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1.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559466

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) represented, in the past ten years, an important target for the development of new therapeutic agents that could be useful for cancer and autoimmune disorders. To date, five compounds, able to block BTK in an irreversible manner, have been launched in the market, whereas many reversible BTK inhibitors (BTKIs), with reduced side effects that are more useful for long-term administration in autoimmune disorders, are under clinical investigation. Despite the presence in the literature of many articles and reviews, studies on BTK function and BTKIs are of great interest for pharmaceutical companies as well as academia. This review is focused on compounds that have appeared in the literature from 2017 that are able to block BTK in an irreversible or reversible manner; also, new promising tunable irreversible inhibitors, as well as PROTAC molecules, have been reported. This summary could improve the knowledge of the chemical diversity of BTKIs and provide information for future studies, particularly from the medicinal chemistry point of view. Data reported here are collected from different databases (Scifinder, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Pubmed) using "BTK" and "BTK inhibitors" as keywords.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/chemistry , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/classification , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Treatment Outcome
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497075

ABSTRACT

Chronic inflammatory disorders (CID), such as autoimmune diseases, are characterized by overactivation of the immune system and loss of immune tolerance. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of multiple CID, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In line with the increasingly recognized contribution of innate immune cells to the modulation of dendritic cell (DC) function and DC-driven adaptive immune responses, we recently showed that neutrophils are required for DC-driven Th17 cell differentiation from human naive T cells. Consequently, recruitment of neutrophils to inflamed tissues and lymph nodes likely creates a highly inflammatory loop through the induction of Th17 cells that should be intercepted to attenuate disease progression. Tolerogenic therapy via DCs, the central orchestrators of the adaptive immune response, is a promising strategy for the treatment of CID. Tolerogenic DCs could restore immune tolerance by driving the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the periphery. In this review, we discuss the effects of the tolerogenic adjuvants vitamin D3 (VD3), corticosteroids (CS), and retinoic acid (RA) on both DCs and neutrophils and their potential interplay. We briefly summarize how neutrophils shape DC-driven T-cell development in general. We propose that, for optimization of tolerogenic DC therapy for the treatment of CID, both DCs for tolerance induction and the neutrophil inflammatory loop should be targeted while preserving the potential Treg-enhancing effects of neutrophils.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmunity/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Immune Tolerance/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Neutrophils/drug effects , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism
3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 631743, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389175

ABSTRACT

The concept of trained immunity has recently emerged as a mechanism contributing to several immune mediated inflammatory conditions. Trained immunity is defined by the immunological memory developed in innate immune cells after a primary non-specific stimulus that, in turn, promotes a heightened inflammatory response upon a secondary challenge. The most characteristic changes associated to this process involve the rewiring of cell metabolism and epigenetic reprogramming. Under physiological conditions, the role of trained immune cells ensures a prompt response. This action is limited by effective resolution of inflammation and tissue repair in order to restore homeostasis. However, unrestrained activation of innate immune cells contributes to the development of chronic inflammation and tissue destruction through the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, proteases and growth factors. Therefore, interventions aimed at reversing the changes induced by trained immunity provide potential therapeutic approaches to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We review cellular approaches that target metabolism and the epigenetic reprogramming of dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, and other trained cells in the context of autoimmune inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmunity/drug effects , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Epigenesis, Genetic/drug effects , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Memory/drug effects , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Signal Transduction
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 624703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354863

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence suggests that the breakdown of immune tolerance plays an important role in the development of myocarditis triggered by cardiotropic microbial infections. Genetic deletion of immune checkpoint molecules that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance causes spontaneous myocarditis in mice, and cancer treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors can induce myocarditis in humans. These results suggest that the loss of immune tolerance results in myocarditis. The tissue microenvironment influences the local immune dysregulation in autoimmunity. Recently, tenascin-C (TN-C) has been found to play a role as a local regulator of inflammation through various molecular mechanisms. TN-C is a nonstructural extracellular matrix glycoprotein expressed in the heart during early embryonic development, as well as during tissue injury or active tissue remodeling, in a spatiotemporally restricted manner. In a mouse model of autoimmune myocarditis, TN-C was detectable before inflammatory cell infiltration and myocytolysis became histologically evident; it was strongly expressed during active inflammation and disappeared with healing. TN-C activates dendritic cells to generate pathogenic autoreactive T cells and forms an important link between innate and acquired immunity.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Autoimmunity , Cardiomyopathies/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Tenascin/metabolism , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Cardiomyopathies/immunology , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/pathology , Self Tolerance , Signal Transduction
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111888, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293595

ABSTRACT

Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa L., is a fat-soluble natural compound that can be obtained from ginger plant tuber roots, which accumulative evidences have demonstrated that it can resist viral and microbial infection and has anti-tumor, reduction of blood lipid and blood glucose, antioxidant and removal of free radicals, and is active against numerous disorders various chronic diseases including cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In this article is highlighted the recent evidence of curcuminoids applied in sevral aspects of medical problem particular in COVID-19 pandemics. We have searched several literature databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, the Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and the ClinicalTrials.gov website via using curcumin and medicinal properties as a keyword. All studies published from the time when the database was established to May 2021 was retrieved. This review article summarizes the growing confirmation for the mechanisms related to curcumin's physiological and pharmacological effects with related target proteins interaction via molecular docking. The purpose is to provide deeper insight and understandings of curcumin's medicinal value in the discovery and development of new drugs. Curcumin could be used in the prevention or therapy of cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, infection, and inflammation based on cellular biochemical, physiological regulation, infection suppression and immunomodulation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Curcumin/metabolism , Curcumin/pharmacology , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism , Protein Structure, Secondary
6.
Clin Invest Med ; 44(2): E5-18, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278877

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This literature review summarizes the main immunological characteristics of type III interferons (IFN) and highlights the clinically relevant aspects and future therapeutic perspectives for these inflammatory molecules. SOURCE: Relevant articles in PubMed MEDLINE from the first publication (2003) until 2020. N=101 articles were included in this review. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Type III IFNs represent a relatively newly described inflammatory cytokine family. Although they induce substantially similar signalling to the well-known type I IFNs, significant functional differences make these molecules remarkable. Type III IFNs have extensive biological effects, contributing to the pathogenesis of several diseases and also offering new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches: 1) their potent anti-viral properties make them promising therapeutics against viral hepatitis and even against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is causing the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; 2) imbalances in the IFN-λs contribute to several forms of chronic inflammation (e.g., systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases) and potentially predict disease progression and therapeutic response to biologic therapies; and 3) the antitumor properties of the type III IFNs open up new therapeutic perspectives against malignant diseases. CONCLUSION: Over the last 18 years, researchers have gathered extensive information about the presence and role of these versatile inflammatory cytokines in human diseases, but further research is needed to clarify the mechanistic background of those observations. Better understanding of their biological activities will permit us to use type III IFNs more efficiently in new diagnostic approaches and individualized therapies, consequently improving patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Interferons/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Disease Progression , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mycoses/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
7.
Curr Rheumatol Rev ; 17(1): 7-16, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115356

ABSTRACT

Viruses can induce autoimmune diseases, in addition to genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Particularly, coronaviruses are mentioned among the viruses implicated in autoimmunity. Today, the world's greatest threat derives from the pandemic of a new human coronavirus, called "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the responsible agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). First case of COVID-19 was identified in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China, in December 2019 and quickly spread around the world. This review focuses on autoimmune manifestations described during COVID-19, including pro-thrombotic state associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), acute interstitial pneumonia, macrophage activation syndrome, lymphocytopenia, systemic vasculitis, and autoimmune skin lesions. This offers the opportunity to highlight the pathogenetic mechanisms common to COVID-19 and several autoimmune diseases in order to identify new therapeutic targets. In a supposed preliminary pathogenetic model, SARS-CoV-2 plays a direct role in triggering widespread microthrombosis and microvascular inflammation, because it is able to induce transient aPL, endothelial damage and complement activation at the same time. Hence, endothelium might represent the common pathway in which autoimmunity and infection converge. In addition, autoimmune phenomena in COVID-19 can be explained by regulatory T cells impairment and cytokines cascade.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmunity/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Macrophage Activation/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
8.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(8): 485-498, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060053

ABSTRACT

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are pathologically activated neutrophils and monocytes with potent immunosuppressive activity. They are implicated in the regulation of immune responses in many pathological conditions and are closely associated with poor clinical outcomes in cancer. Recent studies have indicated key distinctions between MDSCs and classical neutrophils and monocytes, and, in this Review, we discuss new data on the major genomic and metabolic characteristics of MDSCs. We explain how these characteristics shape MDSC function and could facilitate therapeutic targeting of these cells, particularly in cancer and in autoimmune diseases. Additionally, we briefly discuss emerging data on MDSC involvement in pregnancy, neonatal biology and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/metabolism , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(4): 2413-2429, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745433

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mesenchymal precursors of various origins, with well-known immunomodulatory effects. Natural killer (NK) cells, the major cells of the innate immune system, are critical for the antitumor and antiviral defenses; however, in certain cases, they may be the main culprits in the pathogenesis of some NK-related conditions such as autoimmunities and hematological malignancies. On the other hand, these cells seem to be the major responders in beneficial phenomena like graft versus leukemia. Substantial data suggest that MSCs can variably affect NK cells and can be affected by these cells. Accordingly, acquiring a profound understanding of the crosstalk between MSCs and NK cells and the involved mechanisms seems to be a necessity to develop therapeutic approaches based on such interactions. Therefore, in this study, we made a thorough review of the existing literature on the interactions between MSCs and NK cells with a focus on the underlying mechanisms. The current knowledge herein suggests that MSCs possess a great potential to be used as tools for therapeutic targeting of NK cells in disease context and that preconditioning of MSCs, as well as their genetic manipulation before administration, may provide a wider variety of options in terms of eliciting more specific and desirable therapeutic outcomes. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the effects of MSCs on NK cells is still in its infancy, and further studies with well-defined conditions are warranted herein.


Subject(s)
Cell Communication , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/surgery , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/surgery , Phenotype , Signal Transduction , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 61(2): 156-170, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942613

ABSTRACT

Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes capable of sensing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and cellular perturbations. Upon stimulation, the inflammasomes activate the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-18 and induce gasdermin D-mediated pyroptosis. Dysregulated inflammasome signaling could lead to hyperinflammation in response to environmental triggers, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of childhood autoimmune/autoinflammatory diseases. In this review, we group childhood rheumatic diseases into the autoinflammation to autoimmunity spectrum and discuss about the involvement of inflammasomes in disease mechanisms. Genetic mutations in inflammasome components cause monogenic autoinflammatory diseases, while inflammasome-related genetic variants have been implicated in polygenic childhood rheumatic diseases. We highlight the reported associations of inflammasome signaling-related genetic polymorphisms/protein levels with pediatric autoimmune disease susceptibility and disease course. Furthermore, we discuss about the use of IL-1 receptor antagonist as an adjunctive therapy in several childhood autoimmune diseases, including macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to COVID-19. A comprehensive multi-cohort comparison on inflammasome gene expression profile in different pediatric rheumatic diseases is needed to identify patient subsets that might benefit from the adjunctive therapy of IL-1ß inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Animals , Autoimmunity/genetics , Child , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Rheumatic Diseases/genetics , Rheumatic Diseases/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics
11.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(2): 315-323, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942577

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppression (IS) and autoimmune disease (AD) are prevalent in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but their impact on its clinical course is unknown. We investigated relationships between IS, AD, and outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Data on consecutive admissions for COVID-19 were extracted retrospectively from medical records. Patients were assigned to one of four cohorts, according to whether or not they had an AD (AD and NAD) or were immunosuppressed (IS and NIS). The primary endpoint was development of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); secondary endpoints included death, and a composite of mechanical ventilation (MV) or death. A total of 789 patients were included: 569 (72.1%) male, 76 (9.6%) with an AD, and 63 (8.0%) with IS. Relative to the NIS-NAD cohort, patients in the IS-AD cohort had a significantly reduced risk of severe ARDS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.80; p = 0.008). No significant relationships between IS or AD status and either death or the composite of MV and death were identified, although a trend towards higher mortality was identified in the IS-NAD cohort (aHR vs NIS-NAD 1.71; 95% CI 0.94-3.12; p = 0.081). Patients in this cohort also had higher median serum levels of interleukin-6 compared with IS-AD patients (98.2 vs 21.6 pg/mL; p = 0.0328) and NIS-NAD patients (29.1 pg/mL; p = 0.0057). In conclusion, among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, those receiving immunosuppressive treatment for an AD may have a reduced risk of developing severe ARDS.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Impact Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Severity Indices , Treatment Outcome
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