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Recent data suggest that COVID-19 may be associated with the development of autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and characteristics of new GD diagnoses in youth prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all new GD diagnoses in patients aged 0 to 18 years diagnosed at a tertiary care pediatric hospital between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2021. RESULTS: Over a 4-year period, 51 patients had been diagnosed with new-onset GD. We observed an increased incidence in new-onset GD during the pandemic compared with that in the 2 prior years (P = .01). During the pandemic period, heart rates (P = .03) as well as systolic (P = .005) and diastolic (P = .01) blood pressures were higher at initial evaluation, patients more frequently reported palpitations (P = .03) and tremors (P = .04), and an increased proportion of patients required beta-blockade treatment at diagnosis (P = .002). The percentage of patients requiring thionamide treatment and thionamide doses had been similar over time. CONCLUSION: We identified an increase in new-onset pediatric GD diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, youths had increased severity of symptoms and more frequently required beta-blockade treatment at diagnosis. Further study of the relationship between COVID-19 and autoimmune thyroid disease is needed.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Graves Disease , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Graves Disease/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/complications
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225337

ABSTRACT

Neutrophilia and the production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are two of many measures of increased inflammation in severe COVID-19 that also accompany its autoimmune complications, including coagulopathies, myocarditis and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This paper integrates currently disparate measures of innate hyperactivation in severe COVID-19 and its autoimmune complications, and relates these to SARS-CoV-2 activation of innate immunity. Aggregated data include activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) receptors, NOD leucine-rich repeat and pyrin-domain-containing receptors (NLRPs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5). SARS-CoV-2 mainly activates the virus-associated innate receptors TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, NLRP3, RIG-1 and MDA-5. Severe COVID-19, however, is characterized by additional activation of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, NOD1 and NOD2, which are primarily responsive to bacterial antigens. The innate activation patterns in autoimmune coagulopathies, myocarditis and Kawasaki disease, or MIS-C, mimic those of severe COVID-19 rather than SARS-CoV-2 alone suggesting that autoimmunity follows combined SARS-CoV-2-bacterial infections. Viral and bacterial receptors are known to synergize to produce the increased inflammation required to support autoimmune disease pathology. Additional studies demonstrate that anti-bacterial antibodies are also required to account for known autoantigen targets in COVID-19 autoimmune complications.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Myocarditis , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Innate , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Autoimmune Diseases/complications
16.
Acta Med Indones ; 54(4): 595-602, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2168108

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune diseases are known to be a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection. This is the first case series of patients with autoimmune disease suffering from COVID-19 infection in Jakarta, Indonesia. There were 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection in autoimmune patients from March 2020 until February 2021. We select 5 patients in this case series. Three of them had systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), one of them had rheumatoid arthritis, and one of them had ankylosing spondylitis. Three of them had high BSR Risk Stratification. Most of them had used daily steroid therapy. Fatigue, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and cough were the common symptoms found.  None of the patients were admitted to ICU, used mechanical ventilators, and all of them survived. Most of the patients were prescribed anti-coagulant therapy. This first comprehensive case series can provide valuable information regarding the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection in the Indonesian autoimmune disorder patient population.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/epidemiology
17.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 488, 2022 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may be associated with late-onset necrotizing myositis, mimicking autoimmune inflammatory myositis; however, the exact underlying pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-induced myositis is still unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report a rare case of necrotizing autoimmune myositis in a 67-year-old middle eastern male following coronavirus disease 2019 infection, who presented with muscle weakness. The patient had positive anti-NXP2. The diagnosis of necrotizing autoimmune myositis was made according to muscle weakness, increased liver enzymes, electromyography and nerve conduction velocity results, and muscle biopsy. The patient underwent a full malignancy evaluation, which was unremarkable, and was discharged in relatively well condition with a daily dose of 1 mg/kg prednisolone and azathioprine 150 mg (2 mg/kg). CONCLUSION: Our report highlights the already known possible protracted sequence of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and the potential for delayed-onset necrotizing myositis.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Myositis , Male , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Myositis/diagnosis , Myositis/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness , Prednisolone , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Virol J ; 20(1): 1, 2023 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196352

ABSTRACT

After the first reporting of the index case of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2-associated disease at the end of December 2019, the virus spread quickly throughout the world, prompting the WHO on 11 March 2020 to declare the disease a global pandemic. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, raises concerns for all people, mainly for susceptible population. People with pre-existing diseases, especially individuals with autoimmune disorders, are more at the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection because of compromised immune system due to frequent use of immunosuppressive drugs and steroids. Patients with autoimmune diseases and their physicians have concerns about these patients' healthcare, since they are at a higher risk for COVID-19 infection, may show severe complications of COVID-19, and may experience probable flares of their pre-existing disease. Even though there have been several studies discussing the relation between COVID-19 and various types of autoimmune diseases, it cannot be ascertained that all patients with autoimmune diseases experience more severe complications of COVID-19 and have more hospitalization or mortality rate. The situation depends on each patient's condition, such as the type and the severity of the underlying autoimmune disease and the kind of treatment they receive. In the present review, we have discussed the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on patients with different autoimmune diseases and their relative concerns about their treatments. As a result, we have reviewed further considerations that should be taken into account for these patients during the pandemic or when they are infected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Autoimmune Diseases/complications
19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(8): 3161-3171, 2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973248

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To calculate the rates of COVID-19 infection and COVID-19-related death among people with rare autoimmune rheumatic diseases (RAIRD) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in England compared with the general population. METHODS: We used Hospital Episode Statistics to identify all people alive on 1 March 2020 with ICD-10 codes for RAIRD from the whole population of England. We used linked national health records (demographic, death certificate, admissions and PCR testing data) to calculate rates of COVID-19 infection and death up to 31 July 2020. Our primary definition of COVID-19-related death was mention of COVID-19 on the death certificate. General population data from Public Health England and the Office for National Statistics were used for comparison. We also describe COVID-19-related hospital admissions and all-cause deaths. RESULTS: We identified a cohort of 168 680 people with RAIRD, of whom 1874 (1.11%) had a positive COVID-19 PCR test. The age-standardized infection rate was 1.54 (95% CI: 1.50, 1.59) times higher than in the general population. A total of 713 (0.42%) people with RAIRD died with COVID-19 on their death certificate and the age-sex-standardized mortality rate for COVID-19-related death was 2.41 (2.30-2.53) times higher than in the general population. There was no evidence of an increase in deaths from other causes in the RAIRD population. CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of COVID-19 in England, people with RAIRD had a 54% increased risk of COVID-19 infection and more than twice the risk of COVID-19-related death compared with the general population. These increases were seen despite shielding policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , England/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/mortality
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(11): 1594-1602, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term kinetics of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-induced immune response in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) and immunocompetent controls. METHODS: A prospective multicentre study investigated serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG titre at 2-6 weeks (AIIRD n=720, controls n=122) and 6 months (AIIRD n=628, controls n=116) after the second vaccine, and 2-6 weeks after the third vaccine dose (AIIRD n=169, controls n=45). T-cell immune response to the third vaccine was evaluated in a small sample. RESULTS: The two-dose vaccine regimen induced a higher humoral response in controls compared with patients, postvaccination seropositivity rates of 100% versus 84.72%, p<0.0001, and 96.55% versus 74.26%, p<0.0001 at 2-6 weeks and at 6 months, respectively. The third vaccine dose restored the seropositive response in all controls and 80.47% of patients with AIIRD, p=0.0028. All patients treated with methotrexate monotherapy, anticytokine biologics, abatacept and janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors regained the humoral response after the third vaccine, compared with only a third of patients treated with rituximab, entailing a 16.1-fold risk for a negative humoral response, p≤0.0001. Cellular immune response in rituximab-treated patients was preserved before and after the third vaccine and was similar to controls. Breakthrough COVID-19 rate during the Delta surge was similar in patients and controls, 1.83% versus 1.43%, p=1. CONCLUSIONS: The two-dose BNTb262 regimen was associated with similar clinical efficacy and similar waning of the humoral response over 6 months among patients with AIIRD and controls. The third vaccine dose restored the humoral response in all of the controls and the majority of patients.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rheumatic Diseases , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use
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