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1.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(1): 61-69, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496649

ABSTRACT

North Italy emerged as an epicenter of COVID-19 in the Western world. The majority of studies of patients with COVID-19 have focused on hospitalized patients, and data on early outpatient treatment are limited. This research retrospectively examines consecutive symptomatic adults who did not present to a hospital but who experience laboratory confirmed (nasopharyngeal swabs) or probable COVID-19 infection. From March 12 to April 12, 2020, 124 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection (84%) or with epidemiologically linked exposure to a person with confirmed infection (16%) were managed at home. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made with a portable ultrasound. COVID-19 treatment was based on low-dose hydroxychloroquine with or without darunavir/cobicistat or azithromycin and enoxaparine for bedridden patients. The patients were monitored by telemedicine. The primary endpoints were clinical improvement or hospitalization, and the secondary endpoints were mortality at day 30 and at day 60. Forty-seven (37.9%) patients had mild COVID-19 infection, 44 (35.5%) had moderate COVID-19 infection, and 33 (26.6%) had severe COVID-19 infection. Four patients (3.2%) were hospitalized and there were no deaths at day 30 and at day 60. Only mild side effects were reported. Early home treatment of COVID-19 patients resulted in a low hospitalization rate with no deaths, with the limitations of the small sample size and that it was conducted within a single geographic area. We believe that this model may be easily reproduced in both cities and rural areas around the world to treat COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Female , Home Care Services , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Telemedicine , Young Adult
2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(11): 2405-2419, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493668

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was proposed as an early therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after in vitro studies indicated possible benefit. Previous in vivo observational studies have presented conflicting results, though recent randomized clinical trials have reported no benefit from HCQ among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We examined the effects of HCQ alone and in combination with azithromycin in a hospitalized population of US veterans with COVID-19, using a propensity score-adjusted survival analysis with imputation of missing data. According to electronic health record data from the US Department of Veterans Affairs health care system, 64,055 US Veterans were tested for the virus that causes COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and April 30, 2020. Of the 7,193 veterans who tested positive, 2,809 were hospitalized, and 657 individuals were prescribed HCQ within the first 48-hours of hospitalization for the treatment of COVID-19. There was no apparent benefit associated with HCQ receipt, alone or in combination with azithromycin, and there was an increased risk of intubation when HCQ was used in combination with azithromycin (hazard ratio = 1.55; 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 2.24). In conclusion, we assessed the effectiveness of HCQ with or without azithromycin in treatment of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, using a national sample of the US veteran population. Using rigorous study design and analytic methods to reduce confounding and bias, we found no evidence of a survival benefit from the administration of HCQ.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intention to Treat Analysis , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Pharmacoepidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25923, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455404

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Blocking IL-6 pathways with sarilumab, a fully human anti-IL-6R antagonist may potentially curb the inflammatory storm of SARS-CoV2. In the present emergency scenario, we used "off-label" sarilumab in 5 elderly patients in life-threatening condition not candidates to further active measures. We suggest that sarilumab can modulate severe COVID-19-associated Cytokine Release Syndrome.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 1063-1072, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439023

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the age-specific mortality of unselected adult outpatients infected with SARS-CoV-2 treated early in a dedicated COVID-19 day hospital and we assessed whether the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) was associated with improved survival in this cohort. A retrospective monocentric cohort study was conducted in the day hospital of our center from March to December 2020 in adults with PCR-proven infection who were treated as outpatients with a standardized protocol. The primary endpoint was 6-week mortality, and secondary endpoints were transfer to the intensive care unit and hospitalization rate. Among 10,429 patients (median age, 45 [IQR 32-57] years; 5597 [53.7%] women), 16 died (0.15%). The infection fatality rate was 0.06% among the 8315 patients treated with HCQ+AZ. No deaths occurred among the 8414 patients younger than 60 years. Older age and male sex were associated with a higher risk of death, ICU transfer, and hospitalization. Treatment with HCQ+AZ (0.17 [0.06-0.48]) was associated with a lower risk of death, independently of age, sex and epidemic period. Meta-analysis evidenced consistency with 4 previous outpatient studies (32,124 patients-Odds ratio 0.31 [0.20-0.47], I2 = 0%). Early ambulatory treatment of COVID-19 with HCQ+AZ as a standard of care is associated with very low mortality, and HCQ+AZ improve COVID-19 survival compared to other regimens.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Early Medical Intervention , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 343-352, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404404

ABSTRACT

Outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has been declared a pandemic, which is a serious threat to human health. The disease was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Until now, several vaccines and a few drugs have been approved for the prevention and treatment for COVID-19. Recently, the effect of some macrolides including clarithromycin (CAM) on COVID-19 has attracted attention. CAM is known to have diverse effects including immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects, autophagy inhibition, steroid sparing effect, reversibility of drug resistance, antineoplastic effect, antiviral effect as well as bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect. Many patients with COVID-19 died due to an overwhelming response of their own immune system characterized by the uncontrolled release of circulating inflammatory cytokines (cytokine release syndrome [CRS]). This CRS plays a major role in progressing pneumonia to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients. It is noteworthy that CAM can suppress inflammatory cytokines responsible for CRS and also has anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect. Considering the rapidly progressive global disease burden of COVID 19, the application of CAM for treating COVID-19 needs to be urgently evaluated. Recently, an open-labeled non-randomized trial using CAM for treating COVID-19 (ACHIEVE) was initiated in Greece in May, 2020. Its results, though preprint, indicated that CAM treatment of patients with moderate COVID-19 was associated with early clinical improvement and containment of viral load. Thus, treatment with CAM as a single agent or combined with other anti-SARS CoV-2 drugs should be tried for treating COVID-19. In this article, we discussed the significance and usefulness of CAM in treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
8.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 58(5): 106428, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine has shown potential to block viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 in some in vitro studies. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (HCQ/AZT) in reducing viral loads in patients with early and mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A single-centre randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with outpatients with early and mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inclusion criteria were: patients aged 18-65 years with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 for < 5 days, no significant comorbidities, and positive nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab screening tests (POCT-PCR). Randomised patients received either hydroxychloroquine for 7 days plus azithromycin for 5 days or placebo. The primary endpoint was viral clearance within a 9-day period. Secondary endpoints included viral load reduction, clinical evolution, hospitalization rates, chest computed tomography evolution, and adverse effects. RESULTS: From 107 potential trial participants, 84 were enrolled following predetermined criteria. Statistical analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat (N = 84) and per-protocol (PP) basis (N = 70). On the PP analysis, the treatment (N = 36) and placebo (N = 34) groups displayed similar demographic characteristics. At 95% CI, no statistically significant between-group differences were found in viral clearance rates within 9 days following enrolment (P = 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating outpatients with early and mild COVID-19 showed that viral clearance rates within a 9-day period from enrolment did not change with HCQ/AZT treatment compared with placebo, although no major cardiovascular events were observed in participants without comorbidities. Secondary outcomes were also not significantly improved with HCQ/AZT treatment compared with placebo. These findings do not support use of HCQ/AZT in this setting.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Placebos , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that severe COVID-19 patients had higher chances of survival and a reduced risk of developing respiratory failure when administered with the probiotic formulation SLAB51. This study aimed to investigate further bacteriotherapy mechanisms and how early they are activated. METHODS: We performed an analysis on the blood oxygenation parameters collected in sixty-nine severe COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive oxygen therapy and presenting a CT lung involvement ≥50%. Twenty-nine patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, azithromycin and Remdesivir. In addition, forty subjects received SLAB51. Blood gas analyses were performed before the beginning of treatments and at 24 h. RESULTS: The patients receiving only standard therapy needed significantly increased oxygen amounts during the 24 h observation period. Furthermore, they presented lower blood levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2 than the group also supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. In vitro data suggest that SLAB51 can reduce nitric oxide synthesis in intestinal cells. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients may present lesions in the lungs compromising their gas exchange capability. The functionality of the organs essential for these patients' survival depends mainly on the levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2. SLAB51 contains enzymes that could reduce oxygen consumption in the intestine, making it available for the other organs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Blood Gas Analysis , Cell Line , Female , Heparin , Humans , Hypoxia , Italy , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
10.
JAMA ; 326(6): 490-498, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363618

ABSTRACT

Importance: Azithromycin has been hypothesized to have activity against SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To determine whether oral azithromycin in outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to absence of self-reported COVID-19 symptoms at day 14. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial of azithromycin vs matching placebo conducted from May 2020 through March 2021. Outpatients from the US were enrolled remotely via internet-based surveys and followed up for 21 days. Eligible participants had a positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test result (nucleic acid amplification or antigen) within 7 days prior to enrollment, were aged 18 years or older, and were not hospitalized at the time of enrollment. Among 604 individuals screened, 297 were ineligible, 44 refused participation, and 263 were enrolled. Participants, investigators, and study staff were masked to treatment randomization. Interventions: Participants were randomized in a 2:1 fashion to a single oral 1.2-g dose of azithromycin (n = 171) or matching placebo (n = 92). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was absence of self-reported COVID-19 symptoms at day 14. There were 23 secondary clinical end points, including all-cause hospitalization at day 21. Results: Among 263 participants who were randomized (median age, 43 years; 174 [66%] women; 57% non-Hispanic White and 29% Latinx/Hispanic), 76% completed the trial. The trial was terminated by the data and safety monitoring committee for futility after the interim analysis. At day 14, there was no significant difference in proportion of participants who were symptom free (azithromycin: 50%; placebo: 50%; prevalence difference, 0%; 95% CI, -14% to 15%; P > .99). Of 23 prespecified secondary clinical end points, 18 showed no significant difference. By day 21, 5 participants in the azithromycin group had been hospitalized compared with 0 in the placebo group (prevalence difference, 4%; 95% CI, -1% to 9%; P = .16). Conclusions and Relevance: Among outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment with a single dose of azithromycin compared with placebo did not result in greater likelihood of being symptom free at day 14. These findings do not support the routine use of azithromycin for outpatient SARS-CoV-2 infection. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04332107.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Oral , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Failure
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16361, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354119

ABSTRACT

Evidence on the efficacy of adding macrolides (azithromycin or clarithromycin) to the treatment regimen for COVID-19 is limited. We testify whether adding azithromycin or clarithromycin to a standard of care regimen was superior to standard of supportive care alone in patients with mild COVID-19.This randomized trial included three groups of patients with COVID-19. The azithromycin group included, 107 patients who received azithromycin 500 mg/24 h for 7 days, the clarithromycin group included 99 patients who received clarithromycin 500 /12 h for 7 days, and the control group included 99 patients who received standard care only. All three groups received only symptomatic treatment for control of fever and cough .Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the study participants including assessment of the symptoms duration, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, D-dimer, complete blood count (CBC), in addition to non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT), were performed. The overall results revealed significant early improvement of symptoms (fever, dyspnea and cough) in patients treated with either azithromycin or clarithromycin compared to control group, also there was significant early conversion of SARS-CoV-2 PCR to negative in patients treated with either azithromycin or clarithromycin compared to control group (p < 0.05 for all).There was no significant difference in time to improvement of fever, cough, dyspnea, anosmia, gastrointestinal tract "GIT" symptoms and time to PCR negative conversion between patients treated with azithromycin compared to patients treated with clarithromycin (p > 0.05 for all). Follow up chest CT done after 2 weeks of start of treatment showed significant improvement in patients treated with either azithromycin or clarithromycin compared to control group (p < 0.05 for all).Adding Clarithromycin or azithromycin to the therapeutic protocols for COVID-19 could be beneficial for early control of fever and early PCR negative conversion in Mild COVID-19.Trial registration: (NCT04622891) www.ClinicalTrials.gov retrospectively registered (November 10, 2020).


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6737-6749, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347414

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine or its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) combined with or without azithromycin (AZ) have been widely investigated in observational studies as a treatment option for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. The network meta-analysis aims to summarize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine if AZ or HCQ is associated with improved clinical outcomes. PubMed and Embase were searched from inception to March 7, 2021. We included published RCTs that investigated the efficacy of AZ, HCQ, or its combination among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection. The outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality and the use of mechanical ventilation. The pooled odds ratio was calculated using a random-effect model. A total of 10 RCTs were analyzed. Participant's mean age ranged from 40.4 to 66.5 years. There was no significant effect on mortality associated with AZ plus HCQ (odds ratio [OR] = 0.562 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.168-1.887]), AZ alone (OR = 0.965 [95% CI: 0.865-1.077]), or HCQ alone (OR = 1.122 [95% CI: 0.995-1.266]; p = 0.06). Similarly, based on pooled effect sizes derived from direct and indirect evidence, none of the treatments had a significant benefit in decreasing the use of mechanical ventilation. No heterogeneity was identified (Cochran's Q = 1.68; p = 0.95; τ2 = 0; I2 = 0% [95% CI: 0%-0%]). Evidence from RCTs suggests that AZ with or without HCQ was not associated with a significant effect on the mortality or mechanical ventilation rates in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. More research is needed to explore therapeutics agents that can effectively reduce the mortality or severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Network Meta-Analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/methods
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009491, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331979

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends continuing azithromycin mass drug administration (MDA) for trachoma until endemic regions drop below 5% prevalence of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years. Azithromycin targets the ocular strains of Chlamydia trachomatis that cause trachoma. Regions with low prevalence of active trachoma may have little if any ocular chlamydia, and, thus, may not benefit from azithromycin treatment. Understanding what happens to active trachoma and ocular chlamydia prevalence after stopping azithromycin MDA may improve future treatment decisions. We systematically reviewed published evidence for community prevalence of both active trachoma and ocular chlamydia after cessation of azithromycin distribution. We searched electronic databases for all peer-reviewed studies published before May 2020 that included at least 2 post-MDA surveillance surveys of ocular chlamydia and/or the active trachoma marker, trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) prevalence. We assessed trends in the prevalence of both indicators over time after stopping azithromycin MDA. Of 140 identified studies, 21 met inclusion criteria and were used for qualitative synthesis. Post-MDA, we found a gradual increase in ocular chlamydia infection prevalence over time, while TF prevalence generally gradually declined. Ocular chlamydia infection may be a better measurement tool compared to TF for detecting trachoma recrudescence in communities after stopping azithromycin MDA. These findings may guide future trachoma treatment and surveillance efforts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Trachoma/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlamydia trachomatis/drug effects , Chlamydia trachomatis/physiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mass Drug Administration , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Trachoma/epidemiology , Trachoma/microbiology
14.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(4): e61-e65, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327994

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an emerging disease described in children in association with infection or epidemiological link to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Signs and symptoms include fever, rash, and cardiac dysfunction; US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have put forth broad criteria for diagnosis. The illness is serious and can progress rapidly to heart failure and death. However, findings in MIS-C are nonspecific, and there is significant overlap with other systemic illnesses, including Kawasaki disease and several viral and bacterial infections. We present 5 children admitted to a teaching hospital within an 11-day period in May 2020 for MIS-C evaluation who were later diagnosed with murine typhus. Typhus is a rickettsial infection that presents with fever and rash, and, although usually self-limited, responds well to treatment with doxycycline to shorten the course of illness. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of these children are presented to illustrate similarities to MIS-C, which can also be shared with viral, bacterial, or other regional endemic infections, as well as noninfectious inflammatory diseases. This case series serves to remind pediatric hospitalists to be vigilant to avoid premature closure on MIS-C for children admitted with fever and systemic inflammation. Maintaining a wide differential diagnosis in approaching such patients is of utmost importance as community exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is likely and evidence of past infection becomes commonplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne/diagnosis , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne/drug therapy
15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(10): 1130-1140, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties of azithromycin suggest therapeutic potential against COVID-19. Randomised data in mild-to-moderate disease are not available. We assessed whether azithromycin is effective in reducing hospital admission in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective, open-label, randomised superiority trial was done at 19 hospitals in the UK. We enrolled adults aged at least 18 years presenting to hospitals with clinically diagnosed, highly probable or confirmed COVID-19 infection, with fewer than 14 days of symptoms, who were considered suitable for initial ambulatory management. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to azithromycin (500 mg once daily orally for 14 days) plus standard care or to standard care alone. The primary outcome was death or hospital admission from any cause over the 28 days from randomisation. The primary and safety outcomes were assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381962) and recruitment is closed. FINDINGS: 298 participants were enrolled from June 3, 2020, to Jan 29, 2021. Three participants withdrew consent and requested removal of all data, and three further participants withdrew consent after randomisation, thus, the primary outcome was assessed in 292 participants (145 in the azithromycin group and 147 in the standard care group). The mean age of the participants was 45·9 years (SD 14·9). 15 (10%) participants in the azithromycin group and 17 (12%) in the standard care group were admitted to hospital or died during the study (adjusted OR 0·91 [95% CI 0·43-1·92], p=0·80). No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 managed without hospital admission, adding azithromycin to standard care treatment did not reduce the risk of subsequent hospital admission or death. Our findings do not support the use of azithromycin in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford and Pfizer.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
16.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 107-117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300698

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has had a profound effect on our lives and careers; this presentation explores some of the lessons we have learned from it and others that it may yet teach us. Socioeconomic effects have been profound, not all of them favorable. Travel and meeting activities, as well as many other activities, have been severely restricted. Social unrest has become intense, and it may have questionable political consequences, as the United States is undergoing a contested election result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Statistics as Topic , Zinc/therapeutic use
17.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(1): 218-222, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278584

ABSTRACT

Underlying comorbid illness is a known risk factor for severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Clinical course of COVID-19 in children with primary kidney disease is not well understood. We present the clinical profile and management of COVID-19 in three children at a COVID hospital in India. These children had nephrotic syndrome, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and chronic kidney disease, respectively. The first two were immunosuppressed, mandating to stop their immunosuppressive medications temporarily. Both had mild course of illness. Third child presented with respiratory distress requiring oxygen support, falling into moderate disease. Renal functions were normal in all of them. They all responded well to oral azithromycin and supportive management. None of them received chloroquine, corticosteroids, or monoclonal antibodies. All three recovered without complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3923-3932, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264769

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has potentially conflicting roles in health and disease. COVID-19 coronavirus binds to human cells via ACE2 receptor, which is expressed on almost all body organs. Boosting the ACE2 receptor levels on heart and lung cells may provide more cellular enter to virus thereby worsening the infection. Therefore, among the drug targets, ACE2 is suggested as a vital target of COVID-19 therapy. This hypothesis is based on the protective role of the drugs acting on ACE2. Therefore, this review discusses the impact and challenges of using ACE2 as a target in the current therapy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/chemistry , Azithromycin/metabolism , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/chemistry , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vitamin D/chemistry , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4411-4419, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263106

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus which caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initiated. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was associated with higher severity and mortality of COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the effects of comorbidities and medications in addition to determining the association between AKI, antibiotics against coinfections (AAC) and outcomes of patients. We conducted a retrospective study on adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a tertiary center. Our primary outcomes were the incidence rate of AKI based on comorbidities and medications. The secondary outcome was to determine mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and prolonged hospitalization by AKI and AAC. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression method was used to explore predictive effects of AKI and AAC on outcomes. Out of 854 included participants, 118 patients developed AKI in whom, 57 used AAC and 61 did not. Hypertension and diabetes were the most common comorbidities in patients developed AKI. AAC, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, and corticosteroids had significant higher rate of administration in patients developed AKI. AAC were associated with higher deaths (odds ratio [OR] = 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3-8.78) and ICU admission (OR = 5.87; 95%CI: 2.81-12.27), while AKI had higher OR for prolonged hospitalization (3.37; 95%CI: 1.76-6.45). Both AKI and AAC are associated with poor prognosis of COVID-19. Defining strict criteria regarding indications and types of antibiotics would help overcoming concomitant infections and minimizing related adverse events.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/prevention & control , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Vancomycin/therapeutic use
20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252388, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine combined with azithromycin (HCQ/AZI) has initially been used against coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). In this retrospective study, we assessed the clinical effects of HCQ/AZI, with a 28-days follow-up. METHODS: In a registry-study which included patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 15 and April 2, 2020, we compared patients who received HCQ/AZI to those who did not, regarding a composite outcome of mortality and mechanical ventilation with a 28-days follow-up. QT was monitored for patients treated with HCQ/AZI. Were excluded patients in intensive care units, palliative care and ventilated within 24 hours of admission. Three analyses were performed to adjust for selection bias: propensity score matching, multivariable survival, and inverse probability score weighting (IPSW) analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 203 patients were included: 60 patients treated by HCQ/AZI and 143 control patients. During the 28-days follow-up, 32 (16.3%) patients presented the primary outcome and 23 (12.3%) patients died. Propensity-score matching identified 52 unique pairs of patients with similar characteristics. In the matched cohort (n = 104), HCQ/AZI was not associated with the primary composite outcome (log-rank p-value = 0.16). In the overall cohort (n = 203), survival and IPSW analyses also found no benefit from HCQ/AZI. In the HCQ/AZI group, 11 (18.3%) patients prolonged QT interval duration, requiring treatment cessation. CONCLUSIONS: HCQ/AZI combination therapy was not associated with lower in-hospital mortality and mechanical ventilation rate, with a 28-days follow-up. In the HCQ/AZI group, 18.3% of patients presented a prolonged QT interval requiring treatment cessation, however, control group was not monitored for this adverse event, making comparison impossible.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
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