Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 161
Filter
3.
N Engl J Med ; 388(7): 621-634, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are urgently needed in young children. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 dose-finding study and are conducting an ongoing phase 2-3 safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy trial of the BNT162b2 vaccine in healthy children 6 months to 11 years of age. We present results for children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and those 2 to 4 years of age through the data-cutoff dates (April 29, 2022, for safety and immunogenicity and June 17, 2022, for efficacy). In the phase 2-3 trial, participants were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) to receive two 3-µg doses of BNT162b2 or placebo. On the basis of preliminary immunogenicity results, a third 3-µg dose (≥8 weeks after dose 2) was administered starting in January 2022, which coincided with the emergence of the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant. Immune responses at 1 month after doses 2 and 3 in children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and those 2 to 4 years of age were immunologically bridged to responses after dose 2 in persons 16 to 25 years of age who received 30 µg of BNT162b2 in the pivotal trial. RESULTS: During the phase 1 dose-finding study, two doses of BNT162b2 were administered 21 days apart to 16 children 6 months to less than 2 years of age (3-µg dose) and 48 children 2 to 4 years of age (3-µg or 10-µg dose). The 3-µg dose level was selected for the phase 2-3 trial; 1178 children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and 1835 children 2 to 4 years of age received BNT162b2, and 598 and 915, respectively, received placebo. Immunobridging success criteria for the geometric mean ratio and seroresponse at 1 month after dose 3 were met in both age groups. BNT162b2 reactogenicity events were mostly mild to moderate, with no grade 4 events. Low, similar incidences of fever were reported after receipt of BNT162b2 (7% among children 6 months to <2 years of age and 5% among those 2 to 4 years of age) and placebo (6 to 7% among children 6 months to <2 years of age and 4 to 5% among those 2 to 4 years of age). The observed overall vaccine efficacy against symptomatic Covid-19 in children 6 months to 4 years of age was 73.2% (95% confidence interval, 43.8 to 87.6) from 7 days after dose 3 (on the basis of 34 cases). CONCLUSIONS: A three-dose primary series of 3-µg BNT162b2 was safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in children 6 months to 4 years of age. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04816643.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Young Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Treatment Outcome , Vaccine Efficacy
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 796482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123406

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination campaign to contrast the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised the issue of vaccine immunogenicity in special populations such as people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) on highly effective disease modifying treatments (DMTs). While humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have been well characterized in the general population and in PwMS, very little is known about cell-mediated responses in conferring protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Methods: PwMS on ocrelizumab, fingolimod or natalizumab, vaccinated with two doses of mRNABNT162b2 (Comirnaty®) vaccine were enrolled. Anti-Spike (S) and anti-Nucleoprotein (N) antibody titers, IFN-gamma production upon S and N peptide libraries stimulation, peripheral blood lymphocyte absolute counts were assessed after at least 1 month and within 4 months from vaccine second dose administration. A group of age and sex matched healthy donors (HD) were included as reference group. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 8.2.1. Results: Thirty PwMS and 9 HDs were enrolled. All the patients were negative for anti-N antibody detection, nor reported previous symptoms of COVID-19. Peripheral blood lymphocyte counts were assessed in PwMS showing: (i) reduction of circulating B-lymphocytes in PwMS on ocrelizumab; (ii) reduction of peripheral blood B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts in PwMS on fingolimod and (iii) normal B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts with an increase in circulating CD16+CD56+ NK-cells in PwMS on natalizumab. Three patterns of immunological responses were identified in PwMS. In patients on ocrelizumab, anti-S antibody were lacking or reduced, while T-cell responses were normal. In patients on fingolimod both anti-S titers and T-cell mediated responses were impaired. In patients on natalizumab both anti-S titers and T-cell responses were present and comparable to those observed in HD. Conclusions: The evaluation of T-cell responses, anti-S titers and peripheral blood lymphocyte absolute count in PwMS on DMTs can help to better characterize the immunological response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The evaluation of T-cell responses in longitudinal cohorts of PwMS will help to clarify their protective role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19. The correlation between DMT treatment and immunological responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines could help to better evaluate vaccination strategies in PwMS.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy
5.
N Engl J Med ; 387(20): 1865-1876, 2022 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has been authorized for use in children 5 to 11 years of age and adolescents 12 to 17 years of age but in different antigen doses. METHODS: We assessed the real-world effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine against infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children and adolescents in Qatar. To compare the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the national cohort of vaccinated participants with the incidence in the national cohort of unvaccinated participants, we conducted three matched, retrospective, target-trial, cohort studies - one assessing data obtained from children 5 to 11 years of age after the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant became prevalent and two assessing data from adolescents 12 to 17 years of age before the emergence of the omicron variant (pre-omicron study) and after the omicron variant became prevalent. Associations were estimated with the use of Cox proportional-hazards regression models. RESULTS: Among children, the overall effectiveness of the 10-µg primary vaccine series against infection with the omicron variant was 25.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0 to 38.6). Effectiveness was highest (49.6%; 95% CI, 28.5 to 64.5) right after receipt of the second dose but waned rapidly thereafter and was negligible after 3 months. Effectiveness was 46.3% (95% CI, 21.5 to 63.3) among children 5 to 7 years of age and 16.6% (95% CI, -4.2 to 33.2) among those 8 to 11 years of age. Among adolescents, the overall effectiveness of the 30-µg primary vaccine series against infection with the omicron variant was 30.6% (95% CI, 26.9 to 34.1), but many adolescents had been vaccinated months earlier. Effectiveness waned over time since receipt of the second dose. Effectiveness was 35.6% (95% CI, 31.2 to 39.6) among adolescents 12 to 14 years of age and 20.9% (95% CI, 13.8 to 27.4) among those 15 to 17 years of age. In the pre-omicron study, the overall effectiveness of the 30-µg primary vaccine series against SARS-CoV-2 infection among adolescents was 87.6% (95% CI, 84.0 to 90.4) and waned relatively slowly after receipt of the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination in children was associated with modest, rapidly waning protection against omicron infection. Vaccination in adolescents was associated with stronger, more durable protection, perhaps because of the larger antigen dose. (Funded by Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar and others.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Vaccine Efficacy , Adolescent , Child , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Child, Preschool , Vaccine Efficacy/statistics & numerical data
6.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10677, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080318

ABSTRACT

Protection of adult kidney transplant recipients against SARS-CoV2 was shown to be strongly impaired owing to low reactogenicity of available vaccines. So far, data on vaccination outcomes in adolescents are scarce due to later vaccination approval for this age group. We therefore comprehensively analyzed vaccination-specific humoral-, T- and B-cell responses in kidney transplanted adolescents aged 12-18 years in comparison to healthy controls 6 weeks after standard two-dose BNT162b2 ("Comirnaty"; Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccination. Importantly, 90% (18/20) of transplanted adolescents showed IgG seroconversion with 75% (15/20) developing neutralizing titers. Still, both features were significantly diminished in magnitude compared to controls. Correspondingly, spike-specific B cells were quantitatively reduced and enriched for non-isotype-class-switched IgD+27+ memory cells in patients. Whereas spike specific CD4+ T cell frequencies were similar in both groups, cytokine production and memory differentiation were significantly impaired in transplant recipients. Although our data identify limitations in all arms of vaccine-specific immunity, the majority of our adolescent patients showed robust humoral responses despite antimetabolite-based treatment being associated with poor vaccination outcomes in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16294, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050543

ABSTRACT

Several factors related to anti-spike(S) IgG antibody titers after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination have been elucidated, but the magnitude of the effects of each factor has not been fully understood. This cross-sectional study assessed anti-S and anti-nucleocapsid (N) antibody titers on 3744 healthy volunteers (median age, 36 years; IQR, 24-49 years; females, 59.0%) who received two doses of mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 vaccine and completed a survey questionnaire. Multiple regression was conducted to identify factors associated with antibody titers. All but one participant tested positive for anti-S antibodies (99.97%). The following factors were independently and significantly associated with high antibody titer: < 3 months from vaccination (ratio of means 4.41); mRNA-1273 vaccine (1.90, vs BNT162b2); anti-N antibody positivity (1.62); age (10's: 1.50, 20's: 1.37, 30's: 1.26, 40's: 1.16, 50's: 1.15, vs ≧60's); female (1.07); immunosuppressive therapy (0.54); current smoking (0.85); and current drinking (0.96). The largest impact on anti-S IgG antibody titers was found in elapsed time after vaccination, followed by vaccine brand, immunosuppressants, previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (anti-N antibody positive), and age. Although the influence of adverse reactions after the vaccine, gender, smoking, and drinking was relatively small, they were independently related factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination , Young Adult
8.
Farm Hosp ; 46(3): 152-156, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2046387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the local and systemic reactions that appeared after the first and second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine against COVID­19 (Pfizer- BioNTech) in a sample of workers from a tertiary hospital, and to identify the  factors related to greater vaccine reactogenicity. METHOD: A self-administered questionnaire was used to interview 291 workers  from a tertiary hospital who received the BNT162b2 vaccine against COVID-19  between January and March 2021. The questionnaire included questions about  the sociodemographic variables of the participants, previous COVID-19  infection, and local and systemic reactions after the first and second dose of  the vaccine. RESULTS: The most common adverse reaction was soreness at the injection site, which was reported more frequently after the first dose of the  vaccine. The systemic reactions evaluated were reported more frequently after the second dose of the vaccine. Women, younger adults, and  subjects with a prior COVID-19 infection reported increased reactogenicity. Furthermore, high reactogenicity after the first dose was found  to be related to a higher number of adverse reactions after the second dose of  the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of reactogenicity in the present study is consistent with the data reported in previous studies on the BNT162b2 vaccine, especially in terms of its association with the participants'  characteristics. These findings could facilitate the identification of people at a  higher risk of developing high reactogenicity to the vaccine, thereby making it  possible to anticipate the appearance of adverse reactions and plan for their  treatment.


OBJETIVO: Analizar las reacciones locales y sistémicas aparecidas tras la  primera y segunda dosis de la vacuna BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) frente a  COVID-19 en una muestra de trabajadores de un hospital de tercer nivel, e  identificar los factores relacionados con una mayor reactogenicidad a la  vacuna.Método: Se empleó un cuestionario autoadministrado para entrevistar a 291  trabajadores de un hospital de tercer nivel que recibieron la vacuna BNT162b2  frente a COVID-19 entre enero y marzo de 2021. El cuestionario incluyó  preguntas acerca de las variables sociodemográficas de los participantes,  infección previa de COVID-19 y las reacciones locales y sistémicas tras la  primera y segunda dosis de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: La reacción más comúnmente informada fue el dolor en el lugar  de la inyección, siendo más frecuente tras la primera dosis de la vacuna. Las  reacciones sistémicas evaluadas se informaron con mayor frecuencia tras la  segunda dosis de la vacuna. Las mujeres, los adultos más jóvenes y las  personas con una infección previa por COVID-19 notificaron una mayor  reactogenicidad. Además, una alta reactogenicidad tras la primera dosis estuvo relacionada con un mayor número de reacciones adversas tras la segunda  dosis de la vacuna. CONCLUSIONES: La distribución de la reactogenicidad en el presente estudio es  consistente con los datos reportados en los estudios realizados  con la vacuna  BNT162b2, especialmente en términos de asociación con las características de  los participantes. Estos hallazgos pueden facilitar la identificación de personas  con mayor probabilidad de presentar una alta reactogenicidad a la vacuna,  permitiéndonos anticipar su aparición y tratamiento.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(8)2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019952

ABSTRACT

A male in his teens with a history of liver transplant for biliary atresia (aged 2 years) and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA, aged 6 years) presented with jaundice, dark urine, fatigue and chest discomfort that began 48 hours after the first dose of SARS-CoV-2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA). Investigations revealed a warm AIHA picture. Over 4 weeks the patient developed life-threatening anaemia culminating in haemoglobin of 35 g/L (after transfusion), lactate dehydrogenase of 1293 units/L and bilirubin of 228 µmol/L, refractory to standard treatment with corticosteroids and rituximab. An emergency splenectomy was performed that slowed haemolysis but did not completely ameliorate it. Eculizumab, a terminal complement pathway inhibitor, was initiated to arrest intravascular haemolysis and showed a favourable response. AIHA is rare but described after the SARS-CoV-2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. This case highlights the rare complication of AIHA, the use of emergency splenectomy for disease control, and the use of eculizumab.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/complications , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Bilirubin , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Hemoglobins , Hemolysis , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Male , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Splenectomy/adverse effects
10.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0114022, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001778

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants were first detected in November 2021, and several Omicron lineages (BA.1, BA.2, BA.3, BA.4, and BA.5) have since rapidly emerged. Studies characterizing the mechanisms of Omicron variant infection and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies induced upon vaccination are ongoing by several groups. In the present study, we used pseudoviruses to show that the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) enhances infection of BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3 Omicron variants to a lesser extent than ancestral D614G. We further show that Omicron variants have higher sensitivity to inhibition by soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the endosomal inhibitor chloroquine compared to D614G. The Omicron variants also more efficiently used ACE2 receptors from 9 out of 10 animal species tested, and unlike the D614G variant, used mouse ACE2 due to the Q493R and Q498R spike substitutions. Finally, neutralization of the Omicron variants by antibodies induced by three doses of Pfizer/BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was 7- to 8-fold less potent than the D614G. These results provide insights into the transmissibility and immune evasion capacity of the emerging Omicron variants to curb their ongoing spread. IMPORTANCE The ongoing emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants with an extensive number of spike mutations poses a significant public health and zoonotic concern due to enhanced transmission fitness and escape from neutralizing antibodies. We studied three Omicron lineage variants (BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3) and found that transmembrane serine protease 2 has less influence on Omicron entry into cells than on D614G, and Omicron exhibits greater sensitivity to endosomal entry inhibition compared to D614G. In addition, Omicron displays more efficient usage of diverse animal species ACE2 receptors than D614G. Furthermore, due to Q493R/Q498R substitutions in spike, Omicron, but not D614G, can use the mouse ACE2 receptor. Finally, three doses of Pfizer/BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination elicit high neutralization titers against Omicron variants, although the neutralization titers are still 7- to 8-fold lower those that against D614G. These results may give insights into the transmissibility and immune evasion capacity of the emerging Omicron variants to curb their ongoing spread.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0058222, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992936

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants, especially the recent Omicron variant, and gaps in vaccine coverage threaten mRNA vaccine mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2. While children have been relatively spared by the ongoing pandemic, increasing case numbers and hospitalizations are now evident among children. Thus, it is essential to better understand the magnitude and breadth of vaccine-induced immunity in children against circulating viral variant of concerns (VOCs). Here, we compared the magnitude and breadth of humoral immune responses in adolescents and adults 1 month after the two-dose Pfizer (BNT162b2) vaccination. We found that adolescents (aged 11 to 16) demonstrated more robust binding antibody and neutralization responses against the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein contained in the vaccine compared to adults (aged 27 to 55). The quality of the antibody responses against VOCs in adolescents were very similar to adults, with modest changes in binding and neutralization of Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants. In comparison, a significant reduction of binding titers and a striking lack of neutralization was observed against the newly emerging Omicron variant for both adolescents and adults. Overall, our data show that a two-dose BNT162b2 vaccine series may be insufficient to protect against the Omicron variant. IMPORTANCE While plasma binding and neutralizing antibody responses have been reported for cohorts of infected and vaccinated adults, much less is known about the vaccine-induced antibody responses to variants including Omicron in children. This illustrates the need to characterize vaccine efficacy in key vulnerable populations. A third (booster) dose of BNTb162b was approved for children 12 to 15 years of age by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 1, 2022, and pediatric clinical trials are under way to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness of a third dose in younger children. Similarly, variant-specific booster doses and pan-coronavirus vaccines are areas of active research. Our data show adolescents mounted stronger humoral immune responses after vaccination than adults. It also highlights the need for future studies of antibody durability in adolescents and children as well as the need for future studies of booster vaccination and their efficacy against the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 832924, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987488

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against COVID-19 in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on replacement therapy and kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) is particularly important due to the high mortality rate. Here, we tested the local and systemic immunity to the novel Pfizer BioNTech (BNT162b2) messenger RNA (mRNA) in ESRD, KTR patients, and healthy individuals (150 subjects). The ESRD group was divided into: hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). We investigated the local and systemic immunity based on anti-N (nucleoprotein) and anti-S (spike1/2) Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, respectively. Additionally, we performed an Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release test Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) to monitor the cellular component of vaccine response. The control group had the highest level of anti-S IgG antibodies (153/2,080 binding antibody units (BAU)/ml) among all analyzed patients after the 1st and 2nd dose, respectively. The HD group (48/926 BAU/ml) had a diminished antibody level compared to PD (93/1,607 BAU/ml). Moreover, the seroconversion rate after the 1st dose was lower in HD than PD (56% vs. 86%). KTRs had extremely low seroconversion (33%). IgA-mediated immunity was the most effective in the control group, while other patients had diminished IgA production. We observed a lower percentage of vaccine responders based on the IFN-γ level in all research participants (100% vs. 85% in control, 100% vs. 80% in PD, 97% vs. 64% in HD). 63% of seropositive KTRs had a positive IGRA, while 28% of seronegative patients produced IFN-γ. Collectively, PD patients had the strongest response among ESRD patients. Two doses of the Pfizer vaccine are ineffective, especially in HD and KTRs. A closer investigation of ESRD and KTRs is required to set the COVID-19 vaccine clinical guidance. Clinical Trial Registration Number: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04 905 862.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Peritoneal Dialysis , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Fukushima J Med Sci ; 68(1): 67-70, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975228

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the immune response and outcome of BNT162b2 vaccination among 12 staff at a hospital in Fukushima, Japan. Blood samples were collected from participants before their first vaccination, with subsequent sampling performed during the participants' work days for six weeks thereafter. Antibody titers peaked 6-13 days after the second vaccination (days 27-34 after the first), followed by a steady decrease. Six males had significantly lower peak antibody titers than six females (p = 0.016 with t-test); the older six (median age 53 years) had lower antibody titers than the younger six (median age 35 years) but without statistical significance (p value=0.24 with t-test).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Am J Nephrol ; 53(7): 586-590, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950519

ABSTRACT

The optimal SARS-CoV-2 vaccination schedule in dialysis patients and the potential need for a fourth vaccine dose are debatable. We prospectively assessed the humoral responses to three and four doses of BNT162b2 among dialysis patients. The study included 106 dialysis patients; 60 (56.6%) and 46 (43.4%) received 3 and 4 vaccine doses, respectively. Anti-spike (anti-S) antibody titers significantly increased after the third vaccine dose, followed by a decline, yet still remained higher than all previous measurements. The fourth vaccine dose led to another profound rise in anti-S titers. The absolute increase following the fourth dose correlated with response to the third dose. Infection risk however was similar between patients vaccinated with three or four doses.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(7)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the last two years, the COVID-19 pandemic led to millions of disease-related deaths worldwide. The efforts of the scientific community facing this global challenge resulted in outstanding achievements. Thus, within one year, new mRNA-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 viral infection were released, providing highly efficient protection and showing a very good safety profile in the general population. However, clinical data collection after vaccination is a continuous process for the long-term safety of any new medical product. The aim of our paper is to present two cases of hematological malignancies: diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and T/NK-cell lymphoma, diagnosed shortly after the administration of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS AND RESULTS: Case 1: A female patient was admitted with a suspicious cervical mass that emerged within one week after the administration of second dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Surgical removal followed by pathology assessment of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Case 2: A male patient was admitted with multiple ulcerative oral lesions arising on the third day after the initial dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. These lesions had a progressive character and during the following months were complicated with repetitive episodes of heavy oral bleeding, requiring blood transfusions. The incisional biopsy of the lesions and pathological assessment of the specimens confirmed the diagnosis of T/NK-cell lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: The safety profile of the mRNA-based vaccines is an undeniable fact. In most cases, suspicions of potentially aggressive side effects were ruled out, proving to be transient post-vaccine reactions. Clinicians should remain alert to report any potentially aggressive manifestations emerging in the context of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, such as these cases of hematological malignancies, in order to promote additional investigations on the particular mechanisms of action of COVID-19 vaccines and to provide the best medical care to the patients.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/diagnosis , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/diagnosis , Male , Pandemics
17.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 17(6): 843-850, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients receiving hemodialysis are at high risk from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and demonstrate impaired immune responses to vaccines. There have been several descriptions of their immunologic responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, but few studies have described the clinical efficacy of vaccination in patients on hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In a multicenter observational study of the London hemodialysis population undergoing surveillance PCR testing during the period of vaccine rollout with BNT162b2 and AZD1222, all of those positive for SARS-CoV-2 were identified. Clinical outcomes were analyzed according to predictor variables, including vaccination status, using a mixed effects logistic regression model. Risk of infection was analyzed in a subgroup of the base population using a Cox proportional hazards model with vaccination status as a time-varying covariate. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was identified in 1323 patients of different ethnicities (Asian/other, 30%; Black, 38%; and White, 32%), including 1047 (79%) unvaccinated, 86 (7%) after first-dose vaccination, and 190 (14%) after second-dose vaccination. The majority of patients had a mild course; however, 515 (39%) were hospitalized, and 172 (13%) died. Older age, diabetes, and immune suppression were associated with greater illness severity. In regression models adjusted for age, comorbidity, and time period, prior two-dose vaccination was associated with a 75% (95% confidence interval, 56 to 86) lower risk of admission and 88% (95% confidence interval, 70 to 95) fewer deaths compared with unvaccinated patients. No loss of protection was seen in patients over 65 years or with increasing time since vaccination, and no difference was seen between vaccine types. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate a substantially lower risk of severe COVID-19 after vaccination in patients on dialysis who become infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Renal Dialysis , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/administration & dosage , Humans , London , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(5): e35311, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic COVID-19, while being relatively safe in trial studies. However, vaccine breakthrough infections have been reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 breakthrough infections among fully mRNA-vaccinated individuals. METHODS: We conducted a series of observational retrospective analyses using the electronic health records (EHRs) of the Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian (CUIMC/NYP) up to September 21, 2021. New York City (NYC) adult residences with at least 1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) record were included in this analysis. Poisson regression was performed to assess the association between the breakthrough infection rate in vaccinated individuals and multiple risk factors-including vaccine brand, demographics, and underlying conditions-while adjusting for calendar month, prior number of visits, and observational days in the EHR. RESULTS: The overall estimated breakthrough infection rate was 0.16 (95% CI 0.14-0.18). Individuals who were vaccinated with Pfizer/BNT162b2 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] against Moderna/mRNA-1273=1.66, 95% CI 1.17-2.35) were male (IRR against female=1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.94) and had compromised immune systems (IRR=1.48, 95% CI 1.09-2.00) were at the highest risk for breakthrough infections. Among all underlying conditions, those with primary immunodeficiency, a history of organ transplant, an active tumor, use of immunosuppressant medications, or Alzheimer disease were at the highest risk. CONCLUSIONS: Although we found both mRNA vaccines were effective, Moderna/mRNA-1273 had a lower incidence rate of breakthrough infections. Immunocompromised and male individuals were among the highest risk groups experiencing breakthrough infections. Given the rapidly changing nature of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, continued monitoring and a generalizable analysis pipeline are warranted to inform quick updates on vaccine effectiveness in real time.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1155-1159, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861991

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggested that anti-CD20 and fingolimod may be associated with lower anti-spike protein-based immunoglobulin-G response following COVID-19 vaccination. We evaluated if COVID-19 occurred despite vaccination among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), using the COVISEP registry. CASE SERIES: We report 18 cases of COVID-19 after two doses of BNT162b2-vaccination, 13 of which treated with anti-CD20 and four with fingolimod. COVID-19 severity was mild. DISCUSSION: These results reinforce the recommendation for a third COVID-19 vaccine dose among anti-CD20 treated patients and stress the need for a prospective clinical and biological study on COVID-19 vaccine efficacy among MS and NMO patients.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuromyelitis Optica , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Neuromyelitis Optica/complications , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Med (N Y) ; 3(7): 468-480.e5, 2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Much remains unknown regarding the response of the immune system to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. METHODS: We employed circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to assess the turnover of specific immune cell types following administration of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. FINDINGS: The levels of B cell cfDNA after the primary dose correlated with development of neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells after the booster, revealing a link between early B cell turnover-potentially reflecting affinity maturation-and later development of effective humoral response. We also observed co-elevation of B cell, T cell, and monocyte cfDNA after the booster, underscoring the involvement of innate immune cell turnover in the development of humoral and cellular adaptive immunity. Actual cell counts remained largely stable following vaccination, other than a previously demonstrated temporary reduction in neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. CONCLUSIONS: Immune cfDNA dynamics reveal the crucial role of the primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in shaping responses of the immune system following the booster vaccine. FUNDING: This work was supported by a generous gift from Shlomo Kramer. Supported by grants from Human Islet Research Network (HIRN UC4DK116274 and UC4DK104216 to R.S. and Y.D.), Ernest and Bonnie Beutler Research Program of Excellence in Genomic Medicine, The Alex U Soyka Pancreatic Cancer Fund, The Israel Science Foundation, the Waldholtz/Pakula family, the Robert M. and Marilyn Sternberg Family Charitable Foundation, the Helmsley Charitable Trust, Grail, and the DON Foundation (to Y.D.). Y.D. holds the Walter and Greta Stiel Chair and Research Grant in Heart Studies. I.F.-F. received a fellowship from the Glassman Hebrew University Diabetes Center.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Memory B Cells/immunology , Memory B Cells/metabolism , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL