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1.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 22(1): 378-392, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine in immunocompromised adolescents and young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study conducted a meta-analysis of post-marketing studies examining BNT162b2 vaccination efficacy and safety among immunocompromised adolescents and young adults worldwide. The review included nine studies and 513 individuals aged between 12 and 24.3 years. The study used a random effect model to estimate pooled proportions, log relative risk, and mean difference, and assessed heterogeneity using the I2 test. The study also examined publication bias using Egger's regression and Begg's rank correlation and assessed bias risk using ROBINS-I. RESULTS: The pooled proportions of combined local and systemic reactions after the first and second doses were 30% and 32%, respectively. Adverse events following immunization (AEFI) were most frequent in rheumatic diseases (40%) and least frequent in cystic fibrosis (27%), although hospitalizations for AEFIs were rare. The pooled estimations did not show a statistically significant difference between immunocompromised individuals and healthy controls for neutralizing antibodies, measured IgG, or vaccine effectiveness after the primary dose. However, the evidence quality is low to moderate due to a high risk of bias, and no study could rule out the risk of selection bias, ascertainment bias, or selective outcome reporting. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence that the BNT162b2 vaccine is safe and effective in immunocompromised adolescents and young adults, but with low to moderate evidence quality due to bias risk. The study calls for improved methodological quality in studies involving specific populations.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunocompromised Host , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Young Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1056525, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262698

ABSTRACT

Currently available COVID-19 vaccines include inactivated virus, live attenuated virus, mRNA-based, viral vectored and adjuvanted protein-subunit-based vaccines. All of them contain the spike glycoprotein as the main immunogen and result in reduced disease severity upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. While we and others have shown that mRNA-based vaccination reactivates pre-existing, cross-reactive immunity, the effect of vector vaccines in this regard is unknown. Here, we studied cellular and humoral responses in heterologous adenovirus-vector-based ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AZ; Vaxzeria, AstraZeneca) and mRNA-based BNT162b2 (BNT; Comirnaty, BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccination and compared it to a homologous BNT vaccination regimen. AZ primary vaccination did not lead to measurable reactivation of cross-reactive cellular and humoral immunity compared to BNT primary vaccination. Moreover, humoral immunity induced by primary vaccination with AZ displayed differences in linear spike peptide epitope coverage and a lack of anti-S2 IgG antibodies. Contrary to primary AZ vaccination, secondary vaccination with BNT reactivated pre-existing, cross-reactive immunity, comparable to homologous primary and secondary mRNA vaccination. While induced anti-S1 IgG antibody titers were higher after heterologous vaccination, induced CD4+ T cell responses were highest in homologous vaccinated. However, the overall TCR repertoire breadth was comparable between heterologous AZ-BNT-vaccinated and homologous BNT-BNT-vaccinated individuals, matching TCR repertoire breadths after SARS-CoV-2 infection, too. The reasons why AZ and BNT primary vaccination elicits different immune response patterns to essentially the same antigen, and the associated benefits and risks, need further investigation to inform vaccine and vaccination schedule development.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cross Reactions , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1120556, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281501

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The differential immune responses after two additional BNT162b2 (BNT) booster doses between ChAdOx1 nCoV-10 (ChAd)-primed and BNT-primed groups have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses and evaluate breakthrough infection between the two vaccination strategies. Methods: In 221 healthy subjects (111 in the ChAd group), longitudinal immune responses were monitored at 3, 4, and 6 months after the 2nd dose and 1, 3, and 6 months after the 3rd dose. Humoral immunity was measured by two fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (Elecsys and Abbott) and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT). Cellular immunity was assessed by two interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays (QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 and Covi-FERON). Results: After the 2nd dose of BNT vaccination, total antibody levels were higher in the ChAd group, but IgG antibody and sVNT results were higher in the BNT group. Following the 3rd dose vaccination, binding antibody titers were significantly elevated in both groups (ChAD-BNT; 15.4 to 17.8-fold, BNT-BNT; 22.2 to 24.6-fold), and the neutralizing capacity was increased by 1.3-fold in both cohorts. The ChAd-BNT group had lower omicron neutralization positivity than the BNT-BNT group (P = 0.001) at 6 months after the 3rd dose. Cellular responses to the spike antigen also showed 1.7 to 3.0-fold increases after the 3rd dose, which gradually declined to the levels equivalent to before the 3rd vaccination. The ChAd cohort tended to have higher IFN-γ level than the BNT cohort for 3-6 months after the 2nd and 3rd doses. The frequency of breakthrough infection was higher in the ChAd group (44.8%) than in the BNT group (28.1%) (P = 0.0219). Breakthrough infection induced increased humoral responses in both groups, and increase of cellular response was significant in the ChAd group. Discussion: Our study showed differential humoral and cellular immune responses between ChAd-BNT-BNT heterologous and BNT-BNT-BNT homologous vaccination cohorts. The occurrence of low antibody levels in the ChAd-primed cohort in the humoral immune response may be associated with an increased incidence of breakthrough infections. Further studies are needed on the benefits of enhanced cellular immunity in ChAd-primed cohorts.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Breakthrough Infections , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Immunity, Humoral
4.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1127401, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269373

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunity acquired from natural SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine wanes overtime. This longitudinal prospective study compared the effect of a booster vaccine (BNT162b2) in inducing the mucosal (nasal) and serological antibody between Covid-19 recovered patients and healthy unexposed subjects with two dose of mRNA vaccine (vaccine-only group). Method: Eleven recovered patients and eleven gender-and-age matched unexposed subjects who had mRNA vaccines were recruited. The SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 (S1) protein specific IgA, IgG and the ACE2 binding inhibition to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and omicron (BA.1) variant receptor binding domain were measured in their nasal epithelial lining fluid and plasma. Result: In the recovered group, the booster expanded the nasal IgA dominancy inherited from natural infection to IgA and IgG. They also had a higher S1-specific nasal and plasma IgA and IgG levels with a better inhibition against the omicron BA.1 variant and ancestral SARS-CoV-2 when compared with vaccine-only subjects. The nasal S1-specific IgA induced by natural infection lasted longer than those induced by vaccines while the plasma antibodies of both groups maintained at a high level for at least 21 weeks after booster. Conclusion: The booster benefited all subjects to obtain neutralizing antibody (NAb) against omicron BA.1 variant in plasma while only the Covid-19 recovered subjects had an extra enrichment in nasal NAb against omicron BA.1 variant.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunity, Mucosal
5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1131051, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268701

ABSTRACT

The widely used ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (ChAd) vector and BNT162b2 (BNT) mRNA vaccines have been shown to induce robust immune responses. Recent studies demonstrated that the immune responses of people who received one dose of ChAdOx1 and one dose of BNT were better than those of people who received vaccines with two homologous ChAdOx1 or two BNT doses. However, how heterologous vaccines function has not been extensively investigated. In this study, single-cell RNA sequencing data from three classes of samples: volunteers vaccinated with heterologous ChAdOx1-BNT and volunteers vaccinated with homologous ChAd-ChAd and BNT-BNT vaccinations after 7 days were divided into three types of immune cells (3654 B, 8212 CD4+ T, and 5608 CD8+ T cells). To identify differences in gene expression in various cell types induced by vaccines administered through different vaccination strategies, multiple advanced feature selection methods (max-relevance and min-redundancy, Monte Carlo feature selection, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, light gradient boosting machine, and permutation feature importance) and classification algorithms (decision tree and random forest) were integrated into a computational framework. Feature selection methods were in charge of analyzing the importance of gene features, yielding multiple gene lists. These lists were fed into incremental feature selection, incorporating decision tree and random forest, to extract essential genes, classification rules and build efficient classifiers. Highly ranked genes include PLCG2, whose differential expression is important to the B cell immune pathway and is positively correlated with immune cells, such as CD8+ T cells, and B2M, which is associated with thymic T cell differentiation. This study gave an important contribution to the mechanistic explanation of results showing the stronger immune response of a heterologous ChAdOx1-BNT vaccination schedule than two doses of either BNT or ChAdOx1, offering a theoretical foundation for vaccine modification.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Machine Learning , COVID-19/prevention & control , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2022 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243862

ABSTRACT

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) comprise a group of autoantibodies that reflect prothrombotic risk in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) but may also be present in a small proportion of healthy individuals. They are often transiently elevated in infections, including SARS-CoV-2, and may also be associated with vaccine-induced autoimmunity. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the dynamics of aPL in COVID-19 patients and in individuals (healthcare professionals-HCPs) after receiving BNT162b2 vaccine and to compare aPL levels and positivity with those found in APS patients. We measured solid-phase identifiable aPL, including anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-ß2 glycoprotein I (anti-ß2GPI), and anti-prothrombin/phosphatidylserine (aPS/PT) antibodies in 58 HCPs before and after vaccination (at 3 weeks, 3, 6, and 9 months after the second dose, and 3 weeks after the third booster dose), in 45 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the ICU, in 89 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the non-ICU (at admission, at hospital discharge, and at follow-up), and in 52 patients with APS. The most frequently induced aPL in COVID-19 patients (hospitalized in non-ICU) were aCL (50.6% of patients had positive levels at at least one time point), followed by anti-ß2GPI (21.3% of patients had positive levels at at least one time point). In 9/89 COVID-19 patients, positive aPL levels persisted for three months. One HCP developed aCL IgG after vaccination but the persistence could not be confirmed, and two HCPs developed persistent anti-ß2GPI IgG after vaccination with no increase during a 1-year follow-up period. Solid-phase aPL were detected in 84.6% of APS patients, in 49.4% of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the non-ICU, in 33.3% of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the ICU, and in only 17.2% of vaccinated HCPs. aPL levels and multiple positivity were significantly lower in both infected groups and in vaccinated individuals compared with APS patients. In conclusion, BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine may have induced aPL in a few individuals, whereas SARS-CoV-2 infection itself results in a higher percentage of aPL induction, but the levels, persistence, and multiple positivity of aPL do not follow the pattern observed in APS.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Antiphospholipid Syndrome , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , beta 2-Glycoprotein I , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
N Engl J Med ; 388(7): 621-634, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are urgently needed in young children. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 dose-finding study and are conducting an ongoing phase 2-3 safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy trial of the BNT162b2 vaccine in healthy children 6 months to 11 years of age. We present results for children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and those 2 to 4 years of age through the data-cutoff dates (April 29, 2022, for safety and immunogenicity and June 17, 2022, for efficacy). In the phase 2-3 trial, participants were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) to receive two 3-µg doses of BNT162b2 or placebo. On the basis of preliminary immunogenicity results, a third 3-µg dose (≥8 weeks after dose 2) was administered starting in January 2022, which coincided with the emergence of the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant. Immune responses at 1 month after doses 2 and 3 in children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and those 2 to 4 years of age were immunologically bridged to responses after dose 2 in persons 16 to 25 years of age who received 30 µg of BNT162b2 in the pivotal trial. RESULTS: During the phase 1 dose-finding study, two doses of BNT162b2 were administered 21 days apart to 16 children 6 months to less than 2 years of age (3-µg dose) and 48 children 2 to 4 years of age (3-µg or 10-µg dose). The 3-µg dose level was selected for the phase 2-3 trial; 1178 children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and 1835 children 2 to 4 years of age received BNT162b2, and 598 and 915, respectively, received placebo. Immunobridging success criteria for the geometric mean ratio and seroresponse at 1 month after dose 3 were met in both age groups. BNT162b2 reactogenicity events were mostly mild to moderate, with no grade 4 events. Low, similar incidences of fever were reported after receipt of BNT162b2 (7% among children 6 months to <2 years of age and 5% among those 2 to 4 years of age) and placebo (6 to 7% among children 6 months to <2 years of age and 4 to 5% among those 2 to 4 years of age). The observed overall vaccine efficacy against symptomatic Covid-19 in children 6 months to 4 years of age was 73.2% (95% confidence interval, 43.8 to 87.6) from 7 days after dose 3 (on the basis of 34 cases). CONCLUSIONS: A three-dose primary series of 3-µg BNT162b2 was safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in children 6 months to 4 years of age. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04816643.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Young Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Treatment Outcome , Vaccine Efficacy
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1035344, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230921

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematological malignancies are prioritized for COVID-19 vaccine due to their high risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection-related disease and mortality. To understand T cell immunity, its long-term persistence, and its correlation with antibody response, we evaluated the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-specific immune response in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. Longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells using DNA-barcoded peptide-MHC multimers covering the full SARS-CoV-2 Spike-protein (415 peptides) showed vaccine-specific T cell activation and persistence of memory T cells up to six months post-vaccination. Surprisingly, a higher frequency of vaccine-induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells was observed in the patient group compared to a healthy donor group. Furthermore, and importantly, immunization with the second booster dose significantly increased the frequency of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells as well as the total number of T cell specificities. Altogether 59 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-derived immunogenic responses were identified, of which 23 established long-term CD8+ T cell memory response with a strong immunodominance for NYNYLYRLF (HLA-A24:02) and YLQPRTFLL (HLA-A02:01) epitopes. In summary, we mapped the vaccine-induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and showed a booster-specific activation and enrichment of memory T cells that could be important for long-term disease protection in this patient group.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1079995, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230341

ABSTRACT

Coevolution of microbiome and immunity at mucosal sites is essential for our health. Whether the oral microbiome, the second largest community after the gut, contributes to the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines is not known. We investigated the baseline oral microbiome in individuals in the COVAXID clinical trial receiving the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Participants (n=115) included healthy controls (HC; n=57) and people living with HIV (PLHIV; n=58) who met the study selection criteria. Vaccine-induced Spike antibodies in saliva and serum from 0 to 6 months were assessed and comparative analyses were performed against the individual salivary 16S ASV microbiome diversity. High- versus low vaccine responders were assessed on general, immunological, and oral microbiome features. Our analyses identified oral microbiome features enriched in high- vs. low-responders among healthy and PLHIV participants. In low-responders, an enrichment of Gram-negative, anaerobic species with proteolytic activity were found including Campylobacter, Butyrivibrio, Selenomonas, Lachnoanaerobaculum, Leptotrichia, Megasphaera, Prevotella and Stomatobaculum. In high-responders, enriched species were mainly Gram-positive and saccharolytic facultative anaerobes: Abiotrophia, Corynebacterium, Gemella, Granulicatella, Rothia, and Haemophilus. Combining identified microbial features in a classifier using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) yielded scores of 0.879 (healthy controls) to 0.82 (PLHIV), supporting the oral microbiome contribution in the long-term vaccination outcome. The present study is the first to suggest that the oral microbiome has an impact on the durability of mucosal immunity after Covid-19 vaccination. Microbiome-targeted interventions to enhance long-term duration of mucosal vaccine immunity may be exploited.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Saliva/immunology
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1075423, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234854

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We investigated humoral and T-cell responses within 12 months after first BNT162b2 vaccine in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and controls who had received at least three vaccine doses. Furthermore, we compared the immune response in participants with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We included adult liver, lung, and kidney transplant recipients, and controls were selected from a parallel cohort of healthcare workers. Results: At 12th-month, the IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) (P<0.001), IgA GMCs (P=0.003), and median IFN-γ (P<0.001) were lower in SOT recipients than in controls. However, in SOT recipients and controls with previous infection, the neutralizing index was 99%, and the IgG, and IgA responses were comparable. After adjustment, female-sex (aOR: 3.6, P<0.009), kidney (aOR: 7.0, P= 0.008) or lung transplantation (aOR: 7.5, P= 0.014), and use of mycophenolate (aOR: 5.2, P=0.03) were associated with low IgG non response. Age (OR:1.4, P=0.038), time from transplantation to first vaccine (OR: 0.45, P<0.035), and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR: 0.14, P<0.001), were associated with low IgA non response. Diabetes (OR:2.4, P=0.044) was associated with T-cell non response. Conclusion: In conclusion, humoral and T-cell responses were inferior in SOT recipients without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection but comparable to controls in SOT recipients with previous infection.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Lung Transplantation , Adult , Female , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Cellular
11.
Vaccine ; 41(9): 1545-1549, 2023 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221467

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal data on the immune response from the first dose to several months after the third dose of COVID-19 vaccine are limited. We analyzed the immune response in 406 Japanese healthcare workers who received at least three doses of vaccine. The geometric mean anti-receptor binding domain IgG antibody titers and antigen-stimulated T-cell interferon-gamma levels after 6 months after receiving a third dose were similar to those 8 weeks after receiving a second dose. Humoral and cellular immunity induced by the third dose was more durable than that induced by the second dose. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry ID: UMIN000043340.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , East Asian People , Health Personnel
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1062136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198904

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with cancer, especially hematological cancer, are at increased risk for breakthrough COVID-19 infection. So far, a predictive biomarker that can assess compromised vaccine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in cancer patients has not been proposed. Methods: We employed machine learning approaches to identify a biomarker signature based on blood cytokines, chemokines, and immune- and non-immune-related growth factors linked to vaccine immunogenicity in 199 cancer patients receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine. Results: C-reactive protein (general marker of inflammation), interleukin (IL)-15 (a pro-inflammatory cytokine), IL-18 (interferon-gamma inducing factor), and placental growth factor (an angiogenic cytokine) correctly classified patients with a diminished vaccine response assessed at day 49 with >80% accuracy. Amongst these, CRP showed the highest predictive value for poor response to vaccine administration. Importantly, this unique signature of vaccine response was present at different studied timepoints both before and after vaccination and was not majorly affected by different anti-cancer treatments. Conclusion: We propose a blood-based signature of cytokines and growth factors that can be employed in identifying cancer patients at persistent high risk of COVID-19 despite vaccination with BNT162b2. Our data also suggest that such a signature may reflect the inherent immunological constitution of some cancer patients who are refractive to immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Cytokines , Neoplasms , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 918896, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198845

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective and safe vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are critical to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and will remain the most important tool in limiting the spread of the virus long after the pandemic is over. Methods: We bring pioneering contributions on the maintenance of the immune response over a year on a real-life basis study in 1,587 individuals (18-90 yrs, median 39 yrs; 1,208 female/379 male) who underwent vaccination with two doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 booster after 6-months of primary protocol. Findings: Elevated levels of anti-spike IgG antibodies were detected after CoronaVac vaccination, which significantly decreased after 80 days and remained stable until the introduction of the booster dose. Heterologous booster restored antibody titers up to-1·7-fold, changing overall seropositivity to 96%. Titers of neutralising antibodies to the Omicron variant were lower in all timepoints than those against Delta variant. Individuals presenting neutralising antibodies against Omicron also presented the highest titers against Delta and anti-Spike IgG. Cellular immune response measurement pointed out a mixed immune profile with a robust release of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors on the first month after CoronaVac vaccination followed by a gradual reduction over time and no increase after the booster dose. A stronger interaction between those mediators was noted over time. Prior exposure to the virus leaded to a more robust cellular immune response and a rise in antibody levels 60 days post CoronaVac than in individuals with no previous COVID-19. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated among individuals. Interpretation: Our data approach the effectiveness of CoronaVac association with BNT162b2 from the clinical and biological perspectives, aspects that have important implications for informing decisions about vaccine boosters. Funding: Fiocruz, Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Brazil , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
N Engl J Med ; 388(3): 214-227, 2023 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of immune-escape variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 warrants the use of sequence-adapted vaccines to provide protection against coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: In an ongoing phase 3 trial, adults older than 55 years who had previously received three 30-µg doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine were randomly assigned to receive 30 µg or 60 µg of BNT162b2, 30 µg or 60 µg of monovalent B.1.1.529 (omicron) BA.1-adapted BNT162b2 (monovalent BA.1), or 30 µg (15 µg of BNT162b2 + 15 µg of monovalent BA.1) or 60 µg (30 µg of BNT162b2 + 30 µg of monovalent BA.1) of BA.1-adapted BNT162b2 (bivalent BA.1). Primary objectives were to determine superiority (with respect to 50% neutralizing titer [NT50] against BA.1) and noninferiority (with respect to seroresponse) of the BA.1-adapted vaccines to BNT162b2 (30 µg). A secondary objective was to determine noninferiority of bivalent BA.1 to BNT162b2 (30 µg) with respect to neutralizing activity against the ancestral strain. Exploratory analyses assessed immune responses against omicron BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.75 subvariants. RESULTS: A total of 1846 participants underwent randomization. At 1 month after vaccination, bivalent BA.1 (30 µg and 60 µg) and monovalent BA.1 (60 µg) showed neutralizing activity against BA.1 superior to that of BNT162b2 (30 µg), with NT50 geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 2.08), 1.97 (95% CI, 1.45 to 2.68), and 3.15 (95% CI, 2.38 to 4.16), respectively. Bivalent BA.1 (both doses) and monovalent BA.1 (60 µg) were also noninferior to BNT162b2 (30 µg) with respect to seroresponse against BA.1; between-group differences ranged from 10.9 to 29.1 percentage points. Bivalent BA.1 (either dose) was noninferior to BNT162b2 (30 µg) with respect to neutralizing activity against the ancestral strain, with NT50 GMRs of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.82 to 1.20) and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.58), respectively. BA.4-BA.5 and BA.2.75 neutralizing titers were numerically higher with 30-µg bivalent BA.1 than with 30-µg BNT162b2. The safety profile of either dose of monovalent or bivalent BA.1 was similar to that of BNT162b2 (30 µg). Adverse events were more common in the 30-µg monovalent-BA.1 (8.5%) and 60-µg bivalent-BA.1 (10.4%) groups than in the other groups (3.6 to 6.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The candidate monovalent or bivalent omicron BA.1-adapted vaccines had a safety profile similar to that of BNT162b2 (30 µg), induced substantial neutralizing responses against ancestral and omicron BA.1 strains, and, to a lesser extent, neutralized BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.75 strains. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04955626.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Combined/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21908, 2022 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186014

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating lymphocytes profiling with antibody response in cancer patients receiving the third dose of COVID-19 mRNA-BNT162b2 vaccine. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood was used to determine absolute counts of lymphocyte subsets, alongside detection of IgG antibodies against receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (S1) before booster dosing (timepoint-1) and four weeks afterward (timepoint-2). An IgG titer ≥ 50 AU/mL defined a positive seroconversion response. An IgG titer ≥ 4446 AU/mL was assumed as a correlate of 50% vaccine efficacy against symptomatic infections. A total of 258 patients on active treatment within the previous six months were enrolled between September 23 and October 7, 2021. The third dose resulted in an exponential increase in median anti-RBD-S1 IgG titer (P < 0.001), seroconversion rates (P < 0.001), and 50% vaccine efficacy rates (P < 0.001). According to ROC curve analysis, T helper and B cells were significantly associated with seroconversion responses at timepoint-1, whereas only B cells were relevant to 50% vaccine efficacy rates at timepoint-2. A positive linear correlation was shown between anti-RBD-S1 IgG titers and these lymphocyte subset counts. Multivariate analysis ruled out a potential role of T helper cells but confirmed a significant interaction between higher B cell levels and improved antibody response. These findings suggest that peripheral counts of B cells correlate with humoral response to the third dose of mRNA-BNT162b2 vaccine in actively treated cancer patients and could provide insights into a more comprehensive assessment of vaccination efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lymphocytes , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Vaccine ; 41(4): 914-921, 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165923

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529/BA.1 (Omicron) variant in early 2022, Israel began vaccinating individuals 6o years of age or older with a fourth BNT162b2 vaccine. While the decision was based on little experimental data, longer follow-up showed clinical effectiveness of the fourth dose with reduction in the number of severely affected individuals. However, the immune response to fourth vaccine dose in this age group was not yet characterized, and little is known about the immunogenicity of repeated vaccine dosing in this age group. We therefore aimed to evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response pre- and 3-week post- the fourth vaccine dose in patients age 60 years or older. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from donors age 60 years or older, all received their 3rd vaccine dose 5 months prior. Serum samples were evaluated for the presence of anti-Spike protein (anti-S) antibodies (N = 133), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were evaluated by flow cytometry for their ability to respond to the SARS-CoV-2 wild type Spike-glycoprotein peptide mix, Membrane-glycoprotein (M) peptide mix and to the mutated Spike-regions of the Omicron variant (N = 34). Three weeks after the fourth vaccine dose, 24 out of 34 donors (70.5%) showed significant increase in the number of cells responding to the wild type S-peptide mix. Of note, out of 34 donors, 11 donors (32.3%) had pre-boost anti-M T-cell response, none of which had history of confirmed COVID-19, suggesting possible asymptomatic exposure. Interestingly, in M non-responding individuals, no statistically significant increase in the cellular response was observed following stimulation with omicron S-mutated regions. While there are limited data regarding the longevity of the observed response, our results are in accordance with the described clinical efficacy, provide mechanistic evidence to support it and argue against vaccine-induced or age-related immunosenescence.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Membrane Glycoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Cellular
18.
J Infect Dis ; 226(11): 1909-1912, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135323

ABSTRACT

We investigated antibody titers and avidity after heterologous versus homologous coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination over 6 months after the second dose. We found a significantly higher avidity in regimens including at least 1 dose of the adenoviral vector vaccine ChAdOx1-S compared with 2 doses of the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
Antibody Affinity , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Adenoviridae , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Kinetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 796482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123406

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination campaign to contrast the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised the issue of vaccine immunogenicity in special populations such as people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) on highly effective disease modifying treatments (DMTs). While humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have been well characterized in the general population and in PwMS, very little is known about cell-mediated responses in conferring protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Methods: PwMS on ocrelizumab, fingolimod or natalizumab, vaccinated with two doses of mRNABNT162b2 (Comirnaty®) vaccine were enrolled. Anti-Spike (S) and anti-Nucleoprotein (N) antibody titers, IFN-gamma production upon S and N peptide libraries stimulation, peripheral blood lymphocyte absolute counts were assessed after at least 1 month and within 4 months from vaccine second dose administration. A group of age and sex matched healthy donors (HD) were included as reference group. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 8.2.1. Results: Thirty PwMS and 9 HDs were enrolled. All the patients were negative for anti-N antibody detection, nor reported previous symptoms of COVID-19. Peripheral blood lymphocyte counts were assessed in PwMS showing: (i) reduction of circulating B-lymphocytes in PwMS on ocrelizumab; (ii) reduction of peripheral blood B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts in PwMS on fingolimod and (iii) normal B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts with an increase in circulating CD16+CD56+ NK-cells in PwMS on natalizumab. Three patterns of immunological responses were identified in PwMS. In patients on ocrelizumab, anti-S antibody were lacking or reduced, while T-cell responses were normal. In patients on fingolimod both anti-S titers and T-cell mediated responses were impaired. In patients on natalizumab both anti-S titers and T-cell responses were present and comparable to those observed in HD. Conclusions: The evaluation of T-cell responses, anti-S titers and peripheral blood lymphocyte absolute count in PwMS on DMTs can help to better characterize the immunological response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The evaluation of T-cell responses in longitudinal cohorts of PwMS will help to clarify their protective role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19. The correlation between DMT treatment and immunological responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines could help to better evaluate vaccination strategies in PwMS.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(42): e31288, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087900

ABSTRACT

We investigated serum total antibody titers against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein receptor-binding domain after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japanese patients taking various immunosuppressive medications for rheumatic disease. In 212 outpatients with rheumatic diseases at Kagawa University Hospital and 43 healthy volunteers (controls), all of whom had received 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, serum antibody titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were analyzed at least 14 days after the second dose. Many of the patients were taking immunosuppressive agents to manage their rheumatic disease. The antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in these patients were significantly lower than those in controls. The analysis of therapeutic agents revealed that the antibody titers in patients treated with rituximab were much lower than those in controls. In patients treated with tacrolimus, baricitinib, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, abatacept, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, cyclosporine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, methotrexate, or glucocorticoids, antibody titers were moderately lower than those of controls. Interleukin-17 and interleukin-23 inhibitors did not impair the humoral response. In addition, the combination of methotrexate with various immunosuppressive agents reduced titers, although not significantly. In Japanese patients with rheumatic disease, many immunosuppressants impaired the immune response to the BNT162b2 vaccine. The degree of decline in antibody titers differed according to immunosuppressant. When used concomitantly with other immunosuppressants, methotrexate may impair the immune response to the BNT162b2 vaccine. However, immunomodulatory treatments such as interleukin-17 and -23 inhibitors may not attenuate this response in patients with rheumatic disease.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Immunosuppression Therapy , Rheumatic Diseases , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Japan , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
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