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1.
Cell Rep ; 38(2): 110235, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634873

ABSTRACT

We have analyzed BNT162b2 vaccine-induced immune responses in naive subjects and individuals recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), both soon after (14 days) and later after (almost 8 months) vaccination. Plasma spike (S)-specific immunoglobulins peak after one vaccine shot in individuals recovered from COVID-19, while a second dose is needed in naive subjects, although the latter group shows reduced levels all along the analyzed period. Despite how the neutralization capacity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mirrors this behavior early after vaccination, both groups show comparable neutralizing antibodies and S-specific B cell levels late post-vaccination. When studying cellular responses, naive individuals exhibit higher SARS-CoV-2-specific cytokine production, CD4+ T cell activation, and proliferation than do individuals recovered from COVID-19, with patent inverse correlations between humoral and cellular variables early post-vaccination. However, almost 8 months post-vaccination, SARS-CoV-2-specific responses are comparable between both groups. Our data indicate that a previous history of COVID-19 differentially determines the functional T and B cell-mediated responses to BNT162b2 vaccination over time.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells
2.
Cells ; 11(1)2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580993

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is an unprecedented epochal event on at least two fronts. Firstly, in terms of the rapid spread and the magnitude of the outbreak, and secondly, on account of the equally swift response of the scientific community that has galvanized itself into action and has successfully developed, tested and deployed highly effective and novel vaccines in record time to combat the virus. The sophistication and diversification of the scientific toolbox we now have at our disposal has enabled us to interrogate both the breadth and the depth of the immune response to a degree that is unparalleled in recent memory. In terms of our understanding of what is critical to contain the virus and mitigate the effects the pandemic, neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 garner most of the attention, however, it is essential to recognize that it is the quality and the fitness of the virus-specific T cell and B cell response that lays the foundation and the backdrop for an effective neutralizing antibody response. In this report, we will review some of the key findings that have helped define and delineate some of the essential attributes of T and B cell responses in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547941

ABSTRACT

The clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infections, which can range from asymptomatic to lethal, is crucially shaped by the concentration of antiviral antibodies and by their affinity to their targets. However, the affinity of polyclonal antibody responses in plasma is difficult to measure. Here we used microfluidic antibody affinity profiling (MAAP) to determine the aggregate affinities and concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in plasma samples of 42 seropositive individuals, 19 of which were healthy donors, 20 displayed mild symptoms, and 3 were critically ill. We found that dissociation constants, K d, of anti-receptor-binding domain antibodies spanned 2.5 orders of magnitude from sub-nanomolar to 43 nM. Using MAAP we found that antibodies of seropositive individuals induced the dissociation of pre-formed spike-ACE2 receptor complexes, which indicates that MAAP can be adapted as a complementary receptor competition assay. By comparison with cytopathic effect-based neutralisation assays, we show that MAAP can reliably predict the cellular neutralisation ability of sera, which may be an important consideration when selecting the most effective samples for therapeutic plasmapheresis and tracking the success of vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Microfluidics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/etiology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Surface Plasmon Resonance
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20738, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475484

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies that target SARS-CoV-2 with high affinity are valuable for a wide range of biomedical applications involving novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnosis, treatment, and prophylactic intervention. Strategies for the rapid and reliable isolation of these antibodies, especially potent neutralizing antibodies, are critical toward improved COVID-19 response and informed future response to emergent infectious diseases. In this study, single B cell screening was used to interrogate antibody repertoires of immunized mice and isolate antigen-specific IgG1+ memory B cells. Using these methods, high-affinity, potent neutralizing antibodies were identified that target the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2. Further engineering of the identified molecules to increase valency resulted in enhanced neutralizing activity. Mechanistic investigation revealed that these antibodies compete with ACE2 for binding to the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2. These antibodies may warrant further development for urgent COVID-19 applications. Overall, these results highlight the potential of single B cell screening for the rapid and reliable identification of high-affinity, potent neutralizing antibodies for infectious disease applications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites/immunology , Biological Products , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunologic Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines
6.
J Clin Invest ; 131(21)2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403157

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Little is known about the interplay between preexisting immunity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the development of a SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response. We investigated the kinetics, breadth, magnitude, and level of cross-reactivity of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and heterologous seasonal and epidemic coronaviruses at the clonal level in patients with mild or severe COVID-19 as well as in disease control patients. We assessed antibody reactivity to nucleocapsid and spike antigens and correlated this IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Patients with COVID-19 mounted a mostly type-specific SARS-CoV-2 response. Additionally, IgG clones directed against a seasonal coronavirus were boosted in patients with severe COVID-19. These boosted clones showed limited cross-reactivity and did not neutralize SARS-CoV-2. These findings indicate a boost of poorly protective CoV-specific antibodies in patients with COVID-19 that correlated with disease severity, revealing "original antigenic sin."


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Specificity , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 5057-5062, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Complete blood count parameters are frequently altered in COVID-19 patients. Leucopenia and lymphopenia are the most common findings. This is not specific to COVID-19 as similar alterations are found in various other viral infections. This work is intended to summarize the evidence regarding white blood cell and lymphocyte subset alterations in COVID-19 and their clinical implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted to identify relevant original studies. Articles not available in English or referring exclusively to pediatric patients were excluded. The study was designed as a narrative review from its inception. RESULTS: Complete white blood cell number and lymphocytes may be reduced in COVID-19 patients. Circulating CD4+ cells (helper T lymphocytes), CD8+ cells (cytotoxic T lymphocytes), regulatory T cells and natural killer (NK) cells may be reduced, with a greater reduction observed in critically ill patients. CD4+ and regulatory cell deficiencies may contribute to the cytokine storm and subsequent tissue damage observed in severe COVID-19 infection. NK and CD8+ cell deficiency might delay infection clearance. These aberrations of cellular immunity may contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of the disease. Alterations observed in monocyte function can also be implicated as they are effector cells responsible for tissue damage and remodeling. B cell dysfunction and maturation abnormalities have also been reported, suggesting that the virus also impairs humoral immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphocyte subset abnormalities may be useful prognostic biomarkers for COVID-19, with circulating CD8+ cell count being the most promising as a predictor of severe disease requiring mechanical ventilation and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology
8.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(6): 620-630, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263492

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection often causes severe complications and even death. However, asymptomatic infection has also been reported, highlighting the difference in immune responses among individuals. Here we performed single-cell chromatin accessibility and T cell-receptor analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from individuals convalescing from COVID-19 and healthy donors. Chromatin remodelling was observed in both innate and adaptive immune cells in the individuals convalescing from COVID-19. Compared with healthy donors, recovered individuals contained abundant TBET-enriched CD16+ and IRF1-enriched CD14+ monocytes with sequential trained and activated epigenomic states. The B-cell lineage in recovered individuals exhibited an accelerated developmental programme from immature B cells to antibody-producing plasma cells. Finally, an integrated analysis of single-cell T cell-receptor clonality with the chromatin accessibility landscape revealed the expansion of putative SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells with epigenomic profiles that promote the differentiation of effector or memory cells. Overall, our data suggest that immune cells of individuals convalescing from COVID-19 exhibit global remodelling of the chromatin accessibility landscape, indicative of the establishment of immunological memory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenomics , Genes, T-Cell Receptor , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Adaptive Immunity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Differentiation , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
9.
Mol Cells ; 44(6): 392-400, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249738

ABSTRACT

It has been more than a year since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first emerged. Many studies have provided insights into the various aspects of the immune response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Especially for antibody treatment and vaccine development, humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 has been studied extensively, though there is still much that is unknown and controversial. Here, we introduce key discoveries on the humoral immune responses in COVID-19, including the immune dynamics of antibody responses and correlations with disease severity, neutralizing antibodies and their cross-reactivity, how long the antibody and memory B-cell responses last, aberrant autoreactive antibodies generated in COVID-19 patients, and the efficacy of currently available therapeutic antibodies and vaccines against circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, and highlight gaps in the current knowledge.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunoglobulin A/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin M/biosynthesis , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232098

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive and accurate comparisons of transcriptomic distributions of cells from samples taken from two different biological states, such as healthy versus diseased individuals, are an emerging challenge in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis. Current methods for detecting differentially abundant (DA) subpopulations between samples rely heavily on initial clustering of all cells in both samples. Often, this clustering step is inadequate since the DA subpopulations may not align with a clear cluster structure, and important differences between the two biological states can be missed. Here, we introduce DA-seq, a targeted approach for identifying DA subpopulations not restricted to clusters. DA-seq is a multiscale method that quantifies a local DA measure for each cell, which is computed from its k nearest neighboring cells across a range of k values. Based on this measure, DA-seq delineates contiguous significant DA subpopulations in the transcriptomic space. We apply DA-seq to several scRNA-seq datasets and highlight its improved ability to detect differences between distinct phenotypes in severe versus mildly ill COVID-19 patients, melanomas subjected to immune checkpoint therapy comparing responders to nonresponders, embryonic development at two time points, and young versus aging brain tissue. DA-seq enabled us to detect differences between these phenotypes. Importantly, we find that DA-seq not only recovers the DA cell types as discovered in the original studies but also reveals additional DA subpopulations that were not described before. Analysis of these subpopulations yields biological insights that would otherwise be undetected using conventional computational approaches.


Subject(s)
Aging/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Lineage/genetics , Melanoma/genetics , RNA, Small Cytoplasmic/genetics , Skin Neoplasms/genetics , Aging/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , Brain/cytology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Lineage/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Datasets as Topic , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Melanoma/immunology , Melanoma/pathology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , Phenotype , RNA, Small Cytoplasmic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Skin Neoplasms/immunology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Transcriptome
11.
Cell ; 184(12): 3205-3221.e24, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201121

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a focus in vaccine and therapeutic design to counteract severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants. Here, we combined B cell sorting with single-cell VDJ and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and mAb structures to characterize B cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. We show that the SARS-CoV-2-specific B cell repertoire consists of transcriptionally distinct B cell populations with cells producing potently neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) localized in two clusters that resemble memory and activated B cells. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of selected nAbs from these two clusters complexed with SARS-CoV-2 spike trimers show recognition of various receptor-binding domain (RBD) epitopes. One of these mAbs, BG10-19, locks the spike trimer in a closed conformation to potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2, the recently arising mutants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, and SARS-CoV and cross-reacts with heterologous RBDs. Together, our results characterize transcriptional differences among SARS-CoV-2-specific B cells and uncover cross-neutralizing Ab targets that will inform immunogen and therapeutic design against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry , Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Multimerization , Protein Structure, Quaternary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 47-53, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incidence and severity of SARS-CoV2 infection are significantly lower in children and teenagers proposing that certain vaccines, routinely administered to neonates and children may provide cross-protection against this emerging infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-protection induced by prior measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccinations against COVID-19. METHODS: The antibody responses to MMR and tetanus vaccines were determined in 53 patients affected with SARS-CoV2 infection and 52 age-matched healthy subjects. Serum levels of antibodies specific for NP and RBD of SARS-CoV2 were also determined in both groups of subjects with ELISA. RESULTS: Our results revealed significant differences in anti-NP (P<0.0001) and anti-RBD (P<0.0001) IgG levels between patients and healthy controls. While the levels of rubella- and mumps specific IgG were not different in the two groups of subjects, measles-specific IgG was significantly higher in patients (P<0.01). The serum titer of anti-tetanus antibody, however, was significantly lower in patients compared to healthy individuals (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that measles vaccination triggers those B cells cross-reactive with SARS-CoV2 antigens leading to the production of increased levels of measles-specific antibody.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Middle Aged , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , Tetanus Toxoid/therapeutic use
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 636768, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156122

ABSTRACT

Understanding the causes of the diverse outcome of COVID-19 pandemic in different geographical locations is important for the worldwide vaccine implementation and pandemic control responses. We analyzed 42 unexposed healthy donors and 28 mild COVID-19 subjects up to 5 months from the recovery for SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory. Using HLA class II predicted peptide megapools, we identified SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive CD4+ T cells in around 66% of the unexposed individuals. Moreover, we found detectable immune memory in mild COVID-19 patients several months after recovery in the crucial arms of protective adaptive immunity; CD4+ T cells and B cells, with a minimal contribution from CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, the persistent immune memory in COVID-19 patients is predominantly targeted towards the Spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2. This study provides the evidence of both high magnitude pre-existing and persistent immune memory in Indian population. By providing the knowledge on cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, our work has implication for the development and implementation of vaccines against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/virology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(4): 504-507, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983835

ABSTRACT

A novel STING agonist, CDGSF, ipsilaterally modified with phosphorothioate and fluorine, was synthesized. The phosphorothioate in CDGSF might be a site for covalent conjugation. Injection of CDGSF generated an immunogenic ("hot") tumor microenvironment to suppress melanoma, more efficiently than dithio CDG. In particular, immunization with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using CDGSF as an adjuvant elicited an exceptionally high antibody titer and a robust T cell response, overcoming the drawbacks of aluminum hydroxide. These results highlighted the therapeutic potential of CDGSF for cancer immunotherapy and the adjuvant potential of the STING agonist in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for the first time.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Melanoma, Experimental/drug therapy , Membrane Proteins/agonists , Nucleotides, Cyclic/administration & dosage , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemical synthesis , Aluminum Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Aluminum Hydroxide/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Melanoma, Experimental/immunology , Melanoma, Experimental/mortality , Melanoma, Experimental/pathology , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Mice , Nucleotides, Cyclic/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin Neoplasms/immunology , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survival Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Tumor Burden/drug effects , Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Vaccination/methods
15.
Sci Immunol ; 5(54)2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961006
17.
Bioessays ; 43(3): e2000200, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917077

ABSTRACT

As the number of infections and mortalities from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to rise, the development of an effective therapy against COVID-19 becomes ever more urgent. A few reports showing a positive correlation between BCG vaccination and reduced COVID-19 mortality have ushered in some hope. BCG has been suggested to confer a broad level of nonspecific protection against several pathogens, mainly via eliciting "trained immunity" in innate immune cells. Secondly, BCG has also been proven to provide benefits in autoimmune diseases by inducing tolerogenicity. Being an acute inflammatory disease, COVID-19 requires a therapy that induces early priming of anti-viral immune responses and regulates aberrant hyperactivity of innate-immune cells. Here, we hypothesize that BCG can offer reliable spatiotemporal protection from COVID-19 by triggering trained immunity and tolerogenesis, through multiple cellular pathways. We propose further research on BCG-mediated immunoprotection, especially in vulnerable individuals, as a strategy to halt the progress of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Also see the video abstract here https://youtu.be/P2D2RXfq6Vg.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Immune Tolerance/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunologic Memory/drug effects , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/immunology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology , Vaccination/methods
18.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(1): e13443, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To reveal detailed histopathological changes, virus distributions, immunologic properties and multi-omic features caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the explanted lungs from the world's first successful lung transplantation of a COVID-19 patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 samples were collected from the lungs. Histopathological features and virus distribution were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Immune cells were detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Transcriptome and proteome approaches were used to investigate main biological processes involved in COVID-19-associated pulmonary fibrosis. RESULTS: The histopathological changes of the lung tissues were characterized by extensive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and haemorrhage. Viral particles were observed in the cytoplasm of macrophages. CD3+ CD4- T cells, neutrophils, NK cells, γ/δ T cells and monocytes, but not B cells, were abundant in the lungs. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines iNOS, IL-1ß and IL-6 were in the area of mild fibrosis. Multi-omics analyses revealed a total of 126 out of 20,356 significant different transcription and 114 out of 8,493 protein expression in lung samples with mild and severe fibrosis, most of which were related to fibrosis and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide novel insight that the significant neutrophil/ CD3+ CD4- T cell/ macrophage activation leads to cytokine storm and severe fibrosis in the lungs of COVID-19 patient and may contribute to a better understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Lung Transplantation , Lung/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/ultrastructure , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/surgery , Chromatography, Liquid , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/ultrastructure , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/ultrastructure , Lung/virology , Lymph Nodes/metabolism , Lymph Nodes/ultrastructure , Lymph Nodes/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/ultrastructure , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/pathology , Monocytes/ultrastructure , Monocytes/virology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/ultrastructure , Neutrophils/virology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Proteomics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/surgery , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/ultrastructure , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
20.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797957

ABSTRACT

The high susceptibility of humans to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reflects the novelty of the virus and limited preexisting B cell immunity. IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, which carries the novel receptor binding domain (RBD), is absent or at low levels in unexposed individuals. To better understand the B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we asked whether virus-reactive memory B cells (MBCs) were present in unexposed subjects and whether MBC generation accompanied virus-specific IgG production in infected subjects. We analyzed sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from non-SARS-CoV-2-exposed healthy donors and COVID-19 convalescent subjects. Serum IgG levels specific for SARS-CoV-2 proteins (S, including the RBD and S2 subunit, and nucleocapsid [N]) and non-SARS-CoV-2 proteins were related to measurements of circulating IgG MBC levels. Anti-RBD IgG was absent in unexposed subjects. Most unexposed subjects had anti-S2 IgG, and a minority had anti-N IgG, but IgG MBCs with these specificities were not detected, perhaps reflecting low frequencies. Convalescent subjects had high levels of IgG against the RBD, S2, and N, together with large populations of RBD- and S2-reactive IgG MBCs. Notably, IgG titers against the S protein of the human coronavirus OC43 were higher in convalescent subjects than in unexposed subjects and correlated strongly with anti-S2 titers. Our findings indicate cross-reactive B cell responses against the S2 subunit that might enhance broad coronavirus protection. Importantly, our demonstration of MBC induction by SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that a durable form of B cell immunity is maintained even if circulating antibody levels wane.IMPORTANCE The recent rapid worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 has established a pandemic of potentially serious disease in the highly susceptible human population. Key issues are whether humans have preexisting immune memory that provides some protection against SARS-CoV-2 and whether SARS-CoV-2 infection generates lasting immune protection against reinfection. Our analysis focused on pre- and postinfection IgG and IgG memory B cells (MBCs) reactive to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Most importantly, we demonstrate that infection generates both IgG and IgG MBCs against the novel receptor binding domain and the conserved S2 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Thus, even if antibody levels wane, long-lived MBCs remain to mediate rapid antibody production. Our study results also suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection strengthens preexisting broad coronavirus protection through S2-reactive antibody and MBC formation.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Convalescence , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cross Reactions , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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