Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 19 de 19
Filter
1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(21): 24850-24855, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852371

ABSTRACT

The demand for improved indoor air quality, especially during the pandemic of Covid-19, has led to renewed interest in antiviral and antibacterial air-conditioning systems. Here, air filters of vehicles made of nonwoven polyester filter media were sonochemically coated with CuO nanoparticles by a roll-to-roll coating method. The product, aimed at providing commuters with high air quality, showed good stability and mechanical properties and potent activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, H1N1 influenza, and two SARS-CoV-2 variants. The filtering properties of a coated filter were tested, and they were similar to those of the uncoated filter. Leaching tests as a function of airflow were conducted, and the main outcome was that the coating was stable and particles were not detached from the coated media. Extension to other air-conditioning systems was straightforward.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Automobiles , Copper , Escherichia coli , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(4): 512-513, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767474
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760599

ABSTRACT

A sudden major public health event is likely to have a negative impact on public transport travel for residents, with public travel modes such as the metro and conventional buses experiencing varying degrees of decline in patronage. As a complement to public transport, taxi travel will suffer the same impact. Land use and population density among various functional blocks in a city are different, and therefore their changing rates in taxi travel demand are varied. This paper reveals the taxi travel demand correlations between urban blocks and then constructs a taxi travel demand decay model based on the Dynamic Input-Output Inoperability Model (DIIM) to simulate the decay degree of taxi travel demand in each block. When a major public health event occurs, the residential panic levels in different functional blocks may vary. It results in variable changing speeds of residential travel demand in each block. Based on this assumption, we use the intensity of travel demand as a correlation strength factor between blocks, and equate it with the technical coefficient in the DIIM model. We also define other variables to serve in model construction. These variables include the decay degree of travel demand intensity, residential travel willingness, coefficient of travel demand decay, derivative coefficient of travel demand interdependency, and demand perturbation coefficient. Lastly, we select a central area of Ningbo as the study area, and use taxi travel data in Ningbo during the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 as input, simulate taxi travel demand dynamics, and analyze the accuracy and sensitivity of the model parameters. The relative errors between the five types of blocks and the actual decay of travel demand intensity are 8.3%, 3.8%, 8.7%, 5.5%, and 5.3%, respectively, which can basically match the actual situation, proving the validity of the model. The results of the study reveal the pattern of taxi travel demand decay among various blocks after major public health events. It provides methodological reference for decision makers to understand the development trend of multi-block taxi travel demand, so as to help form effective emergency plans for different blocks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Automobiles , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Travel
4.
Indoor Air ; 32(3): e13012, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752577

ABSTRACT

In this study, the risk of infection from SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant of passengers sharing a car cabin with an infected subject for a 30-min journey is estimated through an integrated approach combining a recently developed predictive emission-to-risk approach and a validated CFD numerical model numerically solved using the open-source OpenFOAM software. Different scenarios were investigated to evaluate the effect of the infected subject position within the car cabin, the airflow rate of the HVAC system, the HVAC ventilation mode, and the expiratory activity (breathing vs. speaking). The numerical simulations here performed reveal that the risk of infection is strongly influenced by several key parameters: As an example, under the same ventilation mode and emitting scenario, the risk of infection ranges from zero to roughly 50% as a function of the HVAC flow rate. The results obtained also demonstrate that (i) simplified zero-dimensional approaches limit proper evaluation of the risk in such confined spaces, conversely, (ii) CFD approaches are needed to investigate the complex fluid dynamics in similar indoor environments, and, thus, (iii) the risk of infection in indoor environments characterized by fixed seats can be in principle controlled by properly designing the flow patterns of the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Automobiles , COVID-19/etiology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Hydrodynamics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732039

ABSTRACT

Car sharing services have expanded in order to meet the new necessities of mobility worldwide in an innovative way. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, car sharing was a very popular mode of transportation among young adults in big cities. However, during this ongoing pandemic and with public transportation considered a super-spreading transmitter, the usage of car sharing is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study, which is explorative in nature, is to investigate the usage, advantages, drivers, and barriers to car sharing during this ongoing pandemic era. To this end, 66 interviews were conducted among users of car sharing during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings provide key information for the planning of car sharing operations and public transportation in the context of avoiding COVID-19 infection and respecting the recommendations of local governments. In addition, new emerging profiles of car sharing users in the ongoing pandemic are identified. This research provides relevant insights for both business practice and policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Automobiles , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation , Young Adult
6.
Prog Urol ; 31(16): 1133-1138, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540915

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a serious environmental issue. The healthcare sector is an important emitter of GHGs. Our aim was to assess the environmental cost of teleconsultations in urology compared to face-to-face consultations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study of all patients who had a remote teleconsultation over a 2-week period during COVID-19 pandemic. Main outcome was the reduction in CO2e emissions related to teleconsultation compared to face-to-face consultation and was calculated as: total teleconsultation CO2e emissions-total face-to-face consultation CO2e emissions. Secondary outcome measures were the reduction in travel distance and travel time related to teleconsultation. RESULTS: Eighty patients were included. Face-to-face consultations would have resulted in 6699km (4162 miles) of travel (83.7km (52 miles) per patient). Cars were the usual means of transport. CO2e avoided due to lack of travel was calculated at 1.1 tonnes. Teleconsultation was responsible for 1.1kg CO2e while face-to-face consultation emitted 0.5kg of CO2e. Overall, the total reduction in GHGs with teleconsultation was 1141kg CO2e, representing a 99% decrease in emissions. Total savings on transport were 974 € and savings on travel time were 112h (1.4h/patient). CONCLUSIONS: Teleconsultation reduces the environmental impact of face-to-face consultations. The use of teleconsultation in our urology departments resulted in the avoidance of more than 6000km of travel, equivalent to a reduction of 1.1 tonnes of CO2e. Teleconsultation should be considered for specific indications as the healthcare system attempts to become greener. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Environment , Remote Consultation , Urology/organization & administration , Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Automobiles , Carbon Footprint/statistics & numerical data , Costs and Cost Analysis , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Female , France/epidemiology , Greenhouse Gases/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Population Density , Remote Consultation/economics , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Urology/economics , Urology/methods
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22665, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528026

ABSTRACT

We build on recent work to develop a fully mechanistic, activity-based and highly spatio-temporally resolved epidemiological model which leverages person-trajectories obtained from an activity-based model calibrated for two full-scale prototype cities, consisting of representative synthetic populations and mobility networks for two contrasting auto-dependent city typologies. We simulate the propagation of the COVID-19 epidemic in both cities to analyze spreading patterns in urban networks across various activity types. Investigating the impact of the transit network, we find that its removal dampens disease propagation significantly, suggesting that transit restriction is more critical for mitigating post-peak disease spreading in transit dense cities. In the latter stages of disease spread, we find that the greatest share of infections occur at work locations. A statistical analysis of the resulting activity-based contact networks indicates that transit contacts are scale-free, work contacts are Weibull distributed, and shopping or leisure contacts are exponentially distributed. We validate our simulation results against existing case and mortality data across multiple cities in their respective typologies. Our framework demonstrates the potential for tracking epidemic propagation in urban networks, analyzing socio-demographic impacts and assessing activity- and mobility-specific implications of both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Automobiles , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Epidemics , Age Factors , Algorithms , COVID-19/mortality , Cities/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Contact Tracing , Humans , Models, Statistical , Movement , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Time Factors , Transportation
8.
Environ Int ; 157: 106814, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474520

ABSTRACT

We examined the trade-offs between in-car aerosol concentrations, ventilation and respiratory infection transmission under three ventilation settings: windows open (WO); windows closed with air-conditioning on ambient air mode (WC-AA); and windows closed with air-conditioning on recirculation (WC-RC). Forty-five runs, covering a total of 324 km distance on a 7.2-km looped route, were carried out three times a day (morning, afternoon, evening) to monitor aerosols (PM2.5; particulate matter < 2.5 µm and PNC; particle number concentration), CO2 and environmental conditions (temperature and relative humidity). Ideally, higher ventilation rates would give lower in-car pollutant concentrations due to dilution from outdoor air. However, in-car aerosol concentrations increased with ventilation (WO > WC-AA > WC-RC) due to the ingress of polluted outdoor air on urban routes. A clear trade-off, therefore, exists for the in-car air quality (icAQ) versus ventilation; for example, WC-RC showed the least aerosol concentrations (i.e. four-times lower compared with WO), but corresponded to elevated CO2 levels (i.e. five-times higher compared with WO) in 20 mins. We considered COVID-19 as an example of respiratory infection transmission. The probability of its transmission from an infected occupant in a five-seater car was estimated during different quanta generation rates (2-60.5 quanta hr-1) using the Wells-Riley model. In WO, the probability with 50%-efficient and without facemasks under normal speaking (9.4 quanta hr-1) varied only by upto 0.5%. It increased by 2-fold in WC-AA (<1.1%) and 10-fold in WC-RC (<5.2%) during a 20 mins trip. Therefore, a wise selection of ventilation settings is needed to balance in-car exposure in urban areas affected by outdoor air pollution and that by COVID-19 transmission. We also successfully developed and assessed the feasibility of using sensor units in static and dynamic environments to monitor icAQ and potentially infer COVID-19 transmission. Further research is required to develop automatic-alarm systems to help reduce both pollutant exposure and infection from respiratory COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols , Air Pollutants/analysis , Automobiles , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 212-216, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine if viable virus could be isolated from the air within a car driven by a patient infected with SARS-CoV-2, and to assess the size range of the infectious particles. METHODS: We used a Sioutas personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS) to screen for SARS-CoV-2 in a car driven by a COVID-19 patient. The patient, who had only mild illness without fever or cough and was not wearing a mask, drove the car for 15 min with the air conditioning turned on and windows closed. The PCIS was clipped to the sun-visor above the front passenger seat and was retrieved from the car two hours after completion of the drive. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was detectable at all PCIS stages by PCR and was cultured from the section of the sampler collecting particles in the 0.25-0.50 µm size range. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by minimally symptomatic persons in the closed space inside of a car and suggest that a substantial component of that risk is via aerosolized virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Automobiles , Cough , Humans
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254823, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mechanical conditions of vehicles may play a determinant role in driving safety, the reason why vehicle periodical technical inspections (VTIs) are mandatory in many countries. However, the high number of drivers sanctioned for not complying with this regulation is surprisingly high, and there is not much evidence on what kind(s) of motives may explain this concerning panorama. This study aimed to identify the aspects that modulate the relationship between complying (or not) with VTI's standards in a nationwide sample of Spanish drivers. The study design also addressed the drivers' awareness regarding different risky behaviors while driving, depending on their sex and their crash record. METHODS: 1,100 Spanish drivers completed a survey on the aforementioned issues. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc adjustment was conducted to assess significant differences (p<0.05) in the study variables. RESULTS: Most of the surveyed drivers (99.18%) reported that they always comply with VTI's requirements. The main reasons to comply were related to compliance with traffic regulation and fear of penalties, while the reasons attributed to its incompliance are, instead, stated as involuntary. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study support the idea that more actions are needed to increase drivers' awareness of the relevance of VTIs for road safety, as well as warning them about the dangers of neglecting vehicle checking beyond merely punishing measures. For this reason and given the greater prevalence of the issue among younger segments of the driving population, it is suggested that more emphasis on the matter could be made during novice driver's training.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Automobile Driving/standards , Automobiles/standards , Humans , Professional Competence/standards , Risk-Taking , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13001, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279897

ABSTRACT

Although international airports served as main entry points for SARS-CoV-2, the factors driving the uneven geographic spread of COVID-19 cases and deaths in Brazil remain mostly unknown. Here we show that three major factors influenced the early macro-geographical dynamics of COVID-19 in Brazil. Mathematical modeling revealed that the "super-spreading city" of São Paulo initially accounted for more than 85% of the case spread in the entire country. By adding only 16 other spreading cities, we accounted for 98-99% of the cases reported during the first 3 months of the pandemic in Brazil. Moreover, 26 federal highways accounted for about 30% of SARS-CoV-2's case spread. As cases increased in the Brazilian interior, the distribution of COVID-19 deaths began to correlate with the allocation of the country's intensive care units (ICUs), which is heavily weighted towards state capitals. Thus, severely ill patients living in the countryside had to be transported to state capitals to access ICU beds, creating a "boomerang effect" that contributed to skew the distribution of COVID-19 deaths. Therefore, if (i) a lockdown had been imposed earlier on in spreader-capitals, (ii) mandatory road traffic restrictions had been enforced, and (iii) a more equitable geographic distribution of ICU beds existed, the impact of COVID-19 in Brazil would be significantly lower.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/transmission , Critical Care/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel-Related Illness , Automobiles , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Models, Theoretical
12.
Clin Chem ; 67(4): 672-683, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks such as the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic call for rapid response and complete screening of the suspected community population to identify potential carriers of pathogens. Central laboratories rely on time-consuming sample collection methods that are rarely available in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We present a highly automated and fully integrated mobile laboratory for fast deployment in response to infectious disease outbreaks. The mobile laboratory was equipped with a 6-axis robot arm for automated oropharyngeal swab specimen collection; virus in the collected specimen was inactivated rapidly using an infrared heating module. Nucleic acid extraction and nested isothermal amplification were performed by a "sample in, answer out" laboratory-on-a-chip system, and the result was automatically reported by the onboard information platform. Each module was evaluated using pseudovirus or clinical samples. RESULTS: The mobile laboratory was stand-alone and self-sustaining and capable of on-site specimen collection, inactivation, analysis, and reporting. The automated sampling robot arm achieved sampling efficiency comparable to manual collection. The collected samples were inactivated in as short as 12 min with efficiency comparable to a water bath without damage to nucleic acid integrity. The limit of detection of the integrated microfluidic nucleic acid analyzer reached 150 copies/mL within 45 min. Clinical evaluation of the onboard microfluidic nucleic acid analyzer demonstrated good consistency with reverse transcription quantitative PCR with a κ coefficient of 0.979. CONCLUSIONS: The mobile laboratory provides a promising solution for fast deployment of medical diagnostic resources at critical junctions of infectious disease outbreaks and facilitates local containment of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Laboratories , Mobile Health Units , Pathology, Molecular/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , Adult , Automobiles , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Male , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/instrumentation , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Pathology, Molecular/instrumentation , Robotics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157941

ABSTRACT

The bicycle is a low-cost means of transport linked to low risk of transmission of infectious disease. During the COVID-19 crisis, governments have therefore incentivized cycling by provisionally redistributing street space. We evaluate the impact of this new bicycle infrastructure on cycling traffic using a generalized difference in differences design. We scrape daily bicycle counts from 736 bicycle counters in 106 European cities. We combine these with data on announced and completed pop-up bike lane road work projects. Within 4 mo, an average of 11.5 km of provisional pop-up bike lanes have been built per city and the policy has increased cycling between 11 and 48% on average. We calculate that the new infrastructure will generate between $1 and $7 billion in health benefits per year if cycling habits are sticky.


Subject(s)
Bicycling/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic , Automobiles , Bicycling/economics , Bicycling/standards , COVID-19/transmission , Cities , Environment Design , Europe , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Policy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Safety , Transportation/methods
14.
Sci Adv ; 7(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066785

ABSTRACT

Transmission of highly infectious respiratory diseases, including SARS-CoV-2, is facilitated by the transport of exhaled droplets and aerosols that can remain suspended in air for extended periods of time. A passenger car cabin represents one such situation with an elevated risk of pathogen transmission. Here, we present results from numerical simulations to assess how the in-cabin microclimate of a car can potentially spread pathogenic species between occupants for a variety of open and closed window configurations. We estimate relative concentrations and residence times of a noninteracting, passive scalar-a proxy for infectious particles-being advected and diffused by turbulent airflows inside the cabin. An airflow pattern that travels across the cabin, farthest from the occupants, can potentially reduce the transmission risk. Our findings reveal the complex fluid dynamics during everyday commutes and nonintuitive ways in which open windows can either increase or suppress airborne transmission.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Air Pollution, Indoor , Automobiles , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Computer Simulation , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Pressure , Risk , Travel
15.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042897

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 was first identified in Hubei Province, China in December, 2019. Within a matter of months the virus had spread and become a global pandemic. In addition to international air travel, local travel (e.g. by passenger car) contributes to the geographic spread of COVID-19. We modify the common susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) virus spread model and investigate the extent to which short-term travel associated with driving influences the spread of the virus. We consider the case study of the US state of Minnesota, and calibrated the proposed model with travel and viral spread data. Using our modified SEIR model that considers local short-term travel, we are able to better explain the virus spread than using the long-term travel SEIR model. Short-term travel associated with driving is predicted to be a significant contributor to the historical and future spread of COVID-19. The calibrated model also predicts the proportion of infections that were detected. We find that if driving trips remain at current levels, a substantial increase in COVID-19 cases may be observed in Minnesota, while decreasing intrastate travel could help contain the virus spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Travel , Automobiles , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(7): 1420-1425, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831291

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic in March 2020. A major challenge in this worldwide pandemic has been efficient and effective large-scale testing for the disease. In this communication, we discuss lessons learned in the set up and function of a locally organized drive-through testing facility.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Automobiles , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL