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1.
Intern Med ; 61(13): 1953-1958, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993648

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the serum total antibody (immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G) titre against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein receptor-binding domain following BNT162b2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in Japanese rheumatic disease patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Methods The serum antibody titre against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was analysed in 123 outpatients with rheumatic diseases at Kagawa University Hospital and 43 healthy volunteers who had received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with at least 14 days elapsing since the second dose. Results The antibody titre in rheumatic disease patients was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (p<0.0001). The antibody titres of the 41 patients who received biologics or Janus kinase inhibitors and the 47 patients who received conventional immunosuppressive agents were significantly lower than those of the 35 patients who did not receive immunosuppressive agents (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). In addition, the mean antibody titre of the 43 patients on methotrexate was significantly lower than that of the 80 patients not on methotrexate (p=0.0017). Conclusion Immunogenicity to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in rheumatic disease patients was found to be reduced under immunosuppressive treatment. In particular, methotrexate seems to be associated with a decreased antibody response.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rheumatic Diseases , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Neutralization Tests , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 832924, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987488

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against COVID-19 in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on replacement therapy and kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) is particularly important due to the high mortality rate. Here, we tested the local and systemic immunity to the novel Pfizer BioNTech (BNT162b2) messenger RNA (mRNA) in ESRD, KTR patients, and healthy individuals (150 subjects). The ESRD group was divided into: hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). We investigated the local and systemic immunity based on anti-N (nucleoprotein) and anti-S (spike1/2) Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, respectively. Additionally, we performed an Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release test Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) to monitor the cellular component of vaccine response. The control group had the highest level of anti-S IgG antibodies (153/2,080 binding antibody units (BAU)/ml) among all analyzed patients after the 1st and 2nd dose, respectively. The HD group (48/926 BAU/ml) had a diminished antibody level compared to PD (93/1,607 BAU/ml). Moreover, the seroconversion rate after the 1st dose was lower in HD than PD (56% vs. 86%). KTRs had extremely low seroconversion (33%). IgA-mediated immunity was the most effective in the control group, while other patients had diminished IgA production. We observed a lower percentage of vaccine responders based on the IFN-γ level in all research participants (100% vs. 85% in control, 100% vs. 80% in PD, 97% vs. 64% in HD). 63% of seropositive KTRs had a positive IGRA, while 28% of seronegative patients produced IFN-γ. Collectively, PD patients had the strongest response among ESRD patients. Two doses of the Pfizer vaccine are ineffective, especially in HD and KTRs. A closer investigation of ESRD and KTRs is required to set the COVID-19 vaccine clinical guidance. Clinical Trial Registration Number: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04 905 862.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Peritoneal Dialysis , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Fukushima J Med Sci ; 68(1): 67-70, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975228

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the immune response and outcome of BNT162b2 vaccination among 12 staff at a hospital in Fukushima, Japan. Blood samples were collected from participants before their first vaccination, with subsequent sampling performed during the participants' work days for six weeks thereafter. Antibody titers peaked 6-13 days after the second vaccination (days 27-34 after the first), followed by a steady decrease. Six males had significantly lower peak antibody titers than six females (p = 0.016 with t-test); the older six (median age 53 years) had lower antibody titers than the younger six (median age 35 years) but without statistical significance (p value=0.24 with t-test).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(9): 1273-1278, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966847

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 provides humoral immunity to fight COVID-19; however, the acquired immunity gradually declines. Booster vaccination restores reduced humoral immunity; however, its effect on newly emerging variants, such as the Omicron variant, is a concern. As the waves of COVID-19 cases and vaccine programs differ between countries, it is necessary to know the domestic effect of the booster. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from healthcare workers (20-69 years old) in the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine program at the Toyama University Hospital 6 months after the second dose (6mA2D, n = 648) and 2 weeks after the third dose (2wA3D, n = 565). The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody level was measured, and neutralization against the wild-type and variants (Delta and Omicron) was evaluated using pseudotyped viruses. Data on booster-related events were collected using questionnaires. RESULTS: The median anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was >30.9-fold elevated after the booster (6mA2D, 710.0 U/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 443.0-1068.0 U/mL]; 2wA3D, 21927 U/mL [IQR: 15321.0->25000.0 U/mL]). Median neutralizing activity using 100-fold sera against wild-type-, Delta-, and Omicron-derived variants was elevated from 84.6%, 36.2%, and 31.2% at 6mA2D to >99.9%, 99.1%, and 94.6% at 2wA3D, respectively. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were significantly elevated in individuals with fever ≥37.5 °C, general fatigue, and myalgia, local swelling, and local hardness. CONCLUSION: The booster effect, especially against the Omicron variant, was observed in the Japanese population. These findings contribute to the precise understanding of the efficacy and side effects of the booster and the promotion of vaccine campaigns.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Young Adult
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894700, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963468

ABSTRACT

The Korean government decided to schedule heterologous vaccinations on dialysis patients for early achievement of immunization against Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19). However, the effects of heterologous immunizations in hemodialysis (HD) patients are unclear. One hundred (HD) patients from Gangdong Kyung Hee University Hospital and Kyung Hee Medical Center and 100 hospital workers from Gangdong Kyung Hee University Hospital were enrolled in this study. The HD patients received the mixing schedule of ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 vaccinations at 10-week intervals, while hospital workers received two doses of ChAdOx1 vaccines at 12-week intervals. Serum IgG to a receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was measured 1 month after the first dose, 2 months and 4 months after the second dose. The median [interquartile range] anti-RBD IgG was 82.1[34.5, 176.6] AU/ml in HD patients and 197.1[124.0, 346.0] AU/ml in hospital workers (P < 0.001) after the first dose. The percentage of positive responses (IgG > 50 AU/ml) was 65.0% and 96.0% among the both group, respectively (P < 0.001). The anti-RBD IgG levels increased significantly by 2528.8 [1327.6, 5795.1] AU/ml with a 100.0% positive response rate in HD patients 2 months after the second dose, which was higher than those in hospital workers 981.4[581.5, 1891.4] AU/ml (P < 0.001). Moreover, anti-RBD IgG remains constantly high, and positive response remains 100% in HD patients 4 months after the second dose. This study suggests that heterologous vaccinations with ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 can be an alternative solution on HD patients for early and strong induction of humoral response.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Med (N Y) ; 3(6): 406-421.e4, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in Japan in November 2021. This variant contains up to 36 mutations in the spike protein, the target of neutralizing antibodies, and can escape vaccine-induced immunity. A booster vaccination campaign began with healthcare workers and high-risk groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the three-dose vaccination against Omicron remain unknown. METHODS: A total of 272 healthcare workers were initially evaluated for long-term vaccine safety and immunogenicity. We further established a vaccinee panel to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity against variants of concern (VOCs), including the Omicron variants, using a live virus microneutralization assay. FINDINGS: Two-dose vaccination induced robust anti-spike antibodies and neutralization titers (NTs) against the ancestral strain WK-521, whereas NTs against VOCs were significantly lower. Within 93-247 days of the second vaccine dose, NTs against Omicron were completely abolished in up to 80% of individuals in the vaccinee panel. Booster dose induced a robust increase in anti-spike antibodies and NTs against the WK-521, Delta, and Omicron variants. There were no significant differences in the neutralization ability of sera from boosted individuals among the Omicron subvariants BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2. Boosting increased the breadth of humoral immunity and cross-reactivity with Omicron without changes in cytokine signatures and adverse event rate. CONCLUSIONS: The third vaccination dose is safe and increases neutralization against Omicron variants. FUNDING: This study was supported by grants from AMED (grants JP21fk0108104 and JP21mk0102146).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917797

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: High immunosuppressive regimen in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) hampers the immune response to vaccination. We prospectively investigated the immunogenicity of heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in an LTR cohort. (2) Methods: Forty-nine COVID-19 naïve LTRs received a two-dose regimen ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. A subset of 32 patients received a booster dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine 18 weeks after the second dose. (3) Results: Two-doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 induced poor immunogenicity with 7.2% seropositivity at day 180 and low neutralizing capacities. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induced significant increases in IgG titers with means of 197.8 binding antibody units per milliliter (BAU/mL) (95% CI 0-491.4) and neutralizing antibodies, with means of 76.6 AU/mL (95% CI 0-159.6). At day 238, 32.2% of LTRs seroconverted after the booster dose. Seroneutralization capacities against Delta and Omicron variants were found in only 13 and 9 LTRs, respectively. Mycophenolate mofetil and high-dose corticosteroids were associated with a weak serological response. (4) Conclusions: The immunogenicity of a two-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine regimen was very poor in LTRs, but was significantly enhanced after the booster dose in one-third of LTRs. In immunocompromised individuals, the administration of a fourth dose may be considered to increase the immune response against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Lung Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Humans
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(7)2022 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917620

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Hemodialysis patients (HD) and kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have been heavily impacted by COVID-19, showing increased risk of infection, worse clinical outcomes, and higher mortality rates than the general population. Although mass vaccination remains the most successful measure in counteracting the pandemic, less evidence is available on vaccine effectiveness in immunodepressed subjects previously infected and recovered from COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This study aimed at investigating the ability to develop an adequate antibody response after vaccination in a 2-dose series against SARS-CoV-2 in HD patients and KTR that was administered after laboratory and clinical recovery from COVID-19. Results: Comparing SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG levels measured before and after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2 vaccine, Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech or mRNA-1273 vaccine, Spikevax, Moderna), highly significant increases of antibody titers were observed. The antibody peak level was reached at 3 months following second dose administration, regardless of the underlying cause of immune depression and the time of pre-vaccine serology assessment after negativization. Conclusions: Our data indicate that HD patients and KTR exhibit a satisfying antibody response to a 2-dose series of mRNA vaccine, even in cases when infection-induced humoral immunity was poor or rapidly fading. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of booster doses in conferring effective and durable protection in weak patient categories.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
9.
Science ; 377(6603): eabq1841, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891726

ABSTRACT

The Omicron, or Pango lineage B.1.1.529, variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) carries multiple spike mutations with high transmissibility and partial neutralizing antibody (nAb) escape. Vaccinated individuals show protection against severe disease, often attributed to primed cellular immunity. We investigated T and B cell immunity against B.1.1.529 in triple BioNTech BNT162b2 messenger RNA-vaccinated health care workers (HCWs) with different SARS-CoV-2 infection histories. B and T cell immunity against previous variants of concern was enhanced in triple-vaccinated individuals, but the magnitude of T and B cell responses against B.1.1.529 spike protein was reduced. Immune imprinting by infection with the earlier B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant resulted in less durable binding antibody against B.1.1.529. Previously infection-naïve HCWs who became infected during the B.1.1.529 wave showed enhanced immunity against earlier variants but reduced nAb potency and T cell responses against B.1.1.529 itself. Previous Wuhan Hu-1 infection abrogated T cell recognition and any enhanced cross-reactive neutralizing immunity on infection with B.1.1.529.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
10.
N Engl J Med ; 387(1): 21-34, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The protection conferred by natural immunity, vaccination, and both against symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with the BA.1 or BA.2 sublineages of the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a national, matched, test-negative, case-control study in Qatar from December 23, 2021, through February 21, 2022, to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna), natural immunity due to previous infection with variants other than omicron, and hybrid immunity (previous infection and vaccination) against symptomatic omicron infection and against severe, critical, or fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). RESULTS: The effectiveness of previous infection alone against symptomatic BA.2 infection was 46.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.5 to 51.9). The effectiveness of vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 and no previous infection was negligible (-1.1%; 95% CI, -7.1 to 4.6), but nearly all persons had received their second dose more than 6 months earlier. The effectiveness of three doses of BNT162b2 and no previous infection was 52.2% (95% CI, 48.1 to 55.9). The effectiveness of previous infection and two doses of BNT162b2 was 55.1% (95% CI, 50.9 to 58.9), and the effectiveness of previous infection and three doses of BNT162b2 was 77.3% (95% CI, 72.4 to 81.4). Previous infection alone, BNT162b2 vaccination alone, and hybrid immunity all showed strong effectiveness (>70%) against severe, critical, or fatal Covid-19 due to BA.2 infection. Similar results were observed in analyses of effectiveness against BA.1 infection and of vaccination with mRNA-1273. CONCLUSIONS: No discernable differences in protection against symptomatic BA.1 and BA.2 infection were seen with previous infection, vaccination, and hybrid immunity. Vaccination enhanced protection among persons who had had a previous infection. Hybrid immunity resulting from previous infection and recent booster vaccination conferred the strongest protection. (Funded by Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar and others.).


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
11.
Br J Haematol ; 198(4): 668-679, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874397

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remain at high risk of adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and emerging variants. The optimal prophylactic vaccine strategy for this cohort is not defined. T cell-mediated immunity is a critical component of graft-versus-tumour effect and in determining vaccine immunogenicity. Using validated anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and S-specific interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFNγ-ELIspot) assays we analysed response to a two-dose vaccination schedule (either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) in 33 HSCT recipients at ≤2 years from transplant, alongside vaccine-matched healthy controls (HCs). After two vaccines, infection-naïve HSCT recipients had a significantly lower rate of seroconversion compared to infection-naïve HCs (25/32 HSCT vs. 39/39 HCs no responders) and had lower S-specific T-cell responses. The HSCT recipients who received BNT162b2 had a higher rate of seroconversion compared to ChAdOx1 (89% vs. 74%) and significantly higher anti-S IgG titres (p = 0.022). S-specific T-cell responses were seen after one vaccine in HCs and HSCT recipients. However, two vaccines enhanced S-specific T-cell responses in HCs but not in the majority of HSCT recipients. These data demonstrate limited immunogenicity of two-dose vaccination strategies in HSCT recipients, bolstering evidence of the need for additional boosters and/or alternative prophylactic measures in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Seroconversion , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
N Engl J Med ; 386(23): 2201-2212, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) provides natural immunity against reinfection. Recent studies have shown waning of the immunity provided by the BNT162b2 vaccine. The time course of natural and hybrid immunity is unknown. METHODS: Using the Israeli Ministry of Health database, we extracted data for August and September 2021, when the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant was predominant, on all persons who had been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 or who had received coronavirus 2019 vaccine. We used Poisson regression with adjustment for confounding factors to compare the rates of infection as a function of time since the last immunity-conferring event. RESULTS: The number of cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection per 100,000 person-days at risk (adjusted rate) increased with the time that had elapsed since vaccination with BNT162b2 or since previous infection. Among unvaccinated persons who had recovered from infection, this rate increased from 10.5 among those who had been infected 4 to less than 6 months previously to 30.2 among those who had been infected 1 year or more previously. Among persons who had received a single dose of vaccine after previous infection, the adjusted rate was low (3.7) among those who had been vaccinated less than 2 months previously but increased to 11.6 among those who had been vaccinated at least 6 months previously. Among previously uninfected persons who had received two doses of vaccine, the adjusted rate increased from 21.1 among those who had been vaccinated less than 2 months previously to 88.9 among those who had been vaccinated at least 6 months previously. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons who had been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (regardless of whether they had received any dose of vaccine or whether they had received one dose before or after infection), protection against reinfection decreased as the time increased since the last immunity-conferring event; however, this protection was higher than that conferred after the same time had elapsed since receipt of a second dose of vaccine among previously uninfected persons. A single dose of vaccine after infection reinforced protection against reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
13.
Diabetes ; 71(8): 1800-1806, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847103

ABSTRACT

Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may develop severe outcomes during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but their ability to generate an immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines remains to be established. We evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and glycometabolic effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccines in patients with T1D. A total of 375 patients (326 with T1D and 49 subjects without diabetes) who received two doses of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2) between March and April 2021 at ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco were included in this monocentric observational study. Local and systemic adverse events were reported in both groups after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, without statistical differences between them. While both patients with T1D and subjects without diabetes exhibited a parallel increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike titers after vaccination, the majority of patients with T1D (70% and 78%, respectively) did not show any increase in the SARS-CoV-2-specific cytotoxic response compared with the robust increase observed in all subjects without diabetes. A reduced secretion of the T-cell-related cytokines interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α in vaccinated patients with T1D was also observed. No glycometabolic alterations were evident in patients with T1D using continuous glucose monitoring during follow-up. Administration of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine is associated with an impaired cellular SARS-CoV-2-specific cytotoxic immune response in patients with T1D.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Humans
14.
JAMA ; 327(4): 341-349, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838085

ABSTRACT

Importance: Administration of a BNT162b2 booster dose (Pfizer-BioNTech) to fully vaccinated individuals aged 60 years and older was significantly associated with lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness. Data are lacking on the effectiveness of booster doses for younger individuals and health care workers. Objective: To estimate the association of a BNT162b2 booster dose with SARS-CoV-2 infections among health care workers who were previously vaccinated with a 2-dose series of BNT162b2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary medical center in Tel Aviv, Israel. The study cohort included 1928 immunocompetent health care workers who were previously vaccinated with a 2-dose series of BNT162b2, and had enrolled between August 8 and 19, 2021, with final follow-up reported through September 20, 2021. Screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed every 14 days. Anti-spike protein receptor binding domain IgG titers were determined at baseline and 1 month after enrollment. Cox regression with time-dependent analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios of SARS-CoV-2 infection between booster-immunized status and 2-dose vaccinated (booster-nonimmunized) status. Exposures: Vaccination with a booster dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 infection, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Among 1928 participants, the median age was 44 years (IQR, 36-52 years) and 1381 were women (71.6%). Participants completed the 2-dose vaccination series a median of 210 days (IQR, 205-213 days) before study enrollment. A total of 1650 participants (85.6%) received the booster dose. During a median follow-up of 39 days (IQR, 35-41 days), SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 44 participants (incidence rate, 60.2 per 100 000 person-days); 31 (70.5%) were symptomatic. Five SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred in booster-immunized participants and 39 in booster-nonimmunized participants (incidence rate, 12.8 vs 116 per 100 000 person-days, respectively). In a time-dependent Cox regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection for booster-immunized vs booster-nonimmunized participants was 0.07 (95% CI, 0.02-0.20). Conclusions and Relevance: Among health care workers at a single center in Israel who were previously vaccinated with a 2-dose series of BNT162b2, administration of a booster dose compared with not receiving one was associated with a significantly lower rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection over a median of 39 days of follow-up. Ongoing surveillance is required to assess durability of the findings.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Vaccine Efficacy , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Incidence , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 209(1): 90-98, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831028

ABSTRACT

T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 following infection and vaccination are less characterized than antibody responses, due to a more complex experimental pathway. We measured T-cell responses in 108 healthcare workers (HCWs) using the commercialized Oxford Immunotec T-SPOT Discovery SARS-CoV-2 assay service (OI T-SPOT) and the PITCH ELISpot protocol established for academic research settings. Both assays detected T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike, membrane, and nucleocapsid proteins. Responses were significantly lower when reported by OI T-SPOT than by PITCH ELISpot. Four weeks after two doses of either Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 AZD1222 vaccine, the responder rate was 63% for OI T-SPOT Panels 1 + 2 (peptides representing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein excluding regions present in seasonal coronaviruses), 69% for OI T-SPOT Panel 14 (peptides representing the entire SARS-CoV-2 spike), and 94% for the PITCH ELISpot total spike. The two OI T-SPOT panels correlated strongly with each other showing that either readout quantifies spike-specific T-cell responses, although the correlation between the OI T-SPOT panels and the PITCH ELISpot total spike was moderate. The standardization, relative scalability, and longer interval between blood acquisition and processing are advantages of the commercial OI T-SPOT assay. However, the OI T-SPOT assay measures T-cell responses at a significantly lower magnitude compared to the PITCH ELISpot assay, detecting T-cell responses in a lower proportion of vaccinees. This has implications for the reporting of low-level T-cell responses that may be observed in patient populations and for the assessment of T-cell durability after vaccination.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Health Personnel , Humans , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination
16.
Nature ; 607(7918): 356-359, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830078

ABSTRACT

The extent to which Omicron infection1-9, with or without previous vaccination, elicits protection against the previously dominant Delta (B.1.617.2) variant is unclear. Here we measured the neutralization capacity against variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in 39 individuals in South Africa infected with the Omicron sublineage BA.1 starting at a median of 6 (interquartile range 3-9) days post symptom onset and continuing until last follow-up sample available, a median of 23 (interquartile range 19-27) days post symptoms to allow BA.1-elicited neutralizing immunity time to develop. Fifteen participants were vaccinated with Pfizer's BNT162b2 or Johnson & Johnson's Ad26.CoV2.S and had BA.1 breakthrough infections, and 24 were unvaccinated. BA.1 neutralization increased from a geometric mean 50% focus reduction neutralization test titre of 42 at enrolment to 575 at the last follow-up time point (13.6-fold) in vaccinated participants and from 46 to 272 (6.0-fold) in unvaccinated participants. Delta virus neutralization also increased, from 192 to 1,091 (5.7-fold) in vaccinated participants and from 28 to 91 (3.0-fold) in unvaccinated participants. At the last time point, unvaccinated individuals infected with BA.1 had low absolute levels of neutralization for the non-BA.1 viruses and 2.2-fold lower BA.1 neutralization, 12.0-fold lower Delta neutralization, 9.6-fold lower Beta variant neutralization, 17.9-fold lower ancestral virus neutralization and 4.8-fold lower Omicron sublineage BA.2 neutralization relative to vaccinated individuals infected with BA.1. These results indicate that hybrid immunity formed by vaccination and Omicron BA.1 infection should be protective against Delta and other variants. By contrast, infection with Omicron BA.1 alone offers limited cross-protection despite moderate enhancement.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Ad26COVS1/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross Protection/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
18.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(5): 100631, 2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799660

ABSTRACT

Two doses of Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine elicit robust severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-neutralizing antibodies with frequent adverse events. Here, by applying a high-dimensional immune profiling on 92 vaccinees, we identify six vaccine-induced immune dynamics that correlate with the amounts of neutralizing antibodies, the severity of adverse events, or both. The early dynamics of natural killer (NK)/monocyte subsets (CD16+ NK cells, CD56high NK cells, and non-classical monocytes), dendritic cell (DC) subsets (DC3s and CD11c- Axl+ Siglec-6+ [AS]-DCs), and NKT-like cells are revealed as the distinct cell correlates for neutralizing-antibody titers, severity of adverse events, and both, respectively. The cell correlates for neutralizing antibodies or adverse events are consistently associated with elevation of interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-inducible chemokines, but the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CXCR3 are expressed in distinct manners between the two correlates: vaccine-induced expression on the neutralizing-antibody correlate and constitutive expression on the adverse-event correlate. The finding may guide vaccine strategies that balance immunogenicity and reactogenicity.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
19.
Allergy ; 77(8): 2459-2467, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is essential to know about immune response levels after booster doses of the two different types of vaccines, mRNA, and the inactivated, currently used against COVID-19. For this purpose, we aimed to determine the effects of BNT162b2 (BNT) and CoronaVac (CV) boosters on the humoral and cellular immunity of individuals who had two doses of CV vaccination. METHODS: The study was conducted in three centers (Koc University Hospital, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Hospital, and Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical School Hospital) in Istanbul, Turkey. Individuals who had been previously immunized with two doses of CV and no history of COVID-19 were included. The baseline blood samples were collected 3-5 months after the second dose of CV. Follow-up blood samples were taken 1 and 3 months after administration of third doses of CV, or one dose of BNT boosters. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured by plaque reduction assay. The CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, effector CD4+CD38+CD69+ T cell, and effector CD8+CD38+CD69+ T cell ratios were determined by flow cytometry. The intracellular IFN-γ and IL-2 responses were measured by ELISpot assay. RESULTS: We found a 3.38-fold increase in neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (NA GMT, 78.69) 1 month after BNT booster and maintained at the third month (NA GMT, 80). Nevertheless, in the CV booster group, significantly lower NA GMT than BNT after 1 month and 3 months were observed (21.44 and 28.44, respectively) (p < .001). In the ELISpot assay, IL-2 levels after BNT were higher than baseline and CV booster (p < .001) while IFN-γ levels were significantly higher than baseline (p < .001). The CD8+CD38+CD69+ and CD4+CD38+CD69+ T cells were stimulated predominantly in the third month of the BNT boosters. CONCLUSION: The neutralizing antibody levels after 3 months of the BNT booster were higher than the antibody levels after CV in fully vaccinated individuals. On the contrary, ratio of the effector T cells increased along with greater IFN-γ activation after BNT booster. By considering the waning immunity, we suggest a new booster dose with BNT for the countries that already had two doses of primary CV regimens.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccines, Inactivated , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Interleukin-2 , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
20.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(6): 927-933, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antibody response to the messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccine has been shown to be diminished in rituximab (RTX)-treated patients. We undertook this study to compare humoral and T cell responses between healthy controls, patients with autoimmune diseases treated with RTX, and those treated with other immunosuppressants, all of whom had been vaccinated with 2 doses of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: We performed anti-spike IgG and neutralization assays just before and 28 days after the second BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine dose. The specific T cell response was assessed in activated CD4 and CD8 T cells using intracellular flow cytometry staining of cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-2) after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptide pools. RESULTS: A lower proportion of responders with neutralizing antibodies to the vaccine was observed in the RTX group (29%; n = 24) compared to the other immunosuppressants group (80%; n = 35) (P = 0.0001) and the healthy control group (92%; n = 26) (P < 0.0001). No patients treated with RTX in the last 6 months showed a response. Time since last infusion was the main factor influencing humoral response in RTX-treated patients. The functional CD4 and CD8 cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 peptides for each single cytokine or polyfunctionality were not different in the RTX group compared to the other immunosuppressants group or the control group. In RTX-treated patients, the T cell response was not different between patients with and those without a humoral response. CONCLUSION: RTX induced a diminished antibody response to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, but the functional T cell response was not altered compared to healthy controls and autoimmune disease patients treated with other immunosuppressants. Further work is needed to assess the clinical protection granted by a functionally active T cell response in the absence of an anti-spike antibody response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
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