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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(3)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1617035

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 remains a stark health threat worldwide, in part because of minimal levels of targeted vaccination outside high-income countries and highly transmissible variants causing infection in vaccinated individuals. Decades of theoretical and experimental data suggest that nonspecific effects of non-COVID-19 vaccines may help bolster population immunological resilience to new pathogens. These routine vaccinations can stimulate heterologous cross-protective effects, which modulate nontargeted infections. For example, immunization with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, inactivated influenza vaccine, oral polio vaccine, and other vaccines have been associated with some protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and amelioration of COVID-19 disease. If heterologous vaccine interventions (HVIs) are to be seriously considered by policy makers as bridging or boosting interventions in pandemic settings to augment nonpharmaceutical interventions and specific vaccination efforts, evidence is needed to determine their optimal implementation. Using the COVID-19 International Modeling Consortium mathematical model, we show that logistically realistic HVIs with low (5 to 15%) effectiveness could have reduced COVID-19 cases, hospitalization, and mortality in the United States fall/winter 2020 wave. Similar to other mass drug administration campaigns (e.g., for malaria), HVI impact is highly dependent on both age targeting and intervention timing in relation to incidence, with maximal benefit accruing from implementation across the widest age cohort when the pandemic reproduction number is >1.0. Optimal HVI logistics therefore differ from optimal rollout parameters for specific COVID-19 immunizations. These results may be generalizable beyond COVID-19 and the US to indicate how even minimally effective heterologous immunization campaigns could reduce the burden of future viral pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seasons , Vaccination/methods , Algorithms , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1590-1597, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trials of BCG vaccination to prevent or reduce severity of COVID-19 are taking place in adults, some of whom have been previously vaccinated, but evidence of the beneficial, non-specific effects of BCG come largely from data on mortality in infants and young children, and from in-vitro and animal studies, after a first BCG vaccination. We assess all-cause mortality following a large BCG revaccination trial in Malawi. METHODS: The Karonga Prevention trial was a population-based, double-blind, randomised controlled in Karonga District, northern Malawi, that enrolled participants between January, 1986, and November, 1989. The trial compared BCG (Glaxo-strain) revaccination versus placebo to prevent tuberculosis and leprosy. 46 889 individuals aged 3 months to 75 years were randomly assigned to receive BCG revaccination (n=23 528) or placebo (n=23 361). Here we report mortality since vaccination as recorded during active follow-up in northern areas of the district in 1991-94, and in a demographic surveillance follow-up in the southern area in 2002-18. 7389 individuals who received BCG (n=3746) or placebo (n=3643) lived in the northern follow-up areas, and 5616 individuals who received BCG (n=2798) or placebo (n=2818) lived in the southern area. Year of death or leaving the area were recorded for those not found. We used survival analysis to estimate all-cause mortality. FINDINGS: Follow-up information was available for 3709 (99·0%) BCG recipients and 3612 (99·1%) placebo recipients in the northern areas, and 2449 (87·5%) BCG recipients and 2413 (85·6%) placebo recipients in the southern area. There was no difference in mortality between the BCG and placebo groups in either area, overall or by age group or sex. In the northern area, there were 129 deaths per 19 694 person-years at risk in the BCG group (6·6 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·5-7·8]) versus 133 deaths per 19 111 person-years at risk in the placebo group (7·0 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·9-8·2]; HR 0·94 [95% CI 0·74-1·20]; p=0·62). In the southern area, there were 241 deaths per 38 399 person-years at risk in the BCG group (6·3 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·5-7·1]) versus 230 deaths per 38 676 person-years at risk in the placebo group (5·9 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·2-6·8]; HR 1·06 [95% CI 0·88-1·27]; p=0·54). INTERPRETATION: We found little evidence of any beneficial effect of BCG revaccination on all-cause mortality. The high proportion of deaths attributable to non-infectious causes beyond infancy, and the long time interval since BCG for most deaths, might obscure any benefits. FUNDING: British Leprosy Relief Association (LEPRA); Wellcome Trust.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Vaccination/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Double-Blind Method , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Leprosy/immunology , Leprosy/mortality , Leprosy/prevention & control , Malawi/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/mortality , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Virology ; 565: 73-81, 2022 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545481

ABSTRACT

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is currently used to prevent tuberculosis infection. The vaccine was found to enhance resistance to certain types of infection including positive sense RNA viruses. The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by positive sense RNA, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A higher mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was reported in countries where BCG vaccination is not routinely administered, when compared to the vaccinated ones. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine may control SARS-CoV2 infection via modulating the monocyte immune response. We analyzed GSE104149 dataset to investigate whether human monocytes of BCG-vaccinated individuals acquire resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Differentially expressed genes obtained from the dataset were used to determine enriched pathways, biological processes, and molecular functions for monocytes post BCG vaccination. Our data show that BCG vaccine promotes a more effective immune response of monocytes against SARS-CoV2, but probably not sufficient to prevent the infection.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Inflammation , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523881

ABSTRACT

The production of specific neutralizing antibodies by individuals is thought to be the best option for reducing the number of patients with severe COVID-19, which is the reason why multiple vaccines are currently being administered worldwide. We aimed to explore the effect of revaccination with BCG, on the response to a subsequent anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, in persons occupationally exposed to COVID-19 patients. Two groups of 30 randomized participants were selected: one group received a BCG revaccination, and the other group received a placebo. Subsequently, both groups were vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. After each round of vaccination, the serum concentration of Th1/Th2 cytokines was determined. At the end of the protocol, neutralizing antibodies were determined and the HLA-DRB loci were genotyped. The participants from the BCG group and anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine group had increased serum cytokine concentrations (i.e., IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-18, GM-CSF, INF-γ, and TNF-α) and higher neutralizing antibody titers, compared to the group with Placebo-anti-SARS-CoV-2. Twelve HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified in the Placebo-anti-SARS-CoV-2 group, and only nine in the group revaccinated with BCG. The DRB1*04 allele exhibited increased frequency in the Placebo-anti-SARS-CoV-2 group; however, no confounding effects were found with this allele. We conclude that revaccination with BCG synergizes with subsequent vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in occupationally exposed personnel.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Genotype , HLA Antigens/genetics , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Vaccination
6.
Pharmazie ; 75(8): 375-380, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435671

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for COVID-19 complications as it is one of the chronic immune-compromising conditions especially if patients have uncontrolled diabetes, poor HbA1c and/or irregular blood glucose levels. Diabetic patients' mortality rates with COVID-19 are higher than those of cardiovascular or cancer patients. Recently, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has shown successful results in reversing diabetes in both rats and clinical trials based on different mechanisms from aerobic glycolysis to beta cells regeneration. BCG is a multi-face vaccine that has been used extensively in protection from tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy and has been repositioned for treatment of bladder cancer, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Recently, COVID-19 epidemiological studies confirmed that universal BCG vaccination reduced morbidity and mortality in certain geographical areas. Countries without universal policies of BCG vaccination (Italy, Nederland, USA) have been more severely affected compared to countries with universal and long-standing BCG policies that have shown low numbers of reported COVID-19 cases. Some countries have started clinical trials that included a single dose BCG vaccine as prophylaxis from COVID-19 or an attempt to minimize its side effects. This proposed research aims to use BCG vaccine as a double-edged weapon countering both COVID-19 and diabetes, not only as protection but also as therapeutic vaccination. The work includes a case study of regenerated pancreatic beta cells based on improved C-peptide and PCPRI laboratory findings after BCG vaccination for a 9 year old patient. The patient was re-vaccinated based on a negative tuberculin test and no scar at the site of injection of the 1st BCG vaccination at birth. The authors suggest and invite the scientific community to take into consideration the concept of direct BCG re-vaccination (after 4 weeks) because of the reported gene expressions and exaggerated innate immunity consequently. As the diabetic MODY-5 patient (mutation of HNF1B, Val2Leu) was on low dose Riomet® while eliminating insulin gradually, a simple analytical method for metformin assay was recommended to ensure its concentration before use as it is not approved yet by the Egyptian QC labs.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Rats , Regeneration/immunology , Risk Factors , Vaccination/methods
8.
Sci Adv ; 7(32)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343935

ABSTRACT

We investigated the influence of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination on the unstimulated plasma levels of a wide panel of cytokines, chemokines, acute-phase proteins (APPs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and growth factors in a group of healthy elderly individuals (age, 60 to 80 years) at baseline (before vaccination) and 1 month after vaccination as part of our clinical study to examine the effect of BCG on COVID-19. Our results demonstrated that BCG vaccination resulted in diminished plasma levels of types 1, 2, and 17 and other proinflammatory cytokines and type 1 interferons. BCG vaccination also resulted in decreased plasma levels of CC, CXC chemokines, APPs, MMPs, and growth factors. Plasma levels of the aforementioned parameters were significantly lower in vaccinated individuals when compared to unvaccinated control individuals. Thus, our study demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties of BCG vaccination and suggests its potential utility in nonspecific vaccination of COVID-19 by down-modulating pathogenic inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/prevention & control , Vaccination/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Viral Immunol ; 34(5): 300-306, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343606

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic in 2020. The pathogen responsible for the COVID-19 has been found to be coronavirus (2019-nCoV) with human transmission through droplets, airway secretions, and even direct contact with host. Currently multiple drugs and their combinations are being tried for the treatment of the COVID-19 disease, but none approved. In absence of definitive and approved treatment, it is imperative that prevention of COVID-19 infection is of utmost importance. For the same, face masks, hand hygiene, isolation, and quarantine are being practiced all over the world. However much successful these methods be, they cannot be used for a very long time. Thus, it becomes necessary that a vaccine be developed for the disease so that the further spread could be halted. Some reports suggest the use of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine as the prophylaxis for coronavirus. BCG vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine, used for prophylaxis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is present in the essential list of the World Health Organization as well as immunization programs of many countries. Immunostimulatory antiviral effects of BCG vaccine are well known. At present, there are no published evidence available to support the use of BCG vaccine for the prevention of coronavirus infection. However, there have been speculations on enhanced immunity with BCG vaccine, which might be useful in prevention of coronavirus infection. Results from the clinical studies of BCG vaccine in vulnerable population are required to confirm this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Vaccination
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009635, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Protective effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and clofazimine and dapsone treatment against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported. Patients at risk for leprosy represent an interesting model for assessing the effects of these therapies on the occurrence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed the influence of leprosy-related variables in the occurrence and severity of COVID-19. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a 14-month prospective real-world cohort study in which the main risk factor was 2 previous vaccinations with BCG and the main outcome was COVID-19 detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A Cox proportional hazards model was used. Among the 406 included patients, 113 were diagnosed with leprosy. During follow-up, 69 (16.99%) patients contracted COVID-19. Survival analysis showed that leprosy was associated with COVID-19 (p<0.001), but multivariate analysis showed that only COVID-19-positive household contacts (hazard ratio (HR) = 8.04; 95% CI = 4.93-13.11) and diabetes mellitus (HR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.04-4.06) were significant risk factors for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leprosy patients are vulnerable to COVID-19 because they have more frequent contact with SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, possibly due to social and economic limitations. Our model showed that the use of corticosteroids, thalidomide, pentoxifylline, clofazimine, or dapsone or BCG vaccination did not affect the occurrence or severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/epidemiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Humans , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Thalidomide/therapeutic use
11.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(7): 857-880, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254221

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread worldwide and vaccination remains the most effective approach to control COVID-19. Currently, at least ten COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized under emergency authorization. However, these vaccines still face many challenges.Areas covered: This study reviews the concept and mechanisms of trained immunity induced by the Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine and identifies questions that should be answered before the BCG vaccine could be used to combat COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, we present for the first time the details of current BCG vaccine clinical trials, which are underway in various countries, to assess its effectiveness in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we discuss the challenges of COVID-19 vaccines and opportunities for the BCG vaccine. The literature was found by searching the PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), Web of Science (www.webofknowledge.com), Embase (https://www.embase.com), and CNKI (https://www.cnki.net/) databases. The date was set as the default parameter for each database.Expert opinion: The advantages of the BCG vaccine can compensate for the shortcomings of other COVID-19 vaccines. If the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against COVID-19 is confirmed by these clinical trials, the BCG vaccine may be essential to resolve the challenges faced by COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Pandemics
12.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 38(3): 150-161, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231595

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 had already killed more than 400,000 patients around the world according to data on 7 June 2020. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is developed from live-attenuated Mycobacterium bovis, which is a microorganism found in a cow. Discovered by Dr. Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin since 1921, the BCG has served as a protection against tuberculosis and its complications. It is noticeable that countries which use mandatory BCG vaccination approach had lower COVID-19 infection and death rate. Current review aims to clarify this issue through epidemiological illustration of correlation between national BCG immunization and COVID-19 mortality, in addition to biological background of BCG-induced immunity Epidemiological data shows that universal BCG policy countries have lower median mortality rate compare to countries with past universal BCG policy and non-mass immunization BCG. (18 May 2020). Still, the links between BCG vaccination and better COVID-19 situation in certain countries are unclear, and more data on actual infection rate using SAR-CoV-2 antibody testing in large population sample is crucial for disease spreading comparison. Two immunological mechanisms, heterologous effects of adaptive immunity and trained innate immunity which induced by BCG vaccination, may explain host tolerance against COVID-19 infection, however, there is no direct evidence to support this biological background. Clinical trials related to BCG vaccination against COVID-19 are under investigation. Without a strong evidence, BCG must not be recommended for COVID-19 prevention, although, this should not be absolute contraindication. Risk of local and systemic complications from the vaccine should be informed to individual, who request BCG immunization.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adaptive Immunity , BCG Vaccine/adverse effects , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/immunology
13.
Immunol Rev ; 301(1): 98-121, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218116

ABSTRACT

BCG turns 100 this year and while it might not be the perfect vaccine, it has certainly contributed significantly towards eradication and prevention of spread of tuberculosis (TB). The search for newer and better vaccines for TB is an ongoing endeavor and latest results from trials of candidate TB vaccines such as M72AS01 look promising. However, recent encouraging data from BCG revaccination trials in adults combined with studies on mucosal and intravenous routes of BCG vaccination in non-human primate models have renewed interest in BCG for TB prevention. In addition, several well-demonstrated non-specific effects of BCG, for example, prevention of viral and respiratory infections, give BCG an added advantage. Also, BCG vaccination is currently being widely tested in human clinical trials to determine whether it protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or death with detailed analyses and outcomes from several ongoing trials across the world awaited. Through this review, we attempt to bring together information on various aspects of the BCG-induced immune response, its efficacy in TB control, comparison with other candidate TB vaccines and strategies to improve its efficiency including revaccination and alternate routes of administration. Finally, we discuss the future relevance of BCG use especially in light of its several heterologous benefits.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Vaccination , Adaptive Immunity , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunity, Innate , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory
14.
BMC Urol ; 21(1): 50, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159540

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To establish the role of BCG instillations in the incidence and mortality of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: NMIBC patients in instillations with BCG (induction or maintenance) during 2019/2020 were included, establishing a COVID-19 group (with a diagnosis according to the national registry) and a control group (NO-COVID). The cumulative incidence (cases/total patients) and the case fatality rate (deaths/cases) were established, and compared with the national statistics for the same age group. T-test was used for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. RESULTS: 175 patients were included. Eleven patients presented CIS (11/175, 6.3%), 84/175 (48.0%) Ta and 68/175 (38.9%) T1. Average number of instillations = 13.25 ± 7.4. One hundred sixty-seven patients (95.4%) had complete induction. Forty-three patients (cumulative incidence 24.6%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. There is no difference between COVID-19 and NO-COVID group in age, gender or proportion of maintenance completed. COVID-19 group fatality rate = 1/43 (2.3%). Accumulated Chilean incidence 70-79 years = 6.3%. Chilean fatality rate 70-79 years = 14%. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, patients with NMIBC submitted to instillations with BCG have a lower case-fatality rate than the national registry of patients between 70 and 79 years (2.3% vs. 14%, respectively). Intravesical BCG could decrease the mortality due to COVID-19, so instillation schemes should not be suspended in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy , Administration, Intravesical , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Chile , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 632478, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150690

ABSTRACT

Despite of the rapid development of the vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it will take several months to have enough doses and the proper infrastructure to vaccinate a good proportion of the world population. In this interim, the accessibility to the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) may mitigate the pandemic impact in some countries and the BCG vaccine offers significant advantages and flexibility in the way clinical vaccines are administered. BCG vaccination is a highly cost-effective intervention against tuberculosis (TB) and many low-and lower-middle-income countries would likely have the infrastructure, and health care personnel sufficiently familiar with the conventional TB vaccine to mount full-scale efforts to administer novel BCG-based vaccine for COVID-19. This suggests the potential for BCG to overcome future barriers to vaccine roll-out in the countries where health systems are fragile and where the effects of this new coronavirus could be catastrophic. Many studies have reported cross-protective effects of the BCG vaccine toward non-tuberculosis related diseases. Mechanistically, this cross-protective effect of the BCG vaccine can be explained, in part, by trained immunity, a recently discovered program of innate immune memory, which is characterized by non-permanent epigenetic reprogramming of macrophages that leads to increased inflammatory cytokine production and consequently potent immune responses. In this review, we summarize recent work highlighting the potential use of BCG for the treatment respiratory infectious diseases and ongoing SARS-CoV-2 clinical trials. In situations where no other specific prophylactic tools are available, the BCG vaccine could be used as a potential adjuvant, to decrease sickness of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or to mitigate the effects of concurrent respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Animals , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
16.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148288

ABSTRACT

Vaccine design traditionally focuses on inducing adaptive immune responses against a sole target pathogen. Considering that many microbes evade innate immune mechanisms to initiate infection, and in light of the discovery of epigenetically mediated innate immune training, the paradigm of vaccine design has the potential to change. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine induces some level of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) while stimulating trained immunity that correlates with lower mortality and increased protection against unrelated pathogens. This review will explore BCG-induced trained immunity, including the required pathways to establish this phenotype. Additionally, potential methods to improve or expand BCG trained immunity effects through alternative vaccine delivery and formulation methods will be discussed. Finally, advances in new anti-Mtb vaccines, other antimicrobial uses for BCG, and "innate memory-based vaccines" will be examined.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epigenesis, Genetic/drug effects , Myeloid Cells/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine/immunology , Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Protection , Epigenesis, Genetic/immunology , Histones/genetics , Histones/immunology , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/pathology , Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/genetics , Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/immunology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/immunology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/immunology , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e75, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147817

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether countries with higher coverage of childhood live vaccines [BCG or measles-containing-vaccine (MCV)] have reduced risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality, while accounting for known systems differences between countries. In this ecological study of 140 countries using publicly available national-level data, higher vaccine coverage, representing estimated proportion of people vaccinated during the last 14 years, was associated with lower COVID-19 deaths. The associations attenuated for both vaccine variables, and MCV coverage became no longer significant once adjusted for published estimates of the Healthcare access and quality index (HAQI), a validated summary score of healthcare quality indicators. The magnitude of association between BCG coverage and COVID-19 death rate varied according to HAQI, and MCV coverage had little effect on the association between BCG and COVID-19 deaths. While there are associations between live vaccine coverage and COVID-19 outcomes, the vaccine coverage variables themselves were strongly correlated with COVID-19 testing rate, HAQI and life expectancy. This suggests that the population-level associations may be further confounded by differences in structural health systems and policies. Cluster randomised studies of booster vaccines would be ideal to evaluate the efficacy of trained immunity in preventing COVID-19 infections and mortality in vaccinated populations and on community transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/standards , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Linear Models , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles Vaccine/immunology , Quality of Health Care/standards , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data
18.
Vaccine ; 39(15): 2017-2019, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142292

ABSTRACT

There is significant public and clinical interest in the potential for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination to protect against type 2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) induced COVID-19. This question could be best answered by blinded and placebo controlled clinical trials. However, a skin reaction occurs within days at the site of BCG injection, making it rather challenging to blind this vaccination. Here, we examined registered clinical trials in ClinicalTrials.gov on BCG against COVID-19 by October 9th 2020, and found that 94.7% of such trials were listed as placebo controlled (all with normal saline as placebo), and single to quadruple blinded. The mode of overcoming the natural unblinding by the BCG induced skin reaction was not clarified on the website in either of the trials. We conclude that detailed description of the strategy towards overcoming the BCG vaccination induced skin reaction associated unblinding hurdle will be important for the interpretation of the theoretically blinded COVID-19 directed clinical trials.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Research Design , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Single-Blind Method , Vaccination
19.
Public Health ; 194: 33-35, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117519

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, it is known that a substantial percentage of the adult population does not become infected when exposed to this novel coronavirus. Several studies provide an initial indication of the possible role of pre-existing immunity, whether cross-immunity or not. The possible role of latent tuberculosis (TB) and malaria has been suggested to create innate cross heterogeneous immunity. In this study, we looked for the influence of these factors on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality in malaria-endemic countries. STUDY DESIGN: Eighty malaria-endemic countries were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Data subjected to testing included TB prevalence, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine coverage, malaria incidence, and COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: Hierarchical multiple regression type of analysis was used for data analyses. TB prevalence per 100,000 population standardized to BCG coverage rates was taken as a direct factor in the test. Malaria incidence per 1000 population was considered an intermediate factor. The outcome was COVID-19 mortality per million population. RESULTS: The results showed with robust statistical support that standardized TB prevalence was significantly associated with reduced COVID-19 mortality. Malaria had an additional effect in reducing COVID-19 mortality, with a highly significant association. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria and standardized TB prevalence are statistically significant factors associated negatively with COVID-19 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Endemic Diseases , Malaria/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Prevalence , Protective Factors , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
20.
J Infect Dis ; 223(2): 189-191, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101844

ABSTRACT

Developers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines should consider some of the lessons from a "new" vaccine introduced in 1921, namely bacille Calmette-Guérin.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
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