Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 58
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264774, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793507

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 outbreak challenged health systems around the world to design and implement cost-effective devices produced locally to meet the increased demand of mechanical ventilators worldwide. This study evaluates the physiological responses of healthy swine maintained under volume- or pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation by a mechanical ventilator implemented to bring life-support by automating a resuscitation bag and closely controlling ventilatory parameters. Physiological parameters were monitored in eight sedated animals (t0) prior to inducing deep anaesthesia, and during the next six hours of mechanical ventilation (t1-7). Hemodynamic conditions were monitored periodically using a portable gas analyser machine (i.e. BEecf, carbonate, SaO2, lactate, pH, PaO2, PaCO2) and a capnometer (i.e. ETCO2). Electrocardiogram, echocardiography and lung ultrasonography were performed to detect in vivo alterations in these vital organs and pathological findings from necropsy were reported. The mechanical ventilator properly controlled physiological levels of blood biochemistry such as oxygenation parameters (PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2, ETCO2), acid-base equilibrium (pH, carbonate, BEecf), and perfusion of tissues (lactate levels). In addition, histopathological analysis showed no evidence of acute tissue damage in lung, heart, liver, kidney, or brain. All animals were able to breathe spontaneously after undergoing mechanical ventilation. These preclinical data, supports the biological safety of the medical device to move forward to further evaluation in clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Ventilators, Mechanical , Animals , Automation , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hemodynamics , Male , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Swine
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264484, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736510

ABSTRACT

Companies developing automated driving system (ADS) technologies have spent heavily in recent years to conduct live testing of autonomous vehicles operating in real world environments to ensure their reliable and safe operations. However, the unexpected onset and ongoing resurgent effects of the Covid-19 pandemic starting in March 2020 has serve to halt, change, or delay the achievement of these new product development test objectives. This study draws on data obtained from the California automated vehicle test program to determine the extent that testing trends, test resumptions, and test environments have been affected by the pandemic. The importance of government policies to support and enable autonomous vehicles development during pandemic conditions is highlighted.


Subject(s)
Automation/methods , Mechanical Tests/methods , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Automation/economics , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/economics , California , Humans , Mechanical Tests/economics , User-Centered Design
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 798117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674335

ABSTRACT

Background: The ability to quantify an immune response after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential. This study assessed the clinical utility of the quantitative Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay (ACOV2S) using samples from the 2019-nCoV vaccine (mRNA-1273) phase 1 trial (NCT04283461). Methods: Samples from 30 healthy participants, aged 18-55 years, who received two injections with mRNA-1273 at a dose of 25 µg (n=15) or 100 µg (n=15), were collected at Days 1 (first vaccination), 15, 29 (second vaccination), 43 and 57. ACOV2S results (shown in U/mL - equivalent to BAU/mL per the first WHO international standard) were compared with results from ELISAs specific to antibodies against the Spike protein (S-2P) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) as well as neutralization tests including nanoluciferase (nLUC80), live-virus (PRNT80), and a pseudovirus neutralizing antibody assay (PsVNA50). Results: RBD-specific antibodies were already detectable by ACOV2S at the first time point of assessment (d15 after first vaccination), with seroconversion before in all but two participants (25 µg dose group); all had seroconverted by Day 29. Across all post-baseline visits, geometric mean concentration of antibody levels was 3.27-7.48-fold higher in the 100 µg compared with the 25 µg dose group. ACOV2S measurements were highly correlated with those from RBD ELISA (Pearson's r=0.938; p<0.0001) and S-2P ELISA (r=0.918; p<0.0001). For both ELISAs, heterogeneous baseline results and smaller increases in antibody levels following the second vs first vaccination compared with ACOV2S were observed. ACOV2S showed absence of any baseline noise indicating high specificity detecting vaccine-induced antibody response. Moderate-strong correlations were observed between ACOV2S and neutralization tests (nLUC80 r=0.933; PsVNA50, r=0.771; PRNT80, r=0.672; all p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion: The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay (ACOV2S) can be regarded as a highly valuable method to assess and quantify the presence of RBD-directed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 following vaccination and may indicate the presence of neutralizing antibodies. As a fully automated and standardized method, ACOV2S could qualify as the method of choice for consistent quantification of vaccine-induced humoral response.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Automation , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Reference Standards , Young Adult
4.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(Suppl 6): 289, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virus screening and viral genome reconstruction are urgent and crucial for the rapid identification of viral pathogens, i.e., tracing the source and understanding the pathogenesis when a viral outbreak occurs. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides an efficient and unbiased way to identify viral pathogens in host-associated and environmental samples without prior knowledge. Despite the availability of software, data analysis still requires human operations. A mature pipeline is urgently needed when thousands of viral pathogen and viral genome reconstruction samples need to be rapidly identified. RESULTS: In this paper, we present a rapid and accurate workflow to screen metagenomics sequencing data for viral pathogens and other compositions, as well as enable a reference-based assembler to reconstruct viral genomes. Moreover, we tested our workflow on several metagenomics datasets, including a SARS-CoV-2 patient sample with NGS data, pangolins tissues with NGS data, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-infected cells with NGS data, etc. Our workflow demonstrated high accuracy and efficiency when identifying target viruses from large scale NGS metagenomics data. Our workflow was flexible when working with a broad range of NGS datasets from small (kb) to large (100 Gb). This took from a few minutes to a few hours to complete each task. At the same time, our workflow automatically generates reports that incorporate visualized feedback (e.g., metagenomics data quality statistics, host and viral sequence compositions, details about each of the identified viral pathogens and their coverages, and reassembled viral pathogen sequences based on their closest references). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our system enabled the rapid screening and identification of viral pathogens from metagenomics data, providing an important piece to support viral pathogen research during a pandemic. The visualized report contains information from raw sequence quality to a reconstructed viral sequence, which allows non-professional people to screen their samples for viruses by themselves (Additional file 1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Computational Biology/methods , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Algorithms , Animals , Automation , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics , Pangolins , Reference Values , Software , Transcriptome , Workflow
5.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(8): 1463-1467, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has brought about tests from many manufacturers. While molecular and rapid antigen tests are targeted for early diagnosis, immunoassays have a larger role in epidemiological studies, understanding longitudinal immunity, and in vaccine development and response. METHODS: The performance of the LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay was evaluated against the Beckman ACCESS SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay in New Mexico, and against the Siemens ADVIA Centaur COV2G assay in New York. Discordant samples were parsed using a microneutralization assay. RESULTS: A SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity rate of 23.8% was observed in the samples tested in New York (September 2020), while in the same month the positivity rate was 1.5% in New Mexico. Positive and negative agreement were 67.6% (95% CI 49.5-82.6%) and 99.8% (95% CI 99.5-99.9%), respectively, with the Beckman test, and 98.0% (95% CI 95.7-99.3%) and 94.8% (95% CI 93.4-96.0%), respectively, with the Siemens test. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies discloses an AUC, area under the curve, of 0.996 (95% CI 0.992-0.999) for the LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay. The criterion associated to the Youden Index was determined to be >12.9 kAU/L with a sensitivity of 99.44% and a specificity of 99.82%. CONCLUSIONS: The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay is highly sensitive and specific. The balance of these parameters, without emphasis on high specificity alone, is particularly important when applied to high prevalence populations, where a highly sensitive assay will result in reporting a lower number of false negative subjects.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Area Under Curve , Automation , COVID-19/virology , Humans , ROC Curve , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1603-1607, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524679

ABSTRACT

During October 3, 2020-January 9, 2021, North Carolina experienced a 400% increase in daily reported COVID-19 cases (1). To handle the increased number of cases and rapidly notify persons receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (patients), North Carolina state and local health departments moved from telephone call notification only to telephone call plus automated text and email notification (digital notification) beginning on December 24, 2020. Overall, among 200,258 patients, 142,975 (71%) were notified by telephone call or digital notification within the actionable period (10 days from their diagnosis date)* during January 2021, including at least 112,543 (56%) notified within 24 hours of report to North Carolina state and local health departments, a significantly higher proportion than the 25,905 of 175,979 (15%) notified within 24 hours during the preceding month (p<0.001). Differences in text notification by age, race, and ethnicity were observed. Automated digital notification is a feasible, rapid and efficient method to support timely outreach to patients, provide guidance on how to isolate, access resources, inform close contacts, and increase the efficiency of case investigation staff members.


Subject(s)
Automation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electronic Mail , Text Messaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Notification/methods , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , North Carolina/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(92): 12270-12272, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506302

ABSTRACT

An automated Cas12a-microfluidic system was constructed to distinguish the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2 from the wild-type virus rapidly and was validated using 30 clinical samples, showing 100% consistency with next-generation sequencing. It will be a potential tool for the rapid differential diagnosis of the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Microfluidics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Automation , COVID-19/virology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Guide/genetics , RNA, Guide/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 138: 80-94, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated systematic review automation tool use by systematic reviewers, health technology assessors and clinical guideline developerst. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: An online, 16-question survey was distributed across several evidence synthesis, health technology assessment and guideline development organizations. We asked the respondents what tools they use and abandon, how often and when do they use the tools, their perceived time savings and accuracy, and desired new tools. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. RESULTS: A total of 253 respondents completed the survey; 89% have used systematic review automation tools - most frequently whilst screening (79%). Respondents' "top 3" tools included: Covidence (45%), RevMan (35%), Rayyan and GRADEPro (both 22%); most commonly abandoned were Rayyan (19%), Covidence (15%), DistillerSR (14%) and RevMan (13%). Tools saved time (80%) and increased accuracy (54%). Respondents taught themselves to how to use the tools (72%); lack of knowledge was the most frequent barrier to tool adoption (51%). New tool development was suggested for the searching and data extraction stages. CONCLUSION: Automation tools will likely have an increasingly important role in high-quality and timely reviews. Further work is required in training and dissemination of automation tools and ensuring they meet the desirable features of those conducting systematic reviews.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Computers , Automation/methods , Research Personnel/psychology , Systematic Reviews as Topic/methods , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/statistics & numerical data , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/standards , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Bioanalysis ; 13(19): 1459-1465, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450902

ABSTRACT

During the first half of 2021, and due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic preventing in-person meetings, the European Bioanalysis Forum organized four workshops as live interactive online meetings. The themes discussed at the workshops were carefully selected to match the cyberspace dynamics of the meeting format. The first workshop was a training day on challenges related to immunogenicity. The second one focused on biomarkers and continued the important discussion on integrating the principles of Context of Use (CoU) in biomarker research. The third workshop was dedicated to technology, that is, cutting-edge development in cell-based and ligand-binding assays and automation strategies. The fourth was on progress and the continued scientific and regulatory challenges related to peptide and protein analysis with MS. In all four workshops, the European Bioanalysis Forum included a mixture of scientific and regulatory themes, while reminding the audience of important strategic aspects and our responsibility toward the patient.


Subject(s)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical , Mass Spectrometry , Proteins/analysis , Proteins/immunology , Automation , Biomarkers/analysis , Humans , Proteins/chemistry
12.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 102(1): 115560, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433138

ABSTRACT

Testing is crucial in controlling COVID-19. The Procleix® SARS-CoV-2 assay, a transcription-mediated amplification nucleic acid test that runs on an automated system, was evaluated using inactivated virus and clinical samples. The sensitivity of the assay was assessed using heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and compared to 3 other tests. Clinical validation utilized 2 sets of samples: (1) Nasal, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples (n = 963) from asymptomatic individuals, and (2) nasopharyngeal samples from symptomatic patients: 100 positive and 100 negative by RT-PCR. The Procleix assay had greater sensitivity (3-fold to 100-fold) than the comparators and had high specificity (100%) in asymptomatic subjects. In symptomatic patients, the Procleix assay detected 100% of PCR-positives and found 24 positives in the initial PCR-negatives. Eighteen of these were confirmed positive and 6 were inconclusive. These studies showed that the Procleix SARS-CoV-2 assay was a sensitive and specific tool for detecting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Automation , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While potentially timesaving, there is no program to automatically transform diagnosis codes of the ICD-10 German modification (ICD-10-GM) into the injury severity score (ISS). OBJECTIVE: To develop a mapping method from ICD-10-GM into ICD-10 clinical modification (ICD-10-CM) to calculate the abbreviated injury scale (AIS) and ISS of each patient using the ICDPIC-R and to compare the manually and automatically calculated scores. METHODS: Between January 2019 and June 2021, the most severe AIS of each body region and the ISS were manually calculated using medical documentation and radiology reports of all major trauma patients of a German level I trauma centre. The ICD-10-GM codes of these patients were exported from the electronic medical data system SAP, and a Java program was written to transform these into ICD-10-CM codes. Afterwards, the ICDPIC-R was used to automatically generate the most severe AIS of each body region and the ISS. The automatically and manually determined ISS and AIS scores were then tested for equivalence. RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed that the manually and automatically calculated ISS were significantly equivalent over the entire patient cohort. Further sub-group analysis, however, showed that equivalence could only be demonstrated for patients with an ISS between 16 and 24. Likewise, the highest AIS scores of each body region were not equal in the manually and automatically calculated group. CONCLUSION: Though achieving mapping results highly comparable to previous mapping methods of ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes, it is not unrestrictedly possible to automatically calculate the AIS and ISS using ICD-10-GM codes.


Subject(s)
Injury Severity Score , International Classification of Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Automation , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Young Adult
14.
J Vis Exp ; (174)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378456

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), was the most significant infectious disease killer globally until the advent of COVID-19. Mtb has evolved to persist in its intracellular environment, evade host defenses, and has developed resistance to many anti-tubercular drugs. One approach to solving resistance is identifying existing approved drugs that will boost the host immune response to Mtb. These drugs could then be repurposed as adjunctive host-directed therapies (HDT) to shorten treatment time and help overcome antibiotic resistance. Quantification of intracellular Mtb growth in macrophages is a crucial aspect of assessing potential HDT. The gold standard for measuring Mtb growth is counting colony-forming units (CFU) on agar plates. This is a slow, labor-intensive assay that does not lend itself to rapid screening of drugs. In this protocol, an automated, broth-based culture system, which is more commonly used to detect Mtb in clinical specimens, has been adapted for preclinical screening of host-directed therapies. The capacity of the liquid culture assay system to investigate intracellular Mtb growth in macrophages treated with HDT was evaluated. The HDTs tested for their ability to inhibit Mtb growth were all-trans Retinoic acid (AtRA), both in solution and encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles and the combination of interferon-gamma and linezolid. The advantages of this automated liquid culture-based technique over the CFU method include simplicity of setup, less labor-intensive preparation, and faster time to results (5-12 days compared to 21 days or more for agar plates).


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Automation , Humans , Macrophages , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
15.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 210(5-6): 263-275, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366361

ABSTRACT

A versatile portfolio of diagnostic tests is essential for the containment of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Besides nucleic acid-based test systems and point-of-care (POCT) antigen (Ag) tests, quantitative, laboratory-based nucleocapsid Ag tests for SARS-CoV-2 have recently been launched. Here, we evaluated four commercial Ag tests on automated platforms and one POCT to detect SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated PCR-positive (n = 107) and PCR-negative (n = 303) respiratory swabs from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients at the end of the second pandemic wave in Germany (February-March 2021) as well as clinical isolates EU1 (B.1.117), variant of concern (VOC) Alpha (B.1.1.7) or Beta (B.1.351), which had been expanded in a biosafety level 3 laboratory. The specificities of automated SARS-CoV-2 Ag tests ranged between 97.0 and 99.7% (Lumipulse G SARS-CoV-2 Ag (Fujirebio): 97.03%, Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 Ag (Roche Diagnostics): 97.69%; LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 Ag (Diasorin) and SARS-CoV-2 Ag ELISA (Euroimmun): 99.67%). In this study cohort of hospitalized patients, the clinical sensitivities of tests were low, ranging from 17.76 to 52.34%, and analytical sensitivities ranged from 420,000 to 25,000,000 Geq/ml. In comparison, the detection limit of the Roche Rapid Ag Test (RAT) was 9,300,000 Geq/ml, detecting 23.58% of respiratory samples. Receiver-operating-characteristics (ROCs) and Youden's index analyses were performed to further characterize the assays' overall performance and determine optimal assay cutoffs for sensitivity and specificity. VOCs carrying up to four amino acid mutations in nucleocapsid were detected by all five assays with characteristics comparable to non-VOCs. In summary, automated, quantitative SARS-CoV-2 Ag tests show variable performance and are not necessarily superior to a standard POCT. The efficacy of any alternative testing strategies to complement nucleic acid-based assays must be carefully evaluated by independent laboratories prior to widespread implementation.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Automation/economics , Automation/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/economics , Cohort Studies , False Negative Reactions , Germany , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(7): 1787-1798, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336052

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate identification of respiratory tract infection pathogens is of utmost importance for clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as prevention of pathogen transmission. To meet this demand, a microfluidic chip-based PCR-array system, Onestart, was developed. The Onestart system uses a microfluidic chip packaged with all the reagents required, and the waste liquid is also collected and stored on the chip. This ready-to-use system can complete the detection of 21 pathogens in a fully integrated manner, with sample lysis, nucleic acid extraction/purification, and real-time PCR sequentially implemented on the same chip. The entire analysis process is completed within 1.5 h, and the system automatically generates a test report. The lower limit-of-detection (LOD) of the Onestart assay was determined to be 1.0 × 103 copies·mL-1. The inter-batch variation of cycle threshold (Ct) values ranged from 0.08% to 0.69%, and the intra-batch variation ranged from 0.9% to 2.66%. Analytical results of the reference sample mix showed a 100% specificity of the Onestart assay. The analysis of batched clinical samples showed consistency of the Onestart assay with real-time PCR. With its ability to provide rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of respiratory tract infection pathogens, application of the Onestart system will facilitate timely clinical management of respiratory tract infections and effective prevention of pathogen transmission. Onestart, a ready-to-use system, can detect 21 pathogens in a fully integrated manner on a microchip within 1.5 h.


Subject(s)
Automation , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Equipment Design , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Limit of Detection , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , Microfluidics , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Quality Control , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viruses
17.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(12): 2003-2009, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The detection of SARS-CoV-2 in infected people is a key tool to help in controlling COVID-19 pandemic. Like rapid antigenic tests, automated antigen tests, that present the advantage of a higher throughput flow, may be of interest. The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 Ag test was evaluated for the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen in nasopharyngeal swabs by comparison to RT-PCR. METHODS: The study involved 378 nasopharyngeal samples (UTM® and FLOQSwab™, Copan Diagnostics), including 46 swabs positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. These samples came from asymptomatic (n=99, 26.2%) or symptomatic people (n=279, 73.8%), at different times from symptom onset. The samples were analyzed on LIAISON® XL. RESULTS: The overall specificity was 99.4% (CI95% [98.6-100]). The negative predictive value reached 100% in asymptomatic people. Among the 46 positive samples, the overall sensitivity was 84.8% (CI95% [74.4-95.2]), reached 91.9% (CI95% [83.1-100]) in the first fourth days after symptoms onset and was 100% for Cq values ≤25. Antigen was not detected in samples with Cq values >25. Similar results were observed on nasopharyngeal swabs coming from patients infected with the 20I/501Y.V1 variant or the 20H/501Y.V2 variant. CONCLUSIONS: According to technical performances, the LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 Ag test may be a useful tool for COVID-19 diagnosis, especially during the first four days of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleocapsid/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Area Under Curve , Automation , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , ROC Curve , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
18.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(7): 198-206, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332572

ABSTRACT

Background: High-throughput assays that can infer neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 are of great importance for assessing the immunity induced by natural infection and COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to evaluate the performance and degree of correlation of three fully automated anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays with neutralization activity using a surrogate virus-neutralizing test (sVNT) from GenScript, targeting the receptor-binding domain. Methods: 110 sera collected from PCR-confirmed asymptomatic COVID-19 individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) using the sVNT. Positive samples were tested on three automated immunoassays targeting different viral antigens: Mindray CL-900i®, Abbott Architect, and Ortho VITROS®. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, agreement, and correlation with the sVNT were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine optimal thresholds for predicting the presence of neutralizing activity by each assay. Results: All three assays showed 100% specificities. The highest sensitivity was 99.0%, demonstrated by VITROS®, followed by 94.3%, for CL-900i®, and 81.0%, for Architect. Both VITROS® and CL-900i® had the strongest correlation with the sVNT (ρ = 0.718 and ρ = 0.712, respectively), while Architect showed a moderate correlation (ρ = 0.618). ROC curve analysis indicated that the manufacturer's recommended cutoff values are adequate for predicting the presence of nAbs and providing a strong correlation with the sVNT. Conclusion: VITROS® and CL-900i® serological assays, which detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, could serve as reliable assays to predict neutralization activity after infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Automation , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9954615, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285105

ABSTRACT

The last decade (2010-2021) has witnessed the evolution of robotic applications in orthodontics. This review scopes and analyzes published orthodontic literature in eight different domains: (1) robotic dental assistants; (2) robotics in diagnosis and simulation of orthodontic problems; (3) robotics in orthodontic patient education, teaching, and training; (4) wire bending and customized appliance robotics; (5) nanorobots/microrobots for acceleration of tooth movement and for remote monitoring; (6) robotics in maxillofacial surgeries and implant placement; (7) automated aligner production robotics; and (8) TMD rehabilitative robotics. A total of 1,150 records were searched, of which 124 potentially relevant articles were retrieved in full. 87 studies met the selection criteria following screening and were included in the scoping review. The review found that studies pertaining to arch wire bending and customized appliance robots, simulative robots for diagnosis, and surgical robots have been important areas of research in the last decade (32%, 22%, and 16%). Rehabilitative robots and nanorobots are quite promising and have been considerably reported in the orthodontic literature (13%, 9%). On the other hand, assistive robots, automated aligner production robots, and patient robots need more scientific data to be gathered in the future (1%, 1%, and 6%). Technological readiness of different robotic applications in orthodontics was further assessed. The presented eight domains of robotic technologies were assigned to an estimated technological readiness level according to the information given in the publications. Wire bending robots, TMD robots, nanorobots, and aligner production robots have reached the highest levels of technological readiness: 9; diagnostic robots and patient robots reached level 7, whereas surgical robots and assistive robots reached lower levels of readiness: 4 and 3, respectively.


Subject(s)
Orthodontics/methods , Orthodontics/trends , Robotics/instrumentation , Robotics/trends , Stomatognathic System , Automation , Equipment Design , Forecasting , Humans , Orthodontic Wires , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Software
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL