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1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 173: 106715, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866757

ABSTRACT

With the advance of intelligent transportation system technologies, contributing factors to crashes can be obtained in real time. Analyzing these factors can be critical in improving traffic safety. Despite many crash models having been successfully developed for safety analytics, most models associate crash observations and contributing factors at the aggregate level, resulting in potential information loss. This study proposes an efficient Gaussian process modulated renewal process model for safety analytics that does not suffer from information loss due to data aggregations. The proposed model can infer crash intensities in the continuous-time dimension so that they can be better associated with contributing factors that change over time. Moreover, the model can infer non-homogeneous intensities by relaxing the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) exponential assumption of the crash intervals. To demonstrate the validity and advantages of this proposed model, an empirical study examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on traffic safety at six interstate highway sections is performed. The accuracy of our proposed renewal model is verified by comparing the areas under the curve (AUC) of the inferred crash intensity function with the actual crash counts. Residual box plot shows that our proposed models have lower biases and variances compared with Poisson and Negative binomial models. Counterfactual crash intensities are then predicted conditioned on exogenous variables at the crash time. Time-varying safety impacts such as bimodal, unimodal, and parabolic patterns are observed at the selected highways. The case study shows the proposed model enables safety analytics at a granular level and provides a more detailed insight into the time-varying safety risk in a changing environment.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Safety
2.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100556, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852235

ABSTRACT

Keeping schools open without permitting COVID-19 spread has been complicated by conflicting messages around the role of children and schools in fueling the pandemic. Here, we describe methodological limitations of research minimizing SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools, and we review evidence for safely operating schools while reducing overall SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1020, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined warning messages as a strategy for preventing automobile crashes by drivers on medications. We investigated the degree of awareness regarding the effects of medication on automobile driving and changes in medication-taking and driving behavior. We also assessed associations between socio-environmental factors and the driving and medication-taking behavior adopted by individuals after being warned about driving-related risks. METHODS: Responses to an online questionnaire from 1200 people with a driving license who were taking prescription medications at the time of inquiry (March 2019) were collected and analyzed. The items surveyed were sex, age, educational history, health literacy, current medications, and medication-taking and driving behavior after being warned. RESULTS: Of the total respondents, 30% were taking medicine that prohibited driving. Of those taking prohibited medications, 25.7% did not receive a warning about driving from healthcare professionals. Most respondents taking prohibited medications received euphemistic warnings, such as "practice caution" (30%), "refrain from calling attention" (29.4%), and "avoid driving" (19.8%); 16% of the direct warnings were about not driving. Medication's effects on driving were recognized by 80% of the total respondents. The degree of awareness was significantly higher among respondents taking medications that prohibit driving than among those taking medications that did not prohibit driving or those taking unknown medications. Awareness of medicine's influence on driving was associated with health literacy. No association was found between age, gender, health literacy, history of side effects, and driving and medication-taking behavior. Approximately 22% of respondents adjusted their medication use at their discretion and 39% maintained treatment compliance but continued driving. Among respondents taking medications that prohibit driving, whether driving was required for work was a significant factor in their driving and medication-taking behavior after being warned. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals do not always fully inform patients about the driving-related risks of medications. To encourage patients who are taking medications that have a significant impact on their driving to either stop driving or consult a healthcare professional, healthcare professionals must first understand the patient's social environment, such as whether driving is required for work, and then create an environment conducive to advice-seeking.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Prescription Drugs , Humans , Licensure , Prescription Drugs/adverse effects , Prescriptions , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(5): 1321-1328, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840801

ABSTRACT

Recruiting from a large university registry of older adults who have consented to be contacted for research, the Getting There study (n = 500) asked about willingness to participate in research and obstacles posed by transportation. In the period before the pandemic (12/2019-3/2020), 88% of participants in the community registry were willing to travel to the research site. Driving and living closer to the research site, with better access to public transportation, were associated with significantly greater willingness to come to the medical center for research even after adjustment for age, difficulty getting in and out of a vehicle, and number of days leaving one's home each week. A qualitative inquiry drawing on a long-term care registry (n = 23) showed a similar role for transportation challenges. Findings suggest transportation challenges among older people are a major source of unwillingness to participate in research even among highly motivated people participating in research registries.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Transportation , Aged , Humans , Qualitative Research
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 172: 106687, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803319

ABSTRACT

Risky driving behaviors such as speeding and failing to signal have been witnessed more frequently during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in higher rates of severe crashes. This study aims to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic impacts the likelihood of severe crashes via changing driving behaviors. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to capture the complex interrelationships between crash injury severity, the context of COVID-19, driving behaviors, and other risk factors for two different groups, i.e., highways and non-highways. The SEM constructs two latent variables, namely aggressiveness and inattentiveness, which are indicated by risk driving behaviors such as speeding, drunk driving, and distraction. One great advantage of SEM is that the measurement of latent variables and interrelationship modeling can be achieved simultaneously in one statistical estimation procedure. Group differences between highways and non-highways are tested using different equality constraints and multigroup SEM with equal regressions can deliver the augmented performance. The smaller severity threshold for the highway group indicates that it is more likely that a crash could involve severe injuries on highways as compared to those on non-highways. Results suggest that aggressiveness and inattentiveness of drivers increased significantly after the outbreak of COVID-19, leading to a higher likelihood of severe crashes. Failing to account for the indirect effect of COVID-19 via changing driving behaviors, the conventional probit model suggests an insignificant impact of COVID-19 on crash severity. Findings of this study provide insights into the effect of changing driving behaviors on safety during disruptive events like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Pandemics , Risk Factors
6.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 11(3): 22, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799157

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been reported to improve the safety of elderly and normally sighted drivers. The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to, perceived safety of, comfort level with, and interest in using ADAS among drivers with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Current drivers aged 60+ years were recruited at four US sites to complete a survey about ADAS and driving habits. Frequency of use and/or perceptions of eight ADAS were investigated. An avoidance score was generated using questions about difficult driving situations. Results: The survey was completed by 166 participants (80 with AMD vs. 86 without). Participants with AMD had worse self-rated vision than those without (34% vs. 2% poor or fair rating), and drove fewer weekly miles (median [interquartile range [IQR] 30 [15 to 75] vs. 60 [30 to 121] miles, P = 0.002). Participants with AMD reported more avoidance of difficult driving situations (P < 0.001). There was no difference in the number of ADAS used by AMD status (median [IQR for AMD = 2.5 [1 to 5] vs. 3 [2 to 4] without, P = 0.87). Greater reported number of ADAS used was associated with less avoidance of difficult situations (P = 0.02). The majority perceived improved safety with most ADAS. Conclusions: Many drivers with AMD utilize common ADAS, which subjectively improve their road safety and may help to reduce self-imposed restrictions for difficult situations and mileage. Translational Relevance: Drivers with AMD are adopting readily available ADAS, for which they reported potential benefits, such as safety and less restrictive driving.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Macular Degeneration , Accidents, Traffic , Aged , Humans , Macular Degeneration/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059312, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788967

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify and prioritise the research needed to help Nepali agencies develop an improved road safety system. DESIGN: Delphi study. SETTING: Nepal. PARTICIPANTS: Stakeholders from government institutions, academia, engineering, healthcare and civil society were interviewed to identify knowledge gaps and research questions. Participants then completed two rounds of ranking and a workshop. RESULTS: A total of 93 participants took part in interviews and two rounds of ranking. Participants were grouped with others sharing expertise relating to each of the five WHO 'pillars' of road safety: (1) road safety management; (2) safer roads; (3) safer vehicles; (4) safer road users and (5) effective postcrash response. Interviews yielded 1019 research suggestions across the five pillars. Two rounds of ranking within expert groups yielded consensus on the important questions for each pillar. A workshop involving all participants then led to the selection of 6 questions considered the most urgent: (1) How can implementing agencies be made more accountable? (2) How should different types of roads, and roads in different geographical locations, be designed to make them safer for all road users? (3) What vehicle fitness factors lead to road traffic crashes? (4) How can the driver licensing system be improved to ensure safer drivers? (5) What factors lead to public vehicle crashes and how can they be addressed? and (6) What factors affect emergency response services getting to the patient and then getting them to the right hospital in the best possible time? CONCLUSIONS: The application of the Delphi approach is useful to enable participants representing a range of institutions and expertise to contribute to the identification of road safety research priorities. Outcomes from this study provide Nepali researchers with a greater understanding of the necessary focus for future road safety research.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Delphi Technique , Humans , Licensure , Nepal , Research , Safety
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 849547, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776064

ABSTRACT

Fatal vehicle crashes (FVCs) are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Professional drivers often drive under dangerous conditions; however, knowledge of the risk factors for FVCs among professional drivers remain scant. We investigated whether professional drivers have a higher risk of FVCs than non-professional drivers and sought to clarify potential risk factors for FVCs among professional drivers. We analyzed nationwide incidence rates of FVCs as preliminary data. Furthermore, by using these data, we created a 1:4 professionals/non-professionals preliminary study to compare with the risk factors between professional and non-professional drivers. In Taiwan, the average crude incidence rate of FVCs for 2003-2016 among professional drivers was 1.09 per 1,000 person-years; professional drivers had a higher percentage of FVCs than non-professional drivers among all motor vehicle crashes. In the 14-year preliminary study with frequency-matched non-professional drivers, the risk of FVCs among professional drivers was significantly associated with a previous history of involvement in motor vehicle crashes (adjustment odds ratio [OR] = 2.157; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.896-2.453), previous history of benzodiazepine use (adjustment OR = 1.385; 95% CI, 1.215-1.579), and speeding (adjustment OR = 1.009; 95% CI, 1.006-1.013). The findings have value to policymakers seeking to curtail FVCs.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Automobile Driving , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Humans , Incidence , Occupations , Taiwan/epidemiology
9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 150: 189-196, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768362

ABSTRACT

Few studies have reported specific attention deficits in post-COVID-19 patients. Attention consists of different subdomains. Disruptions to specific attention subdomains might impair a wide range of everyday tasks, including road safety. As there are millions of COVID-19 patients with different socio-economic backgrounds, screening of attentional performance less dependent on education is needed. Here, we verified if physically recovered COVID-19 inpatients showed specific attention decrements at discharge. The Continuous Visual Attention Test (CVAT) is a Go/No-go task which is independent of participants' schooling. It detects visuomotor reaction time (RT = intrinsic alertness), variability of reaction time (VRT = sustained attention), omission (focused-attention), and commission errors (response-inhibition). Thirty physically functional COVID-19 inpatients at discharge and 30 non-infected controls underwent the CVAT. A MANCOVA was performed to examine differences between controls and patients, followed by post-hoc ANCOVAs. Then, we identified the percentile score for each patient within the distribution of the CVAT performance of 211 subjects mentally capable of driving (reference group). COVID-19 patients at discharge showed greater RT and VRT, and more omission errors than controls. Twenty-two patients (73%) had performance below the 5th percentile of the reference group in one or more subdomains. As slow visuomotor RT, deficits in focusing and difficulties in keeping visual attention are associated with traffic accidents, we concluded that most COVID-19 patients at discharge had deficits that may increase the risk of road injuries. As these deficits will probably affect other daily activities, a routine assessment with the CVAT could provide useful information on whom to send to post-COVID centers.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Humans , Inpatients , Patient Discharge , Reaction Time/physiology
10.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264484, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736510

ABSTRACT

Companies developing automated driving system (ADS) technologies have spent heavily in recent years to conduct live testing of autonomous vehicles operating in real world environments to ensure their reliable and safe operations. However, the unexpected onset and ongoing resurgent effects of the Covid-19 pandemic starting in March 2020 has serve to halt, change, or delay the achievement of these new product development test objectives. This study draws on data obtained from the California automated vehicle test program to determine the extent that testing trends, test resumptions, and test environments have been affected by the pandemic. The importance of government policies to support and enable autonomous vehicles development during pandemic conditions is highlighted.


Subject(s)
Automation/methods , Mechanical Tests/methods , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Automation/economics , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/economics , California , Humans , Mechanical Tests/economics , User-Centered Design
11.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(2): 173-178, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672349

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine long-haul truck drivers (LHTD) perceptions of COVID-19 and their use of health and safety practices. METHODS: 146 LHTD completed an online survey to collect data on their experiences with COVID-19. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and thematic analysis for open-ended responses. RESULTS: LHTD were aged from 22 to 79 years (mean age 48.1 ±â€Š11.8); 82.2% were men. Almost half of the sample were not concerned about COVID-19. Those not concerned were significantly less likely to employ health and safety practices (eg, wearing masks, social distancing), were less educated and healthier. They also perceived COVID-19 to not be real or a serious threat to their health. CONCLUSIONS: Tailored education approaches are needed to provide evidence-based data on COVID-19 risks and complications.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motor Vehicles , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Nature ; 587(7834): 344, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671507
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613758

ABSTRACT

Young drivers are generally associated with risky driving behaviors that can lead to crash involvement. Many self-report measurement scales are used to assess such risky behaviors. This study is aimed to understand the risky driving behaviors of young adults in Qatar and how such behaviors are associated with crash involvement. This was achieved through the usage of validated self-report measurement scales adopted for the Arabic context. A nationwide cross-sectional and exploratory study was conducted in Qatar from January to April 2021. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the survey was conducted online. Therefore, respondents were selected conveniently. Hence, the study adopted a non-probability sampling method in which convenience and snowball sampling were used. A total of 253 completed questionnaires were received, of which 57.3% were female, and 42.7% were male. Approximately 55.8% of these young drivers were involved in traffic accidents after obtaining their driving license. On average, most young drivers do have some risky driving behavior accompanied by a low tendency to violate traffic laws, and their driving style is not significantly controlled by their personality on the road. The older young drivers are more involved in traffic accidents than the younger drivers, i.e., around 1.5 times more likely. Moreover, a young male driver is 3.2 times less likely to be involved in traffic accidents than a female driver. In addition, males are only 0.309 times as likely as females to be involved in an accident and have approximately a 70% lower likelihood of having an accident versus females. The analysis is complemented with the association between young drivers' demographic background and psychosocial-behavioral parameters (linking risky driving behavior, personality, and obligation effects on crash involvement). Some interventions are required to improve driving behavior, such as driving apps that are able to monitor and provide corrective feedback.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qatar/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0243263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576004

ABSTRACT

As mobile device location data become increasingly available, new analyses are revealing the significant changes of mobility pattern when an unplanned event happened. With different control policies from local and state government, the COVID-19 outbreak has dramatically changed mobility behavior in affected cities. This study has been investigating the impact of COVID-19 on the number of people involved in crashes accounting for the intensity of different control measures using Negative Binomial (NB) method. Based on a comprehensive dataset of people involved in crashes aggregated in New York City during January 1, 2020 to May 24, 2020, people involved in crashes with respect to travel behavior, traffic characteristics and socio-demographic characteristics are found. The results show that the average person miles traveled on the main traffic mode per person per day, percentage of work trip have positive effect on person involved in crashes. On the contrary, unemployment rate and inflation rate have negative effects on person involved in crashes. Interestingly, different level of control policies during COVID-19 outbreak are closely associated with safety awareness, driving and travel behavior, and thus has an indirect influence on the frequency of crashes. Comparing to other three control policies including emergence declare, limits on mass gatherings, and ban on all nonessential gathering, the negative relationship between stay-at-home policy implemented in New York City from March 20, 2020 and the number of people involved crashes is found in our study.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Safety/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , New York City , Public Policy , Risk-Taking
15.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(12): 1073-1077, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550606

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the working conditions of long-haul truck drivers (LHTD) before and during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and to assess the perceptions of LHTDs on accessing food, restrooms, and parking. METHODS: An online survey was disseminated between August 2020 and March 2021 to various trucking organizations across Canada to collect data on health and wellness during COVID-19. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and thematic analysis for open-ended responses. RESULTS: The sample included 146 LHTD (mean age 48.1 ±â€Š11.8; 82.2% were men). Participants reported issues with finding parking, washrooms, and food. Compared with before COVID-19, LHTD worked significantly more hours and consumed more caffeine; and more than 50% reported being fatigued. CONCLUSIONS: Improving the working conditions of LHTD is critical to support their health and wellbeing, both during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motor Vehicles , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace
16.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 4529107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511536

ABSTRACT

Frequent occurrence and long-term existence of respiratory diseases such as COVID-19 and influenza require bus drivers to wear masks correctly during driving. To quickly detect whether the mask is worn correctly on resource-constrained devices, a lightweight target detection network SAI-YOLO is proposed. Based on YOLOv4-Tiny, the network incorporates the Inception V3 structure, replaces two CSPBlock modules with the RES-SEBlock modules to reduce the number of parameters and computational difficulty, and adds a convolutional block attention module and a squeeze-and-excitation module to extract key feature information. Moreover, a modified ReLU (M-ReLU) activation function is introduced to replace the original Leaky_ReLU function. The experimental results show that SAI-YOLO reduces the number of network parameters and calculation difficulty and improves the detection speed of the network while maintaining certain recognition accuracy. The mean average precision (mAP) for face-mask-wearing detection reaches 86% and the average precision (AP) for mask-wearing normative detection reaches 88%. In the resource-constrained device Raspberry Pi 4B, the average detection time after acceleration is 197 ms, which meets the actual application requirements.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Humans , Recognition, Psychology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 22(8): 605-610, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictions were implemented, however, data indicates road crash rates have not decreased proportionately to the decline in traffic density. This study explored how speeding and phone use while driving (road behaviors associated with a high crash risk) changed as a result of COVID-19 restrictions in Queensland. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in Queensland, Australia to examine self-reported changes in speeding and phone use while driving before, during and after the easing of restrictions (while also considering exposure to the road and driving location). Study 1 (n = 351) was conducted between 12 May and 12 June 2020, when the majority of COVID-19 restrictions were enforced. Study 2 (n = 427) was conducted between 24 June and 12 August 2020, when restrictions were easing. RESULTS: The findings indicated, overall, self-reported speeding and phone use significantly decreased during restrictions (likely due to reduced travel), but not for those who continued to drive regularly. There was an additional, significant self-reported decrease in phone use while driving after restrictions were eased when compared to engagement during restrictions, which may (in part) be due to the simultaneous introduction of roadside mobile phone detection cameras. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of visible deterrence and provide a glimpse of possible consequences if there is a more sustained reduction in policing presence on roads.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Cell Phone Use , Cell Phone , Accidents, Traffic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 329: 111076, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474568

ABSTRACT

AIM: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pattern of alcohol use in drivers. MATERIALS: and methods. At the National Institute of Legal Medicine from Bucharest, we performed a retrospective study on toxicology reports between January 1st, 2019 and December 31st, 2020. Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was tested using Dräger breathalyzers by police units at the scene, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was evaluated using headspace gas chromatography. Most drivers gave two blood samples, separated by a one-hour interval, case in which they could request a retrograde extrapolation of the BAC at the time when they were stopped in traffic. RESULTS: The distribution of the number of cases depending on the month showed a sharp decline in the first six months of the lockdown, with a slow upward trend afterward. Mean overall values for BrAC were 0.49 +/- 0.40 mg/L, for 1st sample BAC - 1.15 +/- 0.99 g/L and for 2nd sample BAC - 1.29 +/- 0.81 g/L. Mean values obtained for BrAC were 0.48 +/- 0.39 mg/L before the pandemic and 0.52 +/- 0.43 mg/L during the pandemic. The increase was similar in absolute numbers in both male and female drivers (0.03 versus 0.04 mg/L respectively for BrAC and 0.02 g/L for both genders for 1st sample BAC). However, the percentage increase was significantly higher in women. There were 253 cases in which BrAC had values between 0.01 and 0.05, of which 138 occurred before the pandemic and 115 during the pandemic, the increase being highly statistically significant. The percentage of drivers with BAC levels below and above 0.8 g/L (the threshold value for which DUI is a felony in Romania) were similar before and during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: During the lockdown, the number of alcohol tests in traffic has decreased significantly. This reduction was not associated with statistically significant changes in BrAC or BAC. We have seen a substantial increase in the number of minimally elevated BrAC and negative BAC cases, changes that could be caused by an increased use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Automobile Driving , Blood Alcohol Content , COVID-19 , Driving Under the Influence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breath Tests , Communicable Disease Control , Driving Under the Influence/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 95(3): 589-598, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469696

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the safety and health hazards of motorized couriers and investigate working conditions and driving behavior possibly associated with involvement in road accidents while driving motorcycles or cars. In light of the outbreak of COVID-19, the study was aimed to explore factors that affect the couriers' behaviors related to decreasing the risk of contracting an infectious disease. METHODS: A sample of 237 Israeli couriers, about half who drove a two-wheeled vehicles and the others who drove cars, answered an online survey questionnaire. The questionnaire examined organizational, occupational, and personal factors regarding their working conditions, behavior on the road, musculoskeletal disorders, road accidents, and perceptions of and compliance with regulations regarding COVID-19. The data were analyzed by multiple regression in SPSS 25, structural equation modeling and mediation tests in R 3.6.2. RESULTS: According to the couriers' self-report, 37% reported musculoskeletal pains at least once a day, 13% of them were involved in work-related road accidents and 10% reported feeling stress at least once a week. More than 60% of the couriers reported increased stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Weekly working hours, shift duration and stress were related to involvement in accidents through the mediation of driving while feeling unwell. Reported stress and the weight of parcels were related to musculoskeletal pains. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that stress and attributes of work overloads experienced by couriers are associated with reduced safety and impaired health. Organizational, individual, and societal factors were correlated with the degree to which the couriers adhered to COVID-19 regulations. The increased prevalence of new modes of employment relationships in the field highlights the importance of research on employment conditions and safety and health aspects related to this occupation.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Motorcycles , Pandemics
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463643

ABSTRACT

The conditions of work for professional drivers can contribute to adverse health and well-being outcomes. Fatigue can result from irregular shift scheduling, stress may arise due to the intense job demands, back pain may be due to prolonged sitting and exposure to vibration, and a poor diet can be attributed to limited time for breaks and rest. This study aimed to identify working conditions and health outcomes in a bussing company by conducting focus groups and key informant interviews to inform a Total Worker Health® organizational intervention. Our thematic analysis identified three primary themes: lack of trust between drivers and supervisors, the scheduling of shifts and routes, and difficulty performing positive health behaviors. These findings demonstrate the value of using participatory methods with key stakeholders to determine the unique working conditions and pathways that may be most critical to impacting safety, health, and well-being in an organization.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Motor Vehicles , Fatigue , Humans , Occupations , Transportation
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