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1.
Eur J Radiol ; 152: 110334, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node characteristics on axillary ultrasound (US), breast MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT are relevant at breast cancer diagnosis. Axillary lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination has been frequently reported. This may cause a diagnostic dilemma, particularly in the ipsilateral axilla in women who have a either a recent diagnosis of breast cancer or a history of breast cancer. This review provides an overview of the current evidence regarding axillary lymph node characteristics at breast cancer diagnosis versus "post-COVID-19 vaccination". METHODS: A non-systematic narrative review was performed. Studies describing axillary lymph node characteristics per imaging modality (axillary US, breast MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT) in breast cancer patients versus post-COVID-19 vaccination were selected and used for the current study. RESULTS: The morphologic characteristics and distribution of abnormal nodes on US may differ from the appearance of metastatic adenopathy since diffuse cortical thickening of the lymph nodes is the most observed characteristic after vaccination, whereas metastases show as most suspicious characteristics focal cortical thickening and effacement of the fatty hilum. Current evidence on MRI and 18F-FDG on morphologic characteristics of axillary lymphadenopathy is missing, although it was suggested that vaccine related lymphadenopathy is more likely to be present in level 2 and 3 nodes than metastatic nodes. Reported frequencies of lymphadenopathy post-COVID-19 vaccination range from 49% to 85% (US), 29% (breast MRI) and 14.5% to 53.9% (18F-FDG PET/CT). Several factors may impact the presence or extent of lymphadenopathy post-COVID-19 vaccination: injection site, type of vaccine (i.e., mRNA versus vector), time interval (days) between vaccination and imaging, previous history of COVID-19 pneumonia, and first versus second vaccine dose. CONCLUSION: Although lymph node characteristics differ at breast cancer diagnosis versus post-COVID-19 vaccination, clinical information regarding injection site, vaccine type and vaccination date needs to be documented to improve the interpretation and guide treatment towards the next steps of action.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Vaccination
2.
Radiographics ; 42(7): 1897-1911, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020456

ABSTRACT

Axillary lymphadenopathy caused by the high immunogenicity of messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines presents radiologists with new diagnostic dilemmas in differentiating vaccine-related benign reactive lymphadenopathy from that due to malignant causes. Understanding axillary anatomy and lymphatic drainage is key to radiologic evaluation of the axilla. US plays a critical role in evaluation and classification of axillary lymph nodes on the basis of their cortical and hilar morphology, which allows prediction of metastatic disease. Guidelines for evaluation and management of axillary lymphadenopathy continue to evolve as radiologists gain more experience with axillary lymphadenopathy related to COVID-19 vaccines. General guidelines recommend documenting vaccination dates and laterality and administering all vaccine doses contralateral to the site of primary malignancy whenever applicable. Guidelines also recommend against postponing imaging for urgent clinical indications or for treatment planning in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Although conservative management approaches to axillary lymphadenopathy initially recommended universal short-interval imaging follow-up, updates to those approaches as well as risk-stratified approaches recommend interpreting lymphadenopathy in the context of both vaccination timing and the patient's overall risk of metastatic disease. Patients with active breast cancer in the pretreatment or peritreatment phase should be evaluated with standard imaging protocols regardless of vaccination status. Tissue sampling and multidisciplinary discussion remain useful in management of complex cases, including increasing lymphadenopathy at follow-up imaging, MRI evaluation of extent of disease, response to neoadjuvant treatment, and potentially confounding cases. An invited commentary by Weinstein is available online. ©RSNA, 2022.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Humans , Female , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Axilla/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Radiologists
4.
Eur J Radiol ; 154: 110438, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914325

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess the potential of quantitative image analysis and machine learning techniques to differentiate between malignant lymph nodes and benign lymph nodes affected by reactive changes due to COVID-19 vaccination. METHOD: In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we improved our previously published artificial intelligence model, by retraining it with newly collected images and testing its performance on images containing benign lymph nodes affected by COVID-19 vaccination. All the images were acquired and selected by specialized breast-imaging radiologists and the nature of each node (benign or malignant) was assessed through a strict clinical protocol using ultrasound-guided biopsies. RESULTS: A total of 180 new images from 154 different patients were recruited: 71 images (10 cases and 61 controls) were used to retrain the old model and 109 images (36 cases and 73 controls) were used to evaluate its performance. The achieved accuracy of the proposed method was 92.7% with 77.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity at the optimal cut-off point. In comparison, the visual node inspection made by radiologists from ultrasound images reached 69.7% accuracy with 41.7% sensitivity and 83.6% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study show the potential of the proposed techniques to differentiate between malignant lymph nodes and benign nodes affected by reactive changes due to COVID-19 vaccination. These techniques could be useful to non-invasively diagnose lymph node status in patients with suspicious reactive nodes, although larger multicenter studies are needed to confirm and validate the results.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , Axilla , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vaccination
5.
In Vivo ; 36(4): 1977-1981, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: COVID-19 has been a global pandemic for more than 2 years, and vaccination against COVID-19 using an mRNA vaccine is widespread. The COVID-19 vaccination can cause specific side-effects, such as axillary lymph node swelling; therefore, breast oncologists should pay attention to such occurrences. Initially, only two COVID-19 vaccinations were planned; however, in some countries third or fourth vaccines have been administered. Here, we present a female case who developed axillary lymph node swelling after her third vaccination. We have also reviewed the literature regarding this side-effect after a third or fourth COVID-19 vaccination. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old woman who came to our clinic regarding a mammography abnormality in her left breast. She had no palpable mass, but a left breast mass was shown by mammography, and ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a hamartoma. At 2 months after her second COVID-19 vaccination when she underwent these tests, she had no axillary lymph node swelling. We planned a follow-up after 6 months. At her next visit, by chance, she underwent ultrasonography 14 days after she received a third COVID-19 vaccination, and a swollen axillary lymph node was observed. CONCLUSION: Axillary lymph node swelling can occur after a third COVID-19 vaccination. Therefore, breast oncologists will have to consider this side-effect of COVID-19 vaccination when diagnosing breast tumors.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Japan , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Middle Aged , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Curr Med Imaging ; 18(11): 1214-1221, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During COVID-19 vaccine development studies, vaccines' efficacy and safety profiles should be carefully investigated. Only a few studies have shown that the COVID-19 vaccine can cause axillary lymphadenopathy on the injection arm. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of axillary lymphadenopathy and imaging findings using B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography (US) examinations in volunteers who had recently been vaccinated against COVID-19. METHODS: The ipsilateral and contralateral axillae of 101 volunteers who received the COVID-19 vaccine were evaluated using B-mode and Doppler US examinations. The volunteers were asked when and to which arm the vaccine had been applied, and the type and dose of the vaccine were recorded. It was also questioned whether the individual experienced any side effects after vaccination, such as pain, tenderness, fever, and redness at the injection site. In addition, the demographic data of the participants, such as age and gender, were recorded. RESULTS: The B-mode US examinations revealed that the long- and short-axis diameters, size, cortical thickness, and asymmetric cortical thickening of the left axillary lymph nodes were significantly higher compared to the right side in individuals having received the CoronaVac vaccine (p<0.05). When the individuals were evaluated separately according to gender, the frequency of cortical thickness and asymmetric cortical thickening in the left axillary lymph nodes was higher than on the right side in both males and females (p=0.011). CONCLUSION: It should be kept in mind that ipsilateral reactive lymphadenopathy may develop after the COVID-19 vaccine. This knowledge can prevent unnecessary axillary lymph node biopsies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Axilla/diagnostic imaging , Axilla/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/chemically induced , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Male
7.
In Vivo ; 36(2): 1041-1046, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: COVID-19 started to spread as a pandemic in December 2019 and COVID-19 vaccination has been initiated worldwide. The efficacy of vaccination has been scientifically proven, but it might cause axillary lymph node swelling. To diagnose patients with axillary lymph node swelling caused by COVID-19 vaccination, we herein reviewed existing literature on this symptom. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 70-year-old woman with a breast tumour. She had undergone cecum cancer surgery and regular computed tomography (CT). During breast tumour follow-up, she received scheduled CT that indicated severe axillary lymph node swelling mimicking breast cancer metastasis. We performed aspiration biopsy cytology of that lymph node, and determined this was not cancer metastasis but an effect of the COVID-19 vaccine. We confirmed this diagnosis at one month after computed tomography showed that the lymph node swelling had improved. CONCLUSION: Axillary lymph node swelling can occur after COVID-19 vaccination. Therefore, it is important to consider the effect of the COVID-19 vaccination on axillary lymph node swelling when diagnosing breast tumours.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Aged , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Japan , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Vaccination
8.
J Ultrasound Med ; 41(11): 2849-2858, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729164

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the serial grey-scale and color Doppler appearance of ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy in response to the Pfizer-BioNTech Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine over 24 to 28 weeks. METHODS: The data for this study were collected during an observational study to determine whether mRNA vaccination induced a germinal center B cell reaction in blood and draining axillary lymph nodes. The current study evaluated the serial color Doppler and grey-scale sonographic appearance of these lymph nodes. Ten participants who each underwent 6 sonograms and FNAs over 24 to 28 weeks were included in the study. A total of 11 lateral lymph nodes were identified. Cortical thickness was measured and absence or presence of color Doppler flow in the hilum and lymph node cortex was graded (scale: 0-2). RESULTS: Eleven lateral axillary lymph nodes were biopsied over 24 to 28 weeks. Mean thickness varied through time (P < .001) and was greater weeks 2 to 7 compared to weeks 24 to 28 (mean differences of 2.6 to 1.3; P < .006), but weeks 14 to 17 mean thickness was not different from weeks 24 to 28 (0.57; P = .15). Cortical vascularity was increased in all 11 lymph nodes by week 5. Mean vascularity varied through time (P < .001) and was greater weeks 2 to 14 compared to weeks 24 to 28; mean differences ranged from 1.7 to 0.83 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Serial grey-scale and color Doppler appearance of ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes after mRNA vaccination manifest as increased and prolonged cortical thickening and vascularity that diminishes and approaches normal by 24 to 28 weeks.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , RNA, Messenger , Sensitivity and Specificity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Axilla/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Vaccination , Breast Neoplasms/pathology
9.
Clin Imaging ; 85: 78-82, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708841

ABSTRACT

Metastatic melanoma of the breast is rare, and demonstrates nonspecific imaging findings which may overlap with both benign and malignant pathology.1-3 Immunohistochemical stains are important to confirm the diagnosis, particularly combining S100, a sensitive marker for melanoma, with more specific tumor markers such as Melan-A and HMB-45, and lack of cytokeratin staining.4-7 We present a case of a 64-year-old female who presented for diagnostic imaging of a palpable abnormality in her right breast, with medical history notable for previously excised cutaneous melanoma, recent COVID-19 vaccination, and significant family history of breast cancer. Diagnostic mammogram of the right breast demonstrated a circumscribed mass in the lower inner quadrant corresponding to the area of palpable concern, as well as an additional non-palpable circumscribed mass in the lower inner quadrant. Targeted right breast ultrasound demonstrated corresponding circumscribed cystic versus solid masses as well as a morphologically abnormal right axillary lymph node. Pathologic results after tissue sampling of the two right breast masses and right axillary lymph node all yielded metastatic melanoma.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Skin Neoplasms/pathology
10.
Acad Radiol ; 29(7): 1004-1012, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705736

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: To identify nodal features used to distinguish coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-Induced benign reactive adenopathy from malignant adenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This IRB-approved, single-institution, retrospective study compared features of 77 consecutive patients with benign adenopathy secondary to a messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine with 76 patients with biopsy-proven malignant adenopathy from breast cancer. Patient demographics and nodal features were compared between the two groups using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. A receiver operating characteristic analysis with the maximum value of Youden's index was performed for the cutoff value of cortical thickness for predicting nodal status. RESULTS: The mean cortical thickness was 5.1 mm ± 2.8 mm among benign nodes and 8.9 mm ± 4.5 mm among malignant nodes (p < 0.001). A cortical thickness ≥3.0 mm had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 21% (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.68). When the cutoff for cortical thickness was increased to ≥5.4 mm, the sensitivity decreased to 74%, while the specificity increased to 69% (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.70-0.84).Cortical thickness correlated with nodal morphology type (r2 = 0.57). An axillary node with generalized lobulated cortical thickening had a 7.5 odds ratio and a node with focal cortical lobulation had a 123.0 odds ratio compared to one with diffuse, uniform cortical thickening only (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Cortical thickness and morphology are predictive of malignancy. Cortical thickness cutoff of ≥5.4 mm demonstrates higher specificity and improved accuracy for detecting malignant adenopathy than a cutoff of ≥3.0 mm.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Breast ; 62 Suppl 1: S17-S24, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611638

ABSTRACT

Neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) has become an option in early stage (stage I-II) breast cancer (EBC). New advances in systemic and targeted therapies have increased rates of pathologic complete response increasing the number of patients undergoing NAT. Clear benefits of NAT are downstaging the tumor and the axillary nodes to de-escalate surgery and to evaluate response to treatment. Selection of patients for NAT in EBC rely in several factors that are related to patient characteristics (i.e, age and comorbidities), to tumor histology, to stage at diagnosis and to the potential changes in surgical or adjuvant treatments when NAT is administered. Imaging and histologic confirmation is performed to assess extent of disease y to confirm diagnosis. Besides mammogram and ultrasound, functional breast imaging MRI has been incorporated to better predict treatment response and residual disease. Contrast enhanced mammogram (CEM), shear wave elastography (SWE), or Dynamic Optical Breast Imaging (DOBI) are emerging techniques under investigation for assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy as well as for predicting response. Surgical plan should be delineated after NAT taking into account baseline characteristics, tumor response and patient desire. In the COVID era, we have witnessed also the increasing use of NAT in patients who may be directed to surgery, unable to have it performed as surgery has been reserved for emergency cases only.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Staging
13.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(5): 1206-1216, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. COVID-19 vaccination may trigger reactive lymphadenopathy, confounding imaging interpretation. There has been limited systematic analysis of PET findings after COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of abnormal FDG and 11C-choline uptake on PET performed after COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS. This retrospective study included 67 patients (43 men and 24 women; mean [± SD] age, 75.6 ± 9.2 years) who underwent PET examination between December 14, 2020, and March 10, 2021, after COVID-19 vaccination and who had undergone prevaccination PET examination without visible axillary node uptake. A total of 52 patients received the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech; hereafter referred to as the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine), and 15 received the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna; hereafter referred to as the Moderna vaccine). Sixty-six of the patients underwent PET/CT, and one underwent PET/MRI. Fifty-four PET examinations used FDG, and 13 used 11C-choline. PET was performed a median of 13 and 10 days after vaccination for patients who had received one (n = 44) and two (n = 23) vaccine doses, respectively. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently reviewed images and were blinded to injection laterality and the number of days since vaccination. Lymph node or deltoid SUVmax greater than the blood pool SUVmax was considered positive. Interreader agreement was assessed, and the measurements made by the more experienced physician were used for subsequent analysis. RESULTS. Positive axillary lymph node uptake was observed in 10.4% (7/67) of patients (7.4% [4/54] of FDG examinations and 23.1% [3/13] of 11C-choline examinations); of the patients with positive axillary lymph nodes, four had received the Pfizer vaccine, and three had received the Moderna vaccine. Injection laterality was documented for five of seven patients with positive axillary lymph nodes and was ipsilateral to the positive node in all five patients. PET was performed within 24 days of vaccination for all patients with a positive node. One patient showed extraaxillary lymph node uptake (ipsilateral supraclavicular uptake on FDG PET). Ipsilateral deltoid uptake was present in 14.5% (8/55) of patients with documented injection laterality, including 42.9% (3/7) of patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Interreader agreement for SUV measurements (expressed as intraclass correlation coefficients) ranged from 0.600 to 0.988. CONCLUSION. Increased axillary lymph node or ipsilateral deltoid uptake is occasionally observed on FDG or 11C-choline PET performed after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine. CLINICAL IMPACT. Interpreting physicians should recognize characteristics of abnormal uptake on PET after COVID-19 vaccination to guide optimal follow-up management and reduce unnecessary biopsies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deltoid Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Aged , Axilla/diagnostic imaging , Carbon Radioisotopes/pharmacokinetics , Choline/pharmacokinetics , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Male , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 50(1): 73-74, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555926

ABSTRACT

Abnormally increased 18F-FDG avidity of axillary lymph nodes has become a frequent diagnostic dilemma on PET/CT in the current climate of global vaccinations directed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This avidity is due to the inflammatory response evoked by vaccines and the nonspecific nature of 18F-FDG uptake, which is increased in both malignant and inflammatory processes. Similarly, 18F-fluciclovine, an amino acid analog indicated for the assessment of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer, may also demonstrate nonspecific inflammatory uptake. We report a case of 18F-fluciclovine PET/CT obtained for concern about prostate cancer. In this case, isolated avid lymph nodes were seen in the left axilla. A screening questionnaire revealed that the patient had recently received the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine in his left shoulder, and hence, the uptake was determined to be reactive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Axilla/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(12): 1938-1945, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497013

ABSTRACT

Breast radiologists are increasingly seeing patients with axillary adenopathy related to COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccination can cause levels I-III axillary as well as cervical lymphadenopathy. Appropriate management of vaccine-related adenopathy may vary depending on clinical context. In patients with current or past history of malignancy, vaccine-related adenopathy can be indistinguishable from nodal metastasis. This article presents imaging findings of oncology patients with adenopathy seen in the axilla or neck on cross-sectional imaging (breast MRI, CT, or PET-CT) after COVID-19 vaccination. Management approach and rationale is discussed, along with consideration on strategies to minimize false positives in vaccinated cancer patients. Time interval between vaccination and adenopathy seen on breast MRI, CT, or PET-CT is also reported.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Vaccines , Axilla , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur Radiol ; 32(3): 1644-1651, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Due to COVID-19, a lockdown took place between March 17 and May 1, 2020, in France. This study evaluates the impact of the lockdown on the diagnosis and staging of breast cancers in a tertiary cancer centre. METHODS: Our database was searched for all consecutive invasive breast cancers diagnosed in our institution during the lockdown (36 working days), during equivalent periods of 36 working days before and after lockdown and a reference period in 2019. The number and staging of breast cancers diagnosed during and after lockdown were compared to the pre-lockdown and reference periods. Tumour maximum diameters were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Proportions of tumour size categories (T), ipsilateral axillary lymph node invasion (N) and presence of distant metastasis (M) were compared using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Compared to the reference period (n = 40 in average), the number of breast cancers diagnosed during lockdown (n = 32) decreased by 20% but increased by 48% after the lockdown (n = 59). After the lockdown, comparatively to the reference period, breast cancers were more often symptomatic (86% vs 57%; p = 0.001) and demonstrated bigger tumour sizes (p = 0.0008), the rates of small tumours (T1) were reduced by 38%, locally advanced cancers (T3, T4) increased by 80% and lymph node invasion increased by 64%. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown was associated with a 20% decrease in the number of diagnosed breast cancers. Because of delayed diagnosis, breast cancers detected after the lockdown had poorer prognosis with bigger tumour sizes and higher rates of node invasion. KEY POINTS: • The number of breast cancer diagnosed in a large tertiary cancer centre in France decreased by 20% during the first COVID-19 lockdown. • Because of delayed diagnosis, breast cancers demonstrated bigger tumour size and more frequent axillary lymph node invasion after the lockdown. • In case of a new lockdown, breast screening programme and follow-up examinations should not be suspended and patients with clinical symptoms should be encouraged to seek attention promptly.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ann Nucl Med ; 35(11): 1264-1269, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are known to provide an immune response seen on FDG PET studies. However, the time course of this metabolic response is unknown. We here present a temporal metabolic response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in oncology patients undergoing standard of care FDG PET. METHODS: 262 oncology patients undergoing standard of care FDG PET were included in the analysis. 231 patients had at least one dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine while 31 patients had not been vaccinated. The SUVmax of the lymph nodes ipsilateral to the vaccination was compared to the contralateral to obtain an absolute change in SUVmax (ΔSUVmax). RESULTS: ΔSUVmax was more significant at shorter times between FDG PET imaging and COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, with a median ΔSUVmax of 2.6 (0-7 days), 0.8 (8-14 days), and 0.3 (> 14 days), respectively. CONCLUSION: Consideration should be given to performing FDG PET at least 2 weeks after the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Axilla , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/metabolism , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymph Nodes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pectoralis Muscles , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Time Factors , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
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