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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090207

ABSTRACT

The inflammasome complex is a key part of chronic diseases and acute infections, being responsible for cytokine release and cell death mechanism regulation. The SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by a dysregulated cytokine release. In this context, the inflammasome complex analysis within SARS-CoV-2 infection may prove beneficial to understand the disease's mechanisms. Post-mortem minimally invasive autopsies were performed in patients who died from COVID-19 (n = 24), and lung samples were compared to a patient control group (n = 11) and an Influenza A virus H1N1 subtype group from the 2009 pandemics (n = 10). Histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed using monoclonal antibodies against targets: ACE2, TLR4, NF-κB, NLRP-3 (or NALP), IL-1ß, IL-18, ASC, CASP1, CASP9, GSDMD, NOX4, TNF-α. Data obtained from digital analysis underwent appropriate statistical tests. IHC analysis showed biomarkers that indicate inflammasome activation (ACE2; NF-κB; NOX4; ASC) were significantly increased in the COVID-19 group (p < 0.05 for all) and biomarkers that indicate cell pyroptosis and inflammasome derived cytokines such as IL-18 (p < 0.005) and CASP1 were greatly increased (p < 0.0001) even when compared to the H1N1 group. We propose that the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis is connected to the inflammasome complex activation. Further studies are still warranted to elucidate the pathophysiology of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-18 , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Autopsy , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Caspase 1/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Biopsy , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism
4.
Forensic Sci Int ; 340: 111469, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086225

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December 2019. An immediate prevention approach for the outbreak is the development of a vaccination program. Despite a growing number of publications showing the effectiveness of vaccination in preventing SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and reducing the mortality rate, substantial fatal adverse effects were reported after vaccination. Confirmation of the causal relationship of death is required to reimburse under the national vaccination program and could provide a reference for the selection of vaccination. However, a lack of guidelines in the laboratory study and autopsy approach hampered the investigation of post-vaccination death. In this paper, we performed a systematic electronic search on scientific articles related to severe Covid-19 vaccination adverse effects and approaches in identifying the severe side effects using PubMed and Cochrane libraries. A summary on the onset, biochemistry changes and histopathological analyzes of major lethally side effects post-vaccination were discussed. Ultimately, a checklist is suggested to improve the quality of investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Vaccination
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066245

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 34-year-old male patient, a bodybuilding trainer and user of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) for 16 years. He was found in cardio-respiratory arrest in his home. By performing a medico-legal autopsy, a severe form of COVID-19, aortic atherosclerotic plaques, and an old myocardial infarction was found. The SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test on necroptic lung fragments was positive, with a B.1.258 genetic line. The histopathological examinations showed microthrombi with endothelitis in the cerebral tissue, massive pulmonary edema, diffuse alveolar damage grade 1, pulmonary thromboembolism, hepatic peliosis, and severe nesidioblastosis. The immunohistochemical examinations showed SARS-CoV-2 positive in the myocardium, lung, kidneys, and pancreas. ACE-2 receptor was positive in the same organs, but also in the spleen and liver. HLA alleles A*03, A*25, B*18, B*35, C*04, C*12, DRB1*04, DRB1*15, DQB1*03, DQB1*06 were also identified. In conclusion, death was due to a genetic predisposition, a long-term abuse of AASs that favored the development of a pluriorganic pathological tissue terrain, and recent consumption of AASs, which influenced the immune system at the time of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Adult , Autopsy , SARS-CoV-2 , Testosterone Congeners , Steroids
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066135

ABSTRACT

Sudden death is defined as the unexpected death of a healthy person that occurs within the first hour of the onset of symptoms or within 24 h of the victim being last seen alive. In some of these cases, rare deleterious variants of genes associated with inherited cardiac disorders can provide a highly probable explanation for the fatal event. We report the case of a 21-year-old obese woman who lost consciousness suddenly in a public place and was pronounced dead after hospital admission. Clinical autopsy showed an inconclusive gross examination, while in the histopathological analysis an eosinophilic inflammatory focus and interstitial fibrosis in the sino-atrial node were found. Molecular autopsy revealed an intronic variant in the KCNQ1 gene (c.683 + 5G > A), classified as likely pathogenic for long QT syndrome according to the guidelines provided by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Therefore, there were many anomalies that could have played a role in the causation of the sudden death, such as the extreme obesity, the cardiac anomalies and the KNCQ1 variant. This case depicts the difficult interpretation of rare cardiac structural abnormalities in subjects carrying rare variants responsible for inherited arrhythmic disorders and the challenge for the forensic pathologist to make causal inferences in the determinism of the unexpected decease.


Subject(s)
Long QT Syndrome , Sinoatrial Node , Adult , Autopsy , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/pathology , Female , Humans , KCNQ1 Potassium Channel , Long QT Syndrome/complications , Long QT Syndrome/genetics , Sinoatrial Node/pathology , Young Adult
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055245

ABSTRACT

Autopsy examination, the gold standard for defining causes of death, is often difficult to apply in certain health care settings, especially in developing countries. The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated difficulties in terms of implementing autopsy examinations have made the need for alternative means of determining causes of death even more evident. One of the most interesting alternatives to the conventional autopsy is the verbal autopsy, a tool that originated in Africa and Asia in the 1950s and consists of a structured interview with the deceased's family members concerning the symptoms manifested by the person and the circumstances of death. In the early 1990s, the first doubts emerged about the validity of verbal autopsies, especially about the real reliability of the cause of death identified through this tool. The objective of the review was to identify studies that had assayed the validity of verbal autopsies through a rigorous comparison of the results that emerged from it with the results of conventional autopsies. When starting from an initial pool of 256 articles, only 2 articles were selected for final review. These are the only two original research articles in which a verbal autopsy validation process was performed by employing the full diagnostic autopsy as the gold standard. The two papers reached opposite conclusions, one suggesting adequate validity of verbal autopsy in defining the cause of death and the other casting serious doubts on the real applicability of this tool. Verbal autopsy undoubtedly has extraordinary potential, especially in the area of health and demographic surveillance, even considering the implementation that could result from the use of artificial intelligence and deep learning. However, at present, there appears to be a lack of solid data to support the robust reliability of this tool in defining causes of death.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Autopsy/methods , Cause of Death , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033150

ABSTRACT

This is the first report on a clinical follow-up and postmortem examination of a cat that had been cured of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) with ocular manifestation by successful treatment with an oral multicomponent drug containing GS-441524. The cat was 6 months old when clinical signs (recurrent fever, lethargy, lack of appetite, and fulminant anterior uveitis) appeared. FIP was diagnosed by ocular tissue immunohistochemistry after enucleation of the affected eye. The cat was a participant in a FIP treatment study, which was published recently. However, 240 days after leaving the clinic healthy, and 164 days after the end of the 84 days of treatment, the cured cat died in a road traffic accident. Upon full postmortem examination, including histopathology and immunohistochemistry, there were no residual FIP lesions observed apart from a generalized lymphadenopathy due to massive lymphoid hyperplasia. Neither feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA nor FCoV antigen were identified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in any tissues or body fluids, including feces. These results prove that oral treatment with GS-441524 leads to the cure of FIP-associated changes and the elimination of FCoV from all tissues.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autopsy , Cats , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , RNA
9.
J Forensic Sci ; 67(5): 1867-1875, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019042

ABSTRACT

The DNA contamination of evidentiary trace samples, included those collected in the autopsy room, has significant detrimental consequences for forensic genetics investigation. After the COVID-19 pandemic, methods to prevent environmental contamination in the autopsy room have been developed and intensified. This study aimed to evaluate the level of human DNA contamination of a postmortem examination facility before and after the introduction of COVID-19-related disinfection and cleaning procedures. Ninety-one swabs were collected from the surfaces and the dissecting instruments, analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and typed for 21 autosomal STRs. Sixty-seven out of 91 samples resulted in quantifiable human DNA, ranging from 1 pg/µl to 12.4 ng/µl, including all the samples collected before the implementation of COVID-19 cleaning procedures (n = 38) and 29 out of 53 (54.7%) samples taken afterward. All samples containing human DNA were amplified, resulting in mixed (83.6%), single (13.4%), and incomplete (3%) profiles. A statistically significant decrease in DNA contamination was found for dissecting instruments after treatment with chlorhexidine and autoclave (p < 0.05). Environmental decontamination strategies adopted during COVID-19 pandemic only partially solved the long-standing issue of DNA contamination of postmortem examination facilities. The pandemic represents an opportunity to further stress the need for standardized evidence-based protocols targeted to overcome the problem of DNA contamination in the autopsy room.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , COVID-19/prevention & control , DNA/analysis , DNA Contamination , Equipment Contamination , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 339: 111419, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015271

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses can cause fatal systemic infections; therefore, post-mortem diagnosis is essential in forensic autopsy cases. However, little is known regarding the distribution of respiratory viruses in the body. In this study, we investigated the anatomical distribution of respiratory viruses in 48 forensic autopsy cases suspected of viral infections at our institute. Fast Track Diagnostics (FTD) Respiratory Pathogens 21 was used as a screening test for 20 respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal swabs. In cases with positive results for virus detection by the screening test, the detected viruses were quantified in body fluid and organ specimens by virus-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and digital PCR. Viruses were detected in 33 cases, with the viral distribution and load differing among the cases. Since various respiratory viruses were detected from the nasopharyngeal swab and its viral load was higher than those of other body fluid specimens, the nasopharyngeal swab was suggested as a useful specimen for the post-mortem detection of respiratory viruses. Viruses were detected in almost all specimens including the serum in six cases. Considering the viral distribution in the body, pathological findings, and ante-mortem symptoms, these cases were presumed to be systemically infected, having died in the acute infection phase. In conclusion, the anatomical distribution of respiratory viruses can help indicate ante-mortem systemic conditions and the cause of death.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Autopsy , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Viruses/genetics
11.
Clin Ter ; 173(4): 301-303, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010473

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Autopsy has played an extremely important role in both the forensic and clinical fields for many years. In recent years, clinical autopsy has become less important, but today, thanks to the pandemic, this importance has been rediscovered. Conversely, forensic autopsy has never lost its importance, but it would need to be updated.


Subject(s)
Forensic Medicine , Pandemics , Autopsy , Humans
12.
Pathol Int ; 72(10): 519-524, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008755

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old woman without significant medical history developed fever 3 days after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination and went into shock the next day. She was negative for SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, she died 10 days after vaccination. At autopsy, the heart showed moderate dilatation of both ventricles, and the myocardium showed an uneven color change and decreased elasticity. Histologically, severe myocarditis with extensive myocytolysis was observed. The myocarditis showed severe inflammatory cell infiltration with T-lymphocyte and macrophage predominance, and in addition to the inflammatory cells described above, vast nuclear dust accompanying neutrophilic infiltration was observed. In the bone marrow and lymph nodes, hemophagocytosis was observed. In postmortem examination, nucleic acids of any cardiotropic viruses including SARS-CoV-2 were not detected using multivirus real-time PCR system. We discussed the relationship between the possible immune reaction after vaccination and the myocarditis observed in this case from immunopathological viewpoints. This mRNA vaccine is the first applied nucleic acid vaccine for humans, and its mechanism of efficacy and immune acquisition remain unclear. We hope the accumulation of more detailed analyses of the similar cases to reveal the mechanism of this kind of adverse reaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Vaccines , Autopsy , Dust , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
13.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 18(4): 516-529, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007252

ABSTRACT

Clinical features of COVID-19 range from mild respiratory symptoms to fatal outcomes. Autopsy findings are important for understanding COVID-19-related pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. This systematic study aims to evaluate autopsy findings in paediatric cases. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database Reviews. We included studies that reported autopsy findings in children with COVID-19. A total of 11 studies (24 subjects) were included. The mean age of patients was 5.9 ± 5.7 years. Grossly, there was pericardial and pleural effusion, hepatosplenomegaly, cardiomegaly, heavy soft lung, enlarged kidney, and enlarged brain. The autopsy findings of the lungs were diffuse alveolar damage (78.3%), fibrin thrombi (43.5%), haemorrhage (30.4%), pneumonia (26%), congestion and oedema (26%), angiomatoid pattern (17.4%), and alveolar megakaryocytes (17.4%). The heart showed interstitial oedema (80%), myocardial foci of band necrosis (60%), fibrin microthrombi (60%), interstitial and perivascular inflammation (40%), and pancarditis (30%). The liver showed centrilobular congestion (60%), micro/macrovesicular steatosis (30%), and arterial/venous thrombi (20%). The kidney showed acute tubular necrosis (75%), congestion (62.5%), fibrin thrombi in glomerular capillaries (37.5%), and nephrocalcinosis, mesangial cell hyperplasia, tubular hyaline/granular casts (25% each). The spleen showed splenitis (71.4%), haemorrhage (71.4%), lymphoid hypoplasia (57.1%), and haemophagocytosis (28.6%). The brain revealed oedema (87.5%), congestion (75%), reactive microglia (62.5%), neuronal ischaemic necrosis (62.5%), meningoencephalitis (37.5%), and fibrin thrombi (25%). SARS-CoV-2 and CD68 were positive by immunohistochemistry in 85.7% and 33.3% cases, respectively. Autopsy findings of COVID-19 in children are variable in all important organs. It may help in better understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , Lung/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Fibrin , Necrosis/pathology
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4058, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004786

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host protein by which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters and multiplies within cells. The level of ACE2 expression in the lung is hypothesised to correlate with an increased risk of severe infection and complications in COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To test this hypothesis, we compared the protein expression status of ACE2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-mortem lung samples of patients who died of severe COVID-19 and lung samples obtained from non-COVID-19 patients for other indications. IHC for CD61 and CD163 was performed for the assessment of platelet-rich microthrombi and macrophages, respectively. IHC for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen was also performed. In a total of 55, 44 COVID-19 post-mortem lung samples were tested for ACE2, 36 for CD163, and 26 for CD61, compared to 15 non-covid 19 control lung sections. Quantification of immunostaining, random sampling, and correlation analysis were used to substantiate the morphologic findings. Our results show that ACE2 protein expression was significantly higher in COVID-19 post-mortem lung tissues than in controls, regardless of sample size. Histomorphology in COVID-19 lungs showed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), acute bronchopneumonia, and acute lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 viral protein detected in a subset of cases. ACE2 expression levels were positively correlated with increased expression levels of CD61 and CD163. In conclusion, our results show significantly higher ACE2 protein expression in severe COVID-19 disease, correlating with increased macrophage infiltration and microthrombi, suggesting a pathobiological role in disease severity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Integrin beta3/genetics , Integrin beta3/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1607, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002155

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Indonesia has not optimally provided complete and reliable civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS). Death certification is one of the elements of the CRVS system. Reliable data on death rates and causes serve as the basis for building a strong evidence base for public health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. This study aims to implement an approach to identifying the cause of death through verbal autopsy by empowering community health workers during the pandemic. METHOD: This study is implementation research with the empowerment of the community, in this case, health cadres and health facilitators/workers, to identify the cause of death through a mobile-based verbal autopsy. This implementation research consisted of four main activities: community-based verbal autopsy, mobile-based verbal autopsy development, data collection, and analysis of the suspected causes of death using InterVA-5. RESULT: From October to November 2020, a total of 143 respondents were willing to do a verbal autopsy interview (response rate of 58%). Of 143 respondents, most of them were women (112 or 78.3%), was the child of the deceased (61 or 42.7%) and lived with the deceased until before he/she died (120 or 83.9%). Based on the characteristics of the deceased, of 143 deceased, 78 (54.5%) were male, 134 (93.7%) were adults, 100 (69.9%) died at home, and 119 (83.2%) did not have a death certificate stating the cause of death. The cause of death of 143 deceased mainly was infectious disease (92 or 64.3%), followed by non-communicable disease (39 or 27.3%), external factors (5 or 3.5%), and unknown factors (4 or 2.8%). In sequence, the top five suspected causes of death are acute respiratory infection, including pneumonia (72 or 50.3%), other and unspecified infectious disease (18 or 12.6%), other and unspecified cardiac disease (17 or 11.9%), acute cardiac disease (4 or 2.8%), and Digestive neoplasms (4 or 2.8%). CONCLUSION: The findings showed that the mobile-based verbal autopsy using a community-based mechanism was feasible during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Heart Diseases , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Autopsy , Cause of Death , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Population Surveillance
16.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 59: 102134, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines have been used across Japan since 17 February 2021, and as of 17 April 2022, 1690 deaths potentially caused by vaccine-related adverse effects have been reported to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. However, the causal relationship between vaccination and death could not be fully evaluated because of a lack of sufficient information. METHODS: Autopsy cases in which deaths occurred within seven days after COVID-19 vaccination in Tokyo Metropolis and were handled by medical examiners were selected (n = 54). Age, sex, vaccine-related information, cause of death, and possible causal relationship between vaccination and death were examined. RESULTS: The mean age of the deceased individuals was 68.1 years, and the study sample consisted of 34 males (63.9%) and 20 females (37.0%). Thirty-seven and six individuals received Comirnaty and Spikevax, respectively (68.5% and 11.1% respectively). The manner of death included natural (n = 43), non-natural (n = 8), and undetermined (n = 3). The most frequent cause of death was ischemic heart disease (n = 16). Regarding causal relationships, 46 cases (85.2%) did not show a causal relationship to vaccination, except for myocarditis (n = 3), thrombosis-related death (n = 4), and others (n = 1). CONCLUSION: Although many cases of deaths after COVID-19 vaccination in this study showed no definite causal relationship between the vaccination and deaths, some cases showed possible adverse events such as myocarditis. Autopsies are essential for detecting vaccine-related deaths, and the Japanese death investigation system needs to be reinforced from this viewpoint.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Autopsy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Japan/epidemiology , Tokyo/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
17.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 13(2): 1-7, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994389

ABSTRACT

Objective: Verbal autopsy (VA) through face-to-face interviews with caregivers is a way to determine cause of death without medical certification. In Malaysia, the use of VA has improved mortality statistics. However, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, face-to-face interviews were delayed, reducing VA data collection and affecting data for mortality surveillance. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of conducting VA interviews via telephone calls, and the quality of the data gathered. Methods: The study was conducted in Malaysia from September to October 2020 using a cross-sectional design. Participants were health-care workers from established VA teams across the country. They conducted VA interviews via telephone and provided feedback through a customized online form. Data collected from the form were used to assess the feasibility, acceptability and quality of the telephone interviews using IBM SPSS version 23. Results: Responses were received from 113 participants. There were 74 (65.5%) successful interviews, representing 91% of the 81 cases who were able to be contacted. More than two thirds of health-care workers provided positive feedback on the telephone interview method for themselves and the interviewees. Only 10.8% of causes of death were unusable. Discussion: This study provides preliminary evidence that VA via telephone interview is feasible, acceptable and can be used as an alternative to face-to-face interviews without affecting data quality. During times when face-to-face interviews are not advisable, VA telephone interviews can be used for data collection for mortality surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Autopsy/methods , Feasibility Studies , Cause of Death , Cross-Sectional Studies , Malaysia/epidemiology , Telephone
18.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 50: 107269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382269

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Cities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas
19.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(8): 925-929, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975265

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Myocarditis in adolescents has been diagnosed clinically following the administration of the second dose of an mRNA vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE.­: To examine the autopsy microscopic cardiac findings in adolescent deaths that occurred shortly following administration of the second Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 dose to determine if the myocarditis described in these instances has the typical histopathology of myocarditis. DESIGN.­: Clinical and autopsy investigation of 2 teenage boys who died shortly following administration of the second Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 dose. RESULTS.­: The microscopic examination revealed features resembling a catecholamine-induced injury, not typical myocarditis pathology. CONCLUSIONS.­: The myocardial injury seen in these postvaccine hearts is different from typical myocarditis and has an appearance most closely resembling a catecholamine-mediated stress (toxic) cardiomyopathy. Understanding that these instances are different from typical myocarditis and that cytokine storm has a known feedback loop with catecholamines may help guide screening and therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Myocardium , Adolescent , Autopsy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Catecholamines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocardium/pathology , Vaccination/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines
20.
Histopathology ; 81(5): 600-624, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973631

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolic phenomena are an important complication of infection by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Increasing focus on the management of the thrombotic complications of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to further investigation into the role of platelets, and their precursor cell, the megakaryocyte, during the disease course. Previously published postmortem evaluations of patients who succumbed to COVID-19 have reported the presence of megakaryocytes in the cardiac microvasculature. Our series evaluated a cohort of autopsies performed on SARS-CoV-2-positive patients in 2020 (n = 36) and prepandemic autopsies performed in early 2020 (n = 12) and selected to represent comorbidities common in cases of severe COVID-19, in addition to infectious and noninfectious pulmonary disease and thromboembolic phenomena. Cases were assessed for the presence of cardiac megakaryocytes and correlated with the presence of pulmonary emboli and laboratory platelet parameters and inflammatory markers. Cardiac megakaryocytes were detected in 64% (23/36) of COVID-19 autopsies, and 40% (5/12) prepandemic autopsies, with averages of 1.77 and 0.84 megakaryocytes per cm2 , respectively. Within the COVID-19 cohort, autopsies with detected megakaryocytes had significantly higher platelet counts compared with cases throughout; other platelet parameters were not statistically significant between groups. Although studies have supported a role of platelets and megakaryocytes in the response to viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2, our findings suggest cardiac megakaryocytes may be representative of a nonspecific inflammatory response and are frequent in, but not exclusive to, COVID-19 autopsies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , Humans , Lung , Megakaryocytes
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