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1.
Cell ; 185(23): 4333-4346.e14, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041612

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA booster vaccines provide protection from severe disease, eliciting strong immunity that is further boosted by previous infection. However, it is unclear whether these immune responses are affected by the interval between infection and vaccination. Over a 2-month period, we evaluated antibody and B cell responses to a third-dose mRNA vaccine in 66 individuals with different infection histories. Uninfected and post-boost but not previously infected individuals mounted robust ancestral and variant spike-binding and neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells. Spike-specific B cell responses from recent infection (<180 days) were elevated at pre-boost but comparatively less so at 60 days post-boost compared with uninfected individuals, and these differences were linked to baseline frequencies of CD27lo B cells. Day 60 to baseline ratio of BCR signaling measured by phosphorylation of Syk was inversely correlated to days between infection and vaccination. Thus, B cell responses to booster vaccines are impeded by recent infection.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , B-Lymphocytes/immunology
2.
Sci Immunol ; 7(73): eabq3511, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038228

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune responses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) breakthrough infection will facilitate the development of next-generation vaccines. Here, we profiled spike (S)-specific B cell responses after Omicron/BA.1 infection in messenger RNA-vaccinated donors. The acute antibody response was characterized by high levels of somatic hypermutation and a bias toward recognition of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting the early activation of vaccine-induced memory B cells. BA.1 breakthrough infection induced a shift in B cell immunodominance hierarchy from the S2 subunit, which is highly conserved across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), and toward the antigenically variable receptor binding domain (RBD). A large proportion of RBD-directed neutralizing antibodies isolated from BA.1 breakthrough infection donors displayed convergent sequence features and broadly recognized SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Together, these findings provide insights into the role of preexisting immunity in shaping the B cell response to heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variant exposure.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , Antibodies, Viral , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
3.
Nature ; 611(7934): 139-147, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016757

ABSTRACT

Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection1 has been associated with highly inflammatory immune activation since the earliest days of the COVID-19 pandemic2-5. More recently, these responses have been associated with the emergence of self-reactive antibodies with pathologic potential6-10, although their origins and resolution have remained unclear11. Previously, we and others have identified extrafollicular B cell activation, a pathway associated with the formation of new autoreactive antibodies in chronic autoimmunity12,13, as a dominant feature of severe and critical COVID-19 (refs. 14-18). Here, using single-cell B cell repertoire analysis of patients with mild and severe disease, we identify the expansion of a naive-derived, low-mutation IgG1 population of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) reflecting features of low selective pressure. These features correlate with progressive, broad, clinically relevant autoreactivity, particularly directed against nuclear antigens and carbamylated proteins, emerging 10-15 days after the onset of symptoms. Detailed analysis of the low-selection compartment shows a high frequency of clonotypes specific for both SARS-CoV-2 and autoantigens, including pathogenic autoantibodies against the glomerular basement membrane. We further identify the contraction of this pathway on recovery, re-establishment of tolerance standards and concomitant loss of acute-derived ASCs irrespective of antigen specificity. However, serological autoreactivity persists in a subset of patients with postacute sequelae, raising important questions as to the contribution of emerging autoreactivity to continuing symptomology on recovery. In summary, this study demonstrates the origins, breadth and resolution of autoreactivity in severe COVID-19, with implications for early intervention and the treatment of patients with post-COVID sequelae.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Humans , Autoantibodies/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Autoantigens/immunology , Basement Membrane/immunology
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2205598119, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008361

ABSTRACT

The humoral immune response, a key arm of adaptive immunity, consists of B cells and their products. Upon infection or vaccination, B cells undergo a Darwinian evolutionary process in germinal centers (GCs), resulting in the production of antibodies and memory B cells. We developed a computational model to study how humoral memory is recalled upon reinfection or booster vaccination. We find that upon reexposure to the same antigen, affinity-dependent selective expansion of available memory B cells outside GCs (extragerminal center compartments [EGCs]) results in a rapid response made up of the best available antibodies. Memory B cells that enter secondary GCs can undergo mutation and selection to generate even more potent responses over time, enabling greater protection upon subsequent exposure to the same antigen. GCs also generate a diverse pool of B cells, some with low antigen affinity. These results are consistent with our analyses of data from humans vaccinated with two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine. Our results further show that the diversity of memory B cells generated in GCs is critically important upon exposure to a variant antigen. Clones drawn from this diverse pool that cross-react with the variant are rapidly expanded in EGCs to provide the best protection possible while new secondary GCs generate a tailored response for the new variant. Based on a simple evolutionary model, we suggest that the complementary roles of EGC and GC processes we describe may have evolved in response to complex organisms being exposed to evolving pathogen families for millennia.


Subject(s)
Antigens , B-Lymphocytes , Immunity, Humoral , Immunologic Memory , Antigens/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Computer Simulation , Germinal Center/immunology , Humans , Models, Biological
5.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984990

ABSTRACT

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Child , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Superantigens/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(34): e2201541119, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984598

ABSTRACT

Whereas pathogen-specific T and B cells are a primary focus of interest during infectious disease, we have used COVID-19 to ask whether their emergence comes at a cost of broader B cell and T cell repertoire disruption. We applied a genomic DNA-based approach to concurrently study the immunoglobulin-heavy (IGH) and T cell receptor (TCR) ß and δ chain loci of 95 individuals. Our approach detected anticipated repertoire focusing for the IGH repertoire, including expansions of clusters of related sequences temporally aligned with SARS-CoV-2-specific seroconversion, and enrichment of some shared SARS-CoV-2-associated sequences. No significant age-related or disease severity-related deficiencies were noted for the IGH repertoire. By contrast, whereas focusing occurred at the TCRß and TCRδ loci, including some TCRß sequence-sharing, disruptive repertoire narrowing was almost entirely limited to many patients aged older than 50 y. By temporarily reducing T cell diversity and by risking expansions of nonbeneficial T cells, these traits may constitute an age-related risk factor for COVID-19, including a vulnerability to new variants for which T cells may provide key protection.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Loci , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
7.
Cell Rep ; 36(8): 109591, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370154

ABSTRACT

The relationship between B cells and CD4 T cells has been carefully studied, revealing a collaborative effort in which B cells promote the activation, differentiation, and expansion of CD4 T cells while the so-called "helper" cells provide signals to B cells, influencing their class switching and fate. Interactions between B cells and CD8 T cells are not as well studied, although CD8 T cells exhibit an accelerated contraction after certain infections in B-cell-deficient mice. Here, we find that B cells significantly enhance primary CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. Moreover, memory CD8 numbers and function are impaired in B-cell-deficient animals, leading to increased susceptibility to bacterial challenge. We also show that interleukin-27 production by B cells contributes to their impact on primary, but not memory, CD8 responses. Better understanding of the interactions between CD8 T cells and B cells may aid in the design of more effective future vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interleukin-27/immunology , Interleukin-27/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934093

ABSTRACT

Tissue injury and inflammatory response trigger the development of fibrosis in various diseases. It has been recognized that both innate and adaptive immune cells are important players with multifaceted functions in fibrogenesis. The activated immune cells produce various cytokines, modulate the differentiation and functions of myofibroblasts via diverse molecular mechanisms, and regulate fibrotic development. The immune cells exhibit differential functions during different stages of fibrotic diseases. In this review, we summarized recent advances in understanding the roles of immune cells in regulating fibrotic development and immune-based therapies in different disorders and discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms with a focus on mTOR and JAK-STAT signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Fibrosis/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Signal Transduction/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/therapy , Humans , Lymphopoiesis/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Myofibroblasts/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934090

ABSTRACT

Questions concerning the influences of nuclear receptors and their ligands on mammalian B cells are vast in number. Here, we briefly review the effects of nuclear receptor ligands, including estrogen and vitamins, on immunoglobulin production and protection from infectious diseases. We describe nuclear receptor interactions with the B cell genome and the potential mechanisms of gene regulation. Attention to the nuclear receptor/ligand regulation of B cell function may help optimize B cell responses, improve pathogen clearance, and prevent damaging responses toward inert- and self-antigens.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Receptors, Steroid/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulins/genetics , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Receptors, Steroid/genetics , Thyroid Hormones/genetics , Thyroid Hormones/immunology , Vitamin A/genetics , Vitamin A/immunology , Vitamin D/genetics , Vitamin D/immunology
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2204607119, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908385

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective at inducing protective immunity. However, weak antibody responses are seen in some individuals, and cellular correlates of immunity remain poorly defined, especially for B cells. Here we used unbiased approaches to longitudinally dissect primary antibody, plasmablast, and memory B cell (MBC) responses to the two-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-naive adults. Coordinated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses were preceded by bursts of spike-specific plasmablasts after both doses but earlier and more intensely after dose 2. While antibody and B cell cellular responses were generally robust, they also varied within the cohort and decreased over time after a dose-2 peak. Both antigen-nonspecific postvaccination plasmablast frequency after dose 1 and their spike-specific counterparts early after dose 2 correlated with subsequent antibody levels. This correlation between early plasmablasts and antibodies remained for titers measured at 6 months after vaccination. Several distinct antigen-specific MBC populations emerged postvaccination with varying kinetics, including two MBC populations that correlated with 2- and 6-month antibody titers. Both were IgG-expressing MBCs: one less mature, appearing as a correlate after the first dose, while the other MBC correlate showed a more mature and resting phenotype, emerging as a correlate later after dose 2. This latter MBC was also a major contributor to the sustained spike-specific MBC response observed at month 6. Thus, these plasmablasts and MBCs that emerged after both the first and second doses with distinct kinetics are potential determinants of the magnitude and durability of antibodies in response to mRNA-based vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 798813, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902970

ABSTRACT

A successful vaccination would represent the most efficient means to control the pandemic of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) that led to millions of deaths worldwide. Novel mRNA-based vaccines confer protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, but whether immunity is immediately effective and how long it will remain in recipients are uncertain. We sought to assess the effectiveness of a two-dose regimen since the boosts are often delayed concerning the recommended intervals. Methods: A longitudinal cohort of healthcare workers (HCW, N = 46; 30.4% men; 69.6% women; mean age 36.05 ± 2.2 years) with no SARS-CoV-2 infection as documented by negative polymerase chain reaction was immunophenotyped in PBMC once a week for 4 weeks from the prime immunization (Pfizer mRNA BNT162b2) and had received 2 doses, to study the kinetic response. Results: We identified three risk groups to develop SARS-CoV-2 infection IgG+-based (late responders, R-; early responders, R+; pauci responders, PR). In all receipts, amplification of B cells and NK cells, including IL4-producing B cells and IL4-producing CD8+ T cells, is early stimulated by the vaccine. After the boost, we observed a growing increase of NK cells but a resistance of T cells, IFNγ-producing CD4+T cells, and IFNγ-producing NK cells. Also, hematologic parameters decline until the boost. The positive association of IFNγ-producing NK with IFNγ-producing CD4+T cells by the multiple mixed-effect model, adjusted for confounders (p = 0.036) as well as the correlation matrix (r = 0.6, p < 0.01), suggests a relationship between these two subsets of lymphocytes. Conclusions: These findings introduce several concerns about policy delay in vaccination: based on immunological protection, B cells and the persistent increase of NK cells during 2 doses of the mRNA-based vaccine could provide further immune protection against the virus, while CD8+ T cells increased slightly only in the R+ and PR groups.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Interleukin-4/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Th1-Th2 Balance
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 876306, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865451

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic shows that vaccination strategies building on an ancestral viral strain need to be optimized for the control of potentially emerging viral variants. Therefore, aiming at strong B cell somatic hypermutation to increase antibody affinity to the ancestral strain - not only at high antibody titers - is a priority when utilizing vaccines that are not targeted at individual variants since high affinity may offer some flexibility to compensate for strain-individual mutations. Here, we developed a next-generation sequencing based SARS-CoV-2 B cell tracking protocol to rapidly determine the level of immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation at distinct points during the immunization period. The percentage of somatically hypermutated B cells in the SARS-CoV-2 specific repertoire was low after the primary vaccination series, evolved further over months and increased steeply after boosting. The third vaccination mobilized not only naïve, but also antigen-experienced B cell clones into further rapid somatic hypermutation trajectories indicating increased affinity. Together, the strongly mutated post-booster repertoires and antibodies deriving from this may explain why the third, but not the primary vaccination series, offers some protection against immune-escape variants such as Omicron B.1.1.529.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/methods , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
13.
J Infect Dis ; 226(4): 751-752, 2022 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816123
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 844837, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809397

ABSTRACT

In this work, we evaluated recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD)-based vaccine formulation prototypes with potential for further clinical development. We assessed different formulations containing RBD plus alum, AddaS03, AddaVax, or the combination of alum and U-Omp19: a novel Brucella spp. protease inhibitor vaccine adjuvant. Results show that the vaccine formulation composed of U-Omp19 and alum as adjuvants has a better performance: it significantly increased mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies in comparison to antigen plus alum, AddaVax, or AddaS03. Antibodies induced with the formulation containing U-Omp19 and alum not only increased their neutralization capacity against the ancestral virus but also cross-neutralized alpha, lambda, and gamma variants with similar potency. Furthermore, the addition of U-Omp19 to alum vaccine formulation increased the frequency of RBD-specific geminal center B cells and plasmablasts. Additionally, U-Omp19+alum formulation induced RBD-specific Th1 and CD8+ T-cell responses in spleens and lungs. Finally, this vaccine formulation conferred protection against an intranasal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) challenge of K18-hACE2 mice.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Brucella/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Alum Compounds/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/immunology , Brucella/immunology , Disease Resistance , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Immunity ; 55(3): 542-556.e5, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768197

ABSTRACT

Some patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19 suffer respiratory symptoms that persist for many months. We delineated the immune-proteomic landscape in the airways and peripheral blood of healthy controls and post-COVID-19 patients 3 to 6 months after hospital discharge. Post-COVID-19 patients showed abnormal airway (but not plasma) proteomes, with an elevated concentration of proteins associated with apoptosis, tissue repair, and epithelial injury versus healthy individuals. Increased numbers of cytotoxic lymphocytes were observed in individuals with greater airway dysfunction, while increased B cell numbers and altered monocyte subsets were associated with more widespread lung abnormalities. A one-year follow-up of some post-COVID-19 patients indicated that these abnormalities resolved over time. In summary, COVID-19 causes a prolonged change to the airway immune landscape in those with persistent lung disease, with evidence of cell death and tissue repair linked to the ongoing activation of cytotoxic T cells.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Respiration Disorders/immunology , Respiratory System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoproteins , Male , Middle Aged , Proteome , Respiration Disorders/etiology , Respiratory System/pathology
16.
J Immunol ; 208(7): 1711-1718, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760900

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had an unprecedented global impact on human health. Understanding the Ab memory responses to infection is one tool needed to effectively control the pandemic. Among 173 outpatients who had virologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we evaluated serum Ab concentrations, microneutralization activity, and enumerated SARS-CoV-2-specific B cells in convalescent human blood specimens. Serum Ab concentrations were variable, allowing for stratification of the cohort into high and low responders. Neither participant sex, the timing of blood sampling following the onset of illness, nor the number of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific B cells correlated with serum Ab concentration. Serum Ab concentration was positively associated with microneutralization activity and participant age, with participants under the age of 30 showing the lowest Ab level. These data suggest that young adult outpatients did not generate as robust Ab memory, compared with older adults. Body mass index was also positively correlated with serum Ab levels. Multivariate analyses showed that participant age and body mass index were independently associated with Ab levels. These findings have direct implications for public health policy and current vaccine efforts. Knowledge gained regarding Ab memory following infection will inform the need for vaccination in those previously infected and allow for a better approximation of population-wide protective immunity.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Antibody Formation , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0160021, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759291

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive study of the B cell response against SARS-CoV-2 could be significant for understanding the immune response and developing therapeutical antibodies and vaccines. To define the dynamics and characteristics of the antibody repertoire following SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analyzed the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) repertoires of 24 peripheral blood samples collected between 3 and 111 days after symptom onset from 10 COVID-19 patients. Massive clonal expansion of naive B cells with limited somatic hypermutation (SHM) was observed in the second week after symptom onset. The proportion of low-SHM IgG clones strongly correlated with spike-specific IgG antibody titers, highlighting the significant activation of naive B cells in response to a novel virus infection. The antibody isotype switching landscape showed a transient IgA surge in the first week after symptom onset, followed by a sustained IgG elevation that lasted for at least 3 months. SARS-CoV-2 infection elicited poly-germ line reactive antibody responses. Interestingly, 17 different IGHV germ line genes recombined with IGHJ6 showed significant clonal expansion. By comparing the IgH repertoires that we sequenced with the 774 reported SARS-CoV-2-reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 13 shared spike-specific IgH clusters were found. These shared spike-specific IgH clusters are derived from the same lineage of several recently published neutralizing MAbs, including CC12.1, CC12.3, C102, REGN10977, and 4A8. Furthermore, identical spike-specific IgH sequences were found in different COVID-19 patients, suggesting a highly convergent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. Our analysis based on sequencing antibody repertoires from different individuals revealed key signatures of the systemic B cell response induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Although the canonical delineation of serum antibody responses following SARS-CoV-2 infection has been well established, the dynamics of antibody repertoire at the mRNA transcriptional level has not been well understood, especially the correlation between serum antibody titers and the antibody mRNA transcripts. In this study, we analyzed the IgH transcripts and characterized the B cell clonal expansion and differentiation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation in COVID-19 patients. This study provided insights at the repertoire level for the B cell response after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 61, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758178

ABSTRACT

Variants are globally emerging very quickly following pandemic prototypic SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the cross-protection of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against its variants, we vaccinated rhesus monkeys with three doses of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, followed by challenging with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). These vaccinated animals produced neutralizing antibodies against Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants, although there were certain declinations of geometric mean titer (GMT) as compared with prototypic SARS-CoV-2. Of note, in vivo this prototypic vaccine not only reduced the viral loads in nasal, throat and anal swabs, pulmonary tissues, but also improved the pathological changes in the lung infected by variants of Alpha, Beta, and Delta. In summary, the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine in this study protected against VOCs to certain extension, which is of great significance for prevention and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Anal Canal/virology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Viral Load/drug effects
19.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100523, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751231

ABSTRACT

To understand the determinants of long-term immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the concurrent impact of vaccination and emerging variants, we follow a prospective cohort of 332 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) over more than a year after symptom onset. We evaluate plasma-neutralizing activity using HIV-based pseudoviruses expressing the spike of different SARS-CoV-2 variants and analyze them longitudinally using mixed-effects models. Long-term neutralizing activity is stable beyond 1 year after infection in mild/asymptomatic and hospitalized participants. However, longitudinal models suggest that hospitalized individuals generate both short- and long-lived memory B cells, while the responses of non-hospitalized individuals are dominated by long-lived B cells. In both groups, vaccination boosts responses to natural infection. Long-term (>300 days from infection) responses in unvaccinated participants show a reduced efficacy against beta, but not alpha nor delta, variants. Multivariate analysis identifies the severity of primary infection as an independent determinant of higher magnitude and lower relative cross-neutralization activity of long-term neutralizing responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/methods , Young Adult
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731785

ABSTRACT

Confirmed SARS-coronavirus-2 infection with gastrointestinal symptoms and changes in microbiota associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity have been previously reported, but the disease impact on the architecture and cellularity of ileal Peyer's patches (PP) remains unknown. Here we analysed post-mortem tissues from throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of patients who died with COVID-19. When virus was detected by PCR in the GI tract, immunohistochemistry identified virus in epithelium and lamina propria macrophages, but not in lymphoid tissues. Immunohistochemistry and imaging mass cytometry (IMC) analysis of ileal PP revealed depletion of germinal centres (GC), disruption of B cell/T cell zonation and decreased potential B and T cell interaction and lower nuclear density in COVID-19 patients. This occurred independent of the local viral levels. The changes in PP demonstrate that the ability to mount an intestinal immune response is compromised in severe COVID-19, which could contribute to observed dysbiosis.


Subject(s)
Atrophy/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Peyer's Patches/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Humans , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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