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World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 39(6): 154, 2023 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296829


The increase in using antibiotics, especially Azithromycin have increased steadily since the beginning of COVID19 pandemic. This increase has led to its presence in water systems which consequently led to its presence upon using this water for irrigation. The aim of the present work is to study the impact of irrigation using Azithromycin containing water on soil microbial community and its catabolic activity in the presence of phenolic wastes as compost. Wild berry, red grapes, pomegranate, and spent tea waste were added to soil and the degradation was monitored after 5 and 7 days at ambient and high temperatures. The results obtained show that at 30 °C, soil microbial community collectively was able to degrade Azithromycin, while at 40 °C, addition of spent tea as compost was needed to reach higher degradation. To ensure that the degradation was biotic and depended on degradation by indigenous microflora, a 25 kGy irradiation dose was used to kill the microorganisms in the soil and this was used as negative control. The residual antibiotic was assayed using UV spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Indication of Azithromycin presence was studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) peaks and the same pattern was obtained using the 3 used detection methods, the ability to assign the peaks even in the presence of soil and not to have any overlaps, gives the chance to study this result in depth to prepare IR based sensor for quick sensing of antibiotic in environmental samples.

COVID-19 , Microbiota , Soil Pollutants , Humans , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Temperature , Soil/chemistry , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Biodegradation, Environmental , Phenols/analysis , Water , Tea , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/metabolism
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2431-2439, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526358


To utilize noninvasive collection of amniotic fluid in the setting of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROMs) to report the time concentration profile of azithromycin in amniotic fluid over 7 days from a single dose, and evaluate the correlation between azithromycin concentration and inflammatory markers in amniotic fluid. Prospective cohort study of five pregnant patients admitted with PPROMs and treated with a single 1 g oral azithromycin dose. Amniotic fluid was collected from pads and used to quantify azithromycin concentration as well as TNFa, IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations. Primary outcome was time/concentration profile of azithromycin in amniotic fluid. Secondary outcome included correlation between azithromycin concentration and cytokine concentrations. Five patients were enrolled. Mean gestational age on admission with PPROM was 27.5 ± 2.3 weeks with a median latency of 7 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 4-13). A median of two samples/day (IQR = 1-3) were collected per participant. Azithromycin was quantified in duplicate; intra-assay coefficient of variation was 17%. Azithromycin concentration was less than 60 ng/ml after day 3. Azithromycin concentration was positively correlated with IL-8 (r = 0.38, p = 0.03), IL1a (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and IL-1b (r = 0.36, p = 0.04) in amniotic fluid. Azithromycin is detectable in amniotic fluid over 7 days from a single 1 g maternal dose, however, it is not sustained over the range of minimum inhibitory concentration for common genitourinary flora. Based on correlation with specific cytokines, azithromycin penetration in amniotic fluid may relate to maternal monocyte concentration in amniotic fluid in the setting of PPROM.

Amniotic Fluid/chemistry , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/analysis , Cytokines/administration & dosage , Cytokines/analysis , Adult , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies