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1.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 77(10): 1513-1521, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813653

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the cases of torsade de pointes (TdP) and related symptoms reported in association with chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and azithromycin (AZT) to the World Health Organization (WHO) global database of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) for drug monitoring (VigiBase) using qualitative and quantitative pharmacovigilance approaches. METHODS: The main characteristics of the ICSRs reporting TdP with CQ, HCQ, and AZT have been summarized. Co-reported drugs with risk to cause QT prolongation have been described. Reporting odds ratios (RORs) as a measure of disproportionality for reported TdP and individual drugs have been calculated. RESULTS: One hundred seventy ICSRs reporting TdP in association with the drugs of interest were identified (CQ: 11, HCQ: 31, CQ + HCQ: 1, HCQ + AZT: 27, AZT: 100). From these, 41 (24.3%) were received during the pandemic period (December 2019 to February 2021). The median age of the patients was 63, 53, and 63 years old for CQ, HCQ, and AZT, respectively. Reports included concomitant use of other QT-prolonging drugs (CQ 25.0%, HCQ 71.2%, AZT 64.6%). A proportion of the cases were fatal (CQ 25.0%, HCQ 8.6%, AZT 16.1%). Increased disproportionality has been found for the individual drugs and TdP: CQ (ROR: 7.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.82, 12.96), HCQ (ROR: 8.49, 95% CI: 6.57, 10.98), azithromycin (ROR: 8.06, 95% CI: 6.76, 9.61). Disproportionality was also found for other related symptoms, Standardized MedDRA Query for torsade de pointes/QT prolongation (narrow): CQ (ROR: 11.95, 95% CI: 10.04-14.22); HCQ (ROR: 20.43, 95% CI: 19.13, 21.83), AZT (ROR: 7.78, 95% CI: 7.26, 8.34). CONCLUSIONS: The prescription of CQ, HCQ, and AZT should be restricted to therapeutic indications with established positive benefit/risk profile. Doctors and patients should be aware of this potential adverse reaction especially when several risk factors are present.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/adverse effects , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Adult , Aged , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Pharmacovigilance , Retrospective Studies
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263437, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was great enthusiasm for the use of azithromycin with or without hydroxychloroquine. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed azithromycin consumption in Croatia in 2020 and compared this to the period 2017-2019. METHODS: Azithromycin consumption was evaluated using the IQVIA Adriatic d.o.o. database which collects data on azithromycin distribution from wholesale pharmacies to hospital and non-hospital pharmacies in Croatia. We analyzed data for the period from January 2017 to December 2020. Azithromycin distribution was measured as days of therapy (DOT) and reported as per 1000 inhabitants or per 1000 inhabitant-days. RESULTS: In the period 2017-2020, total azithromycin DOT in Croatia increased in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 (1.76, 1.91, 1.91 and 2.01/1000 inhabitant-days, respectively). Non-hospital pharmacies received 2.18 times and hospital pharmacies 4.39 times more DOT units/1000 inhabitants of azithromycin in March 2020 compared to the average distribution rate in March 2017-2019. During the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic (November and December 2020) azithromycin distribution increased considerably in hospital (3.62 and 3.19 times, respectively) and non-hospital pharmacies (1.93 and 1.84 times, respectively) compared to the average consumption in the same months in 2017-2019. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed increased azithromycin distribution in the period 2017-2020 which indicates azithromycin overuse. Preliminary information on COVID-19 treatments with a desire to offer and try what is available even in the absence of strong scientific evidence may have influenced practices of antimicrobial prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Utilization/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Croatia/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771195

ABSTRACT

Inappropriate use of antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to increase the burden of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we report on the prevalence of antibiotic use and its associated factors among suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to 35 health facilities in Sierra Leone from March 2020-March 2021. This was a cross-sectional study using routinely collected patient data. Of 700 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 47% received antibiotics. The majority (73%) of the antibiotics belonged to the 'WATCH' group of antibiotics, which are highly toxic and prone to resistance. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were azithromycin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Antibiotic use was significantly higher in patients aged 25-34 years than in those with severe disease. Of 755 suspected COVID-19 patients, 61% received antibiotics, of which the majority (58%) belonged to the 'WATCH' category. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone, metronidazole, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxycillin. The prevalence of antibiotic use among suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone was high and not in line with national and WHO case management guidelines. Training of health care providers, strengthening of antimicrobial stewardship programs, and microbiological laboratory capacity are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ceftriaxone , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Facilities , Humans , Metronidazole , Pandemics , Policy , Sierra Leone/epidemiology
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715544

ABSTRACT

The warning by the Italian Medicines Agency on the high shortage of azithromycin in the country in January 2022 represents a paradigmatic lesson learnt from improper use of antibiotics during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics
5.
Turk J Haematol ; 39(1): 43-54, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707760

ABSTRACT

Objective: Patients with solid malignancies are more vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than the healthy population. The outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in highly immunosuppressed populations, such as in patients with hematological malignancies, is a point of interest. We aimed to analyze the symptoms, complications, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality rates of patients with hematological malignancies infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Turkey. Materials and Methods: In this multicenter study, we included 340 adult and pediatric patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 from March to November 2020. Diagnosis and status of primary disease, treatment schedules for hematological malignancies, time from last treatment, life expectancy related to the hematological disease, and comorbidities were recorded, together with data regarding symptoms, treatment, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: Forty four patients were asymptomatic at diagnosis of SARS-CoV- 2 infection. Among symptomatic patients, fever, cough, and dyspnea were observed in 62.6%, 48.8%, and 41.8%, respectively. Sixty-nine (20%) patients had mild SARS-CoV-2 disease, whereas moderate, severe, and critical disease was reported in 101 (29%), 71 (20%), and 55 (16%) patients, respectively. Of the entire cohort, 251 (73.8%) patients were hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2. Mortality related to SARS-CoV-2 infection was 26.5% in the entire cohort; this comprised 4.4% of those patients with mild disease, 12.4% of those with moderate disease, and 83% of those with severe or critical disease. Active hematological disease, lower life expectancy related to primary hematological disease, neutropenia at diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, ICU admission, and first-line therapy used for coronavirus disease-2019 treatment were found to be related to higher mortality rates. Treatments with hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin were associated with a higher rate of mortality in comparison to favipiravir use. Conclusion: Patients with hematological malignancy infected with SARS-CoV-2 have an increased risk of severe disease and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Adult , Amides/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
6.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(4): 608-614, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699027

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological trends in patients with COVID-19 from a hospital in Peru during the first wave of the pandemic. Retrospective study conducted between April and September 2020. The medical records of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia at the Dos de Mayo National Hospital (Lima, Peru) were reviewed. Of a total of 3103 patients, 381 medical records were included (77.4% male, median age: 44 years). The use of four prehospital drugs increased (azithromycin, ivermectin, corticosteroids, and ceftriaxone), while the in-hospital use of six drugs (ceftriaxone, azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, corticosteroid pulse, and prophylactic anticoagulation) decreased and in-hospital anticoagulation use decreased. These findings suggest that the management of COVID-19 has varied during the first wave of the pandemic, typically increasing prehospital drug use and decreasing inpatient use.


Con el objetivo de evaluar las tendencias en el uso de fármacos en pacientes con la COVID-19 de un hospital del Perú durante la primera ola de la pandemia se realizó un estudio retrospectivo entre abril y septiembre del 2020. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía por COVID-19 en el Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo (Lima, Perú). De un total de 3103 pacientes, se incluyeron 381 historias clínica (77,4% varones y mediana de edad de 44 años). Se observó un incremento del uso de cuatro fármacos prehospitalarios (azitromicina, ivermectina, corticoides y ceftriaxona), y una disminución del uso de seis fármacos intrahospitalarios (ceftriaxona, azitromicina, hidroxicloroquina, ivermectina, pulso de corticoides y anticoagulación profiláctica); además, el uso de anticoagulación intrahospitalaria aumentó. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el manejo de la COVID-19 varió durante la primera ola de la pandemia, aumentando el uso de fármacos prehospitalarios y disminuyendo el uso de fármacos intrahospitalarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Anticoagulants , Azithromycin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Ivermectin , Male , Peru/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e051579, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677390

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of hydroxychloroquine-induced corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and its relation to COVID-19 infection severity and incidence of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and sudden arrhythmic deaths. DESIGN: A large-scale cohort study with retrospective analysis of baseline and on-therapy QT interval corrected using Bazett and Fridericia formulas. SETTING: A multicentre study involving eight secondary and tertiary care hospitals of the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company (SEHA), United Arab Emirates. PARTICIPANTS: 2014 patients consecutively admitted with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 1 March 2020 and 1 June 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment with hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for at least 24 hours and with a baseline ECG and at least one ECG after 24 hours of therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maximal QTc interval prolongation and its relationship to clinical severity, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and sudden arrhythmic death while on treatment. RESULTS: The baseline QTc(Bazett) was 427.6±25.4 ms and the maximum QTc(Bazett) during treatment was 439.2±30.4 ms (p<0.001). Severe QTc prolongation (QTc ≥500 ms) was observed in 1.7%-3.3% of patients (Fridericia and Bazett, respectively). There were no cases of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia or hydroxychloroquine-related arrhythmic death. QTc prolongation was more pronounced in combination therapy compared with hydroxychloroquine alone (22.2 ms vs 11.0 ms, p<0.001) and in patients with higher COVID-19 clinical severity (asymptomatic: 428.4±25.4 ms, severe COVID-19 infection: 452.7±35.7 ms, p<0.001). The overall in-hospital mortality was 3.97% and deceased patients had longer on-therapy QTc(Bazett) than survivors (459.8±21.4 ms vs 438.4±29.9 ms, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of severe QTc prolongation with hydroxychloroquine was low and not associated with ventricular arrhythmia. The safety concerns surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine may have been overestimated; however, caution should be exercised when using hydroxychloroquine in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Azithromycin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Electrocardiography , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 824: 153756, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676911

ABSTRACT

During the first period of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the lack of specific therapeutic treatments led to the provisional use of a number of drugs, with a continuous review of health protocols when new scientific evidence emerged. The management of this emergency sanitary situation could not take care of the possible indirect adverse effects on the environment, such as the release of a large amount of pharmaceuticals from wastewater treatment plants. The massive use of drugs, which were never used so widely until then, implied new risks for the aquatic environment. In this study, a suspect screening approach using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry techniques, allowed us to survey the presence of pharmaceuticals used for COVID-19 treatment in three WWTPs of Lombardy region, where the first European cluster of SARS-CoV-2 cases was detected. Starting from a list of sixty-three suspect compounds used against COVID-19 (including some metabolites and transformation products), six compounds were fully identified and monitored together with other target analytes, mainly pharmaceuticals of common use. A monthly monitoring campaign was conducted in a WWTP from April to December 2020 and the temporal trends of some anti-COVID-19 drugs were positively correlated with those of COVID-19 cases and deaths. The comparison of the average emission loads among the three WWTPs evidenced that the highest loads of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin were measured in the WWTP which received the sewages from a hospital specializing in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The monitoring of the receiving water bodies evidenced the presence of eight compounds of high ecological concern, whose risk was assessed in terms of toxicity and the possibility of inducing antibiotic and viral resistance. The results clearly showed that the enhanced, but not completely justified, use of ciprofloxacin and azithromycin represented a risk for antibiotic resistance in the aquatic ecosystems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ciprofloxacin/analysis , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(10): e99, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671357
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(10): e100-e101, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671355
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 147: 112682, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664682

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have a great impact on human health. The urgent need to find a cure against different viruses led us to investigations in a vast range of drugs. Azithromycin (AZT), classified as a macrolide, showed various effects on different known viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Zika, Ebola, Enterovirus (EVs) and Rhinoviruses (RVs), and Influenza A previously; namely, these viruses, which caused global concerns, are considered as targets for AZT different actions. Due to AZT background in the treatment of known viral infections mentioned above (which is described in this study), in the early stages of COVID-19 (a new zoonotic disease caused by a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) development, AZT drew attention to itself due to its antiviral and immunomodulatory effects as a valuable candidate for COVID-19 treatment. AZT usage instructions for treating different viral infections have always been under observation, and COVID-19 is no exception. There are still debates about the use of AZT in COVID-19 treatment. However, eventually, novel researches convinced WHO to announce the discontinuation of AZT use (alone or in combination with hydroxychloroquine) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection. This research aims to study the structure of all of the viruses mentioned above and the molecular and clinical effects of AZT against the virus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Zika Virus/drug effects
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1075, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642005

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory diseases including COVID-19 are associated with a cytokine storm characterized by high interleukin-6 (IL-6) titers. In particular, while recent studies examined COVID-19 associated arrhythmic risks from cardiac injury and/or from pharmacotherapy such as the combination of azithromycin (AZM) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), the role of IL-6 per se in increasing the arrhythmic risk remains poorly understood. The objective is to elucidate the electrophysiological basis of inflammation-associated arrhythmic risk in the presence of AZM and HCQ. IL-6, AZM and HCQ were concomitantly administered to guinea pigs in-vivo and in-vitro. Electrocardiograms, action potentials and ion-currents were analyzed. IL-6 alone or the combination AZM + HCQ induced mild to moderate reduction in heart rate, PR-interval and corrected QT (QTc) in-vivo and in-vitro. Notably, IL-6 alone was more potent than the combination of the two drugs in reducing heart rate, increasing PR-interval and QTc. In addition, the in-vivo or in-vitro combination of IL-6 + AZM + HCQ caused severe bradycardia, conduction abnormalities, QTc prolongation and asystole. These electrocardiographic abnormalities were attenuated in-vivo by tocilizumab (TCZ), a monoclonal antibody against IL-6 receptor, and are due in part to the prolongation of action potential duration and selective inhibition of Na+, Ca2+ and K+ currents. Inflammation confers greater risk for arrhythmia than the drug combination therapy. As such, in the setting of elevated IL-6 during inflammation caution must be taken when co-administering drugs known to predispose to fatal arrhythmias and TCZ could be an important player as a novel anti-arrhythmic agent. Thus, identifying inflammation as a critical culprit is essential for proper management.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Male
14.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e134-e137, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632085

ABSTRACT

To this day, there are limited data about the effects and management of coronavirus disease infection in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. We present the management and successful clinical course of an 8-year-old female with homozygous sickle cell disease (SS) and severe acute chest syndrome secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 infection, complicated by cortical vein thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/pathology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Child , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
15.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(12): 1493-1502, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine is still controversial, it has been demonstrated in vitro to control SARS-CoV-2 multiplication on Vero E6 cells. In this study, we tested the possibility that some patients with prolonged virus excretion could be infected by less susceptible strains. METHOD: Using a high-content screening method, we screened 30 different selected isolates of SARS-CoV-2 from different patients who received azithromycin ± hydroxychloroquine. We focused on patients with viral persistence, i.e., positive virus detection in a nasopharyngeal sample ≥10 days, and who were tested during two French epidemic waves, late winter-spring of 2020 and the summer of 2020. Dose-response curves in single-molecule assays with hydroxychloroquine were created for isolates with suspected reduced susceptibility. Genome clustering was performed for all isolates. RESULTS: Of 30 tested strains, three were detected as replicating in the presence of azithromycin + hydroxychloroquine, each at 5 µM. The dose-response model showed a decrease in susceptibility of these three strains to hydroxychloroquine. Whole genome sequencing revealed that these three strains are all from the second epidemic wave and two cluster with isolates from Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced susceptibility to hydroxychloroquine was not associated with viral persistence in naso-pharyngeal samples. Rather, it was associated with occurring during the second epidemic wave, which began in the summer and with strains clustering with those with a common genotype in Africa, where hydroxychloroquine was the most widely used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(12): 3869-3874, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611478

ABSTRACT

We present two cases of Babesia-induced splenic injury at a single institution. In the late summer, two patients presented with left-sided abdominal pain radiating to the shoulder. They were both found to have hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute splenic infarction on imaging. Blood smears showed intracellular ring forms consistent with Babesia spp. and low parasitemia (<1%). Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR for Babesia microti. Both patients improved with azithromycin and atovaquone, without blood products or surgical intervention. Several weeks following treatment, repeat blood smears revealed no parasites. Splenic infarct and hemorrhage have been previously reported as rare complications of babesiosis. However, given the steady rise in Babesia microti cases in the USA, even these rare complications will become more prevalent. We review both the diagnosis and management of Babesia-induced splenic complications, which can be challenging in patients with low-level parasitemia. Clinicians should consider babesiosis as a cause of atraumatic splenic injury.


Subject(s)
Babesia microti , Babesiosis , Azithromycin , Babesiosis/complications , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Babesiosis/drug therapy , Humans , Parasitemia
17.
Pain Med ; 23(4): 774-781, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595614

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess risk factors for persistent neuropathic pain in subjects recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to study the serum level of neurofilament light chain (NFL) in those patients. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Persistent post-COVID-19 pain. SUBJECTS: In total, 45 patients with post-COVID-19 pain and another 45 age and sex-matched healthcare workers who recovered from COVID-19 without pain. METHODS: The included participants were subjected to medical history taking, screening for depressive disorders, comprehensive neurological examination, and pain evaluation using the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 questions (DN4). All patients who had a score at least 4/10 on DN4 were included. The serum NFL level was measured for both groups at the time of patients' enrollment. RESULTS: The frequency of depression, moderate and severe COVID-19 cases, disease duration and serum ferritin were significantly higher in the cases with post-COVID-19 pain than controls. Binary logistic regression revealed that depression, azithromycin use, moderate and severe COVID-19 increased the odds of post-COVID-19 pain by 4.462, 5.444, 4.901, and 6.276 times, respectively. Cases with post-COVID-19 pain had significantly higher NFL (11.34 ± 9.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.42-14.25) than control group (7.64 ± 5.40, 95% CI: 6.02-9.27), (P value = .029). Patients with allodynia had significantly higher NFL (14.96 ± 12.41, 95% CI: 8.58-21.35) compared to those without (9.14 ± 6.99, 95% CI: 6.43-11.85) (P value = .05). DISCUSSION: Depression, azithromycin, and moderate and severe COVID-19 are independent predictors of persistent post-COVID-19 pain. Serum NFL may serve as a potential biomarker for persistent neuropathic pain after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuralgia , Azithromycin , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Neuralgia/diagnosis , Neuralgia/epidemiology , Neuralgia/etiology , Risk Factors
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a significant global threat. However, despite urgent need, there remains uncertainty surrounding best practices for pharmaceutical interventions to treat COVID-19. In particular, conflicting evidence has emerged surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, alone or in combination, for COVID-19. The COVID-19 Evidence Accelerator convened by the Reagan-Udall Foundation for the FDA, in collaboration with Friends of Cancer Research, assembled experts from the health systems research, regulatory science, data science, and epidemiology to participate in a large parallel analysis of different data sets to further explore the effectiveness of these treatments. METHODS: Electronic health record (EHR) and claims data were extracted from seven separate databases. Parallel analyses were undertaken on data extracted from each source. Each analysis examined time to mortality in hospitalized patients treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and the two in combination as compared to patients not treated with either drug. Cox proportional hazards models were used, and propensity score methods were undertaken to adjust for confounding. Frequencies of adverse events in each treatment group were also examined. RESULTS: Neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with time to mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. No treatment groups appeared to have an elevated risk of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Administration of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and their combination appeared to have no effect on time to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Continued research is needed to clarify best practices surrounding treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Data Management/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 291-297, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544344

ABSTRACT

Due to current advances and growing experience in the management of coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the outcome of COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness would be expected to be better in the second wave compared with the first wave. As our hospitalization criteria changed in the second wave, we aimed to investigate whether a favorable outcome occurred in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with only severe/critical illness. Among 642 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the first wave and 1121 in the second wave, those who met World Health Organization (WHO) definitions for severe or critical illness on admission or during follow-up were surveyed. Data on demographics, comorbidities, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on admission, and outcomes were obtained from an electronic hospital database. Univariate analysis was performed to compare the characteristics of patients in the first and second waves. There were 228 (35.5%) patients with severe/critical illness in the first wave and 681 (60.7%) in the second wave. Both groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities, other than chronic kidney disease. Median serum CRP levels were significantly higher in patients in the second wave compared with those in the first wave [109 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 65-157) vs. 87 mg/L (IQR: 39-140); p < 0.001]. However, intensive care unit admission and mortality rates were similar among the waves. Even though a lower mortality rate in the second wave has been reported in previous studies, including all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we found similar demographics and outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness in the first and second wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Drug Combinations , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6737-6749, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544327

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine or its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) combined with or without azithromycin (AZ) have been widely investigated in observational studies as a treatment option for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. The network meta-analysis aims to summarize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine if AZ or HCQ is associated with improved clinical outcomes. PubMed and Embase were searched from inception to March 7, 2021. We included published RCTs that investigated the efficacy of AZ, HCQ, or its combination among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection. The outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality and the use of mechanical ventilation. The pooled odds ratio was calculated using a random-effect model. A total of 10 RCTs were analyzed. Participant's mean age ranged from 40.4 to 66.5 years. There was no significant effect on mortality associated with AZ plus HCQ (odds ratio [OR] = 0.562 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.168-1.887]), AZ alone (OR = 0.965 [95% CI: 0.865-1.077]), or HCQ alone (OR = 1.122 [95% CI: 0.995-1.266]; p = 0.06). Similarly, based on pooled effect sizes derived from direct and indirect evidence, none of the treatments had a significant benefit in decreasing the use of mechanical ventilation. No heterogeneity was identified (Cochran's Q = 1.68; p = 0.95; τ2 = 0; I2 = 0% [95% CI: 0%-0%]). Evidence from RCTs suggests that AZ with or without HCQ was not associated with a significant effect on the mortality or mechanical ventilation rates in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. More research is needed to explore therapeutics agents that can effectively reduce the mortality or severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Network Meta-Analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/methods
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