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1.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(5): 601-610, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864944

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study aims to describe the etiology and resistance patterns of pathogens causing bacteremia in children with solid tumors in a tertiary pediatric hematology-oncology center in Jerusalem, Israel (2011-2019). Factors associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteremia and mortality were analyzed. A total of 228 pathogens were isolated in 126 patients; 61.0% were gram-negative rods (GNR) and 38.2% were gram-positive cocci (GPC). The most common pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.3%), Escherichia coli (17.5%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (16.2%). The proportion of MDR-GNR was 18.2%, while the proportion of MDR-GPC was 55.2%. In logistic regression analysis, breakthrough bacteremia on a penicillin-group antibiotic (odds ratio [OR] 5.69, [95% confidence interval 1.42-22.76], p-value = 0.014) was associated and underlying diagnosis of neuroblastoma was inversely associated (OR 0.17, [0.04-0.81], p-value = 0.026) with MDR-GNR bacteremia; while the previous hospitalizations' duration (OR 1.032/day, [1.01-1.06], p-value = 0.007) and oncologic treatment intensity (OR 2.19, [1.08-4.45, p-value = 0.03) were associated with MDR-GPC bacteremia. Shock, prolonged profound neutropenia, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission were associated with 7-day mortality; and relapsed disease, oncologic treatment intensity, prolonged profound neutropenia, and PICU admission-with 30-day mortality in the univariate analyses. Empirical antibiotic choice should be based on factors associated with MDR infections in this specific population.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Neoplasms , Neutropenia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Child , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
2.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(8): 1212-1215, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864584

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old woman, who started on hemodialysis 7 months before for end-stage renal disease due to diabetic nephropathy and was diagnosed with symptomatic multiple myeloma 1 month before, was admitted to our hospital with critical coronavirus disease 2019 and treated with long-term immunosuppressive therapy such as steroids and tocilizumab. During treatment, Bacillus subtilis was detected in the blood cultures. We could not exclude the association of natto (fermented soybeans) with B. subtilis var. natto, which the patient had been eating every day from 8 days after admission. She was prohibited from eating natto and treated with vancomycin. Later, B. subtilis detected in the blood culture was identified as B. subtilis var. natto, which was identical with those contained in the natto that the patient consumed daily using a next-generation sequencer. Gut dysbiosis due to old age, malignant tumor, diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, and intestinal inflammation caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 increased intestinal permeability and the risk of bacterial translocation, causing B. subtilis var. natto bacteremia. Therefore, careful consideration might be given to the intake of fermented foods containing live bacteria in patients with severe immunocompromised conditions.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Multiple Myeloma , Soy Foods , Aged , Bacillus subtilis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Eating , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Renal Dialysis , Soy Foods/microbiology
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(5): 702-709, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863109

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiology of nosocomial infections may show variability because of under-estimation of infection control measures (ICMs) in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) outbreak. Aim: To investigate the Acinetobacter bacteremia outbreak developed in an intensive care unit (ICU) between March 20 to May 15, 2020, examine the risk factors, and re-evaluate ICM retrospectively. Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for analysis of the outbreak, ICM practices were observed by a team, and infection control interventions were undertaken. Results: Acinetobacter bacteremia developed in 17 patients (21.5%) within 79 COVID-19 patients included in the study. The mean age of the bacteremic patients was 67.3 (SD = 14.82) years, and 82.4% of them were male; of these, 15 died, leading to 88.2% mortality. The bacteremia rate was higher compared with a 14-month period preceding the COVID-19 pandemic (17/79 versus 12/580 patients, respectively). PFGE revealed that the outbreak was polyclonal. On multi-variate analysis, the bacteremia development rate was 13.7 and 5.06 times higher with central venous catheter (CVC) use and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), respectively. The mortality rate was higher in bacteremic patients (p = 0.0016). It was observed that ICMs were not followed completely, especially change of gloves and hand hygiene. Contamination of A. baumannii was observed in 38% of the gloves. Conclusion: COPD and CVC use were determined as risk factors for Acinetobacter bacteremia development, and failures in ICM may have led to cross-contamination of endemic A. baumannii. The outbreak could be controlled within 3 weeks of interventions.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 74, 2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalised for COVID-19 may present with or acquire bacterial or fungal infections that can affect the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to describe the microbiological characteristics of laboratory-confirmed infections in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed the hospital charts of a sample of patients deceased with COVID-19 from the Italian National COVID-19 Surveillance, who had laboratory-confirmed bacterial or fungal bloodstream infections (BSI) or lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), evaluating the pathogens responsible for the infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS: Among 157 patients with infections hospitalised from February 2020 to April 2021, 28 (17.8%) had co-infections (≤ 48 h from admission) and 138 (87.9%) had secondary infections (> 48 h). Most infections were bacterial; LRTI were more frequent than BSI. The most common co-infection was pneumococcal LRTI. In secondary infections, Enterococci were the most frequently recovered pathogens in BSI (21.7% of patients), followed by Enterobacterales, mainly K. pneumoniae, while LRTI were mostly associated with Gram-negative bacteria, firstly Enterobacterales (27.4% of patients, K. pneumoniae 15.3%), followed by A. baumannii (19.1%). Fungal infections, both BSI and LRTI, were mostly due to C. albicans. Antibiotic resistance rates were extremely high in Gram-negative bacteria, with almost all A. baumannii isolates resistant to carbapenems (95.5%), and K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa showing carbapenem resistance rates of 59.5% and 34.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19, secondary infections are considerably more common than co-infections, and are mostly due to Gram-negative bacterial pathogens showing a very high rate of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Fungemia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Fungemia/complications , Fungemia/drug therapy , Fungemia/microbiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 978-981, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851523

ABSTRACT

Netherton's syndrome, a rare congenital disorder, is clinically characterized by chronic dermatologic disorders such as ichthyosiform erythroderma and ichthyosis linearis circumflexa. Curable treatment is yet to be established, and corticosteroid ointment is required to maintain good dermatological condition. Because of the permanent skin barrier impairment, patients with Netherton's syndrome are considered to be vulnerable to cutaneous infections. However, its clinical characteristics are yet to be elucidated due to the limited number of reported cases. Herein, we describe the clinical course of a patient who developed persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. A 19-year-old Japanese woman who had been diagnosed with Netherton's syndrome in her infancy and had been applying topical corticosteroid agents all over her body since her then, was referred to our hospital because of persistent MRSA bacteremia and secondary adrenal insufficiency. The patient was diagnosed with a central line-associated bloodstream infection and was appropriately treated with antibiotics and corticosteroid therapies. We assume that the damaged skin barrier due to the congenital dermatological disorder causes a disruption in the normal bacterial flora of the skin, leading to the invasion of harmful bacteria, such as S. aureus. In addition, internal (humoral immunodeficiency by decreased antibody against bacterial polysaccharide antigens) and external (prolonged and systemic use of corticosteroid ointment) factors bring about an immunodeficiency state in such patients. We highlight that in the absence of radical treatment, clinicians need to recognize that patients with Netherton's syndrome are vulnerable to bacterial infections owing to the mixture of immunosuppressive factors.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Adult , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Ointments , Staphylococcus aureus , Syndrome , Young Adult
6.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 56(2): 357-364, 2022 Apr.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818596

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in China at the end of 2019 and caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The lymphopenia seen in COVID-19 increases the incidence of susceptibility to other microorganisms and may cause co-infections. As the signs and symptoms of the diseases overlap with other infectious diseases and due to the intensity in health services, the diagnosis of co-infections becomes difficult and the treatment may be delayed. Therefore, infections accompanying COVID-19 cause an increase in morbidity and mortality.The isolation and quarantine measures taken during the COVID-19 process have reduced the number of infections transmitted from person to person. However, there was no significant decrease in diseases transmitted by food, such as salmonellosis. During the pandemic, salmonellosis continued to be a problem, especially in endemic areas such as Pakistan, and an increase in Salmonella infections associated with backyard poultry has been reported in countries such as the United States. A co-infection of COVID-19 and enteric fever associated with travel to Pakistan was reported for the first time in the literature in February 2021. In this case report, the first co-infection of COVID-19 and Salmonella in our country was presented. A 56-yearold male patient with no known systemic disease was admitted to the hospital with fever, shortness of breath, weakness and myalgia lasting for three days. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test was positive. The patient has been hospitalized and favipiravir, moxifloxacin, and methylprednisolone were started. Blood cultures were taken from the patient whose clinical picture worsened and fever continued despite of the medical treatment. Salmonella enterica spp. enterica was isolated and ceftriaxone treatment was started. The patient's anamnesis was deepened, but no diarrhea, abdominal pain, suspicious food consumption, travel history were determined. From the second day of the ceftriaxone treatment, the patient's fever decreased and no growth was detected in the control blood cultures. Ceftriaxone treatment was completed in 14 days and the patient was discharged on the 28th day. Approximately 87-95% of Salmonella strains isolated in our country are S.enterica spp. enterica, and S.enterica spp. enterica was also isolated in our case. Salmonella infections most commonly present as gastroenteritis, but the risk of bacteremia increases in case of immunosuppression. Although there was no additional disease in our case, it was considered that the infection in the form of bacteremia occurred due to an immunosuppression caused by COVID-19. In this context; drawing blood cultures of patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 is very important in terms of detecting co-infections and superinfections, and administering appropriate antibiotic therapy at appropriate treatment times. Presentation of first case of Salmonella bacteremia and simultaneous COVID-19 infection in our country was the strong side of our report. In addition, our case is also important as being the first SARS-CoV-2 and Salmonella co-infection unrelated to Pakistan in the literature. The limitation of our case was that S.enterica spp. enterica detected in the blood culture could not be subtyped and the stool culture could not be examined. However, this does not constitute a diagnostic requirement. In addition, the patient's pre-COVID-19 Salmonella carrier status was also unknown. As a result, patients become vulnerable to other infections due to the lymphopenia seen in COVID-19. Therefore, Salmonella bacteremia can be seen with SARS-CoV-2 infection without a comorbid condition. Drawing blood cultures in hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of COVID-19 is very important in terms of detecting concomitant infections in a short time. In patients whose clinical condition does not improve and fever continues despite of treatment, blood cultures should be taken, especially in the case of an advanced immunosuppresive treatment plan, and it should always be kept in mind that secondary infections and co-infections may occur.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Lymphopenia , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella enterica , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Salmonella Infections/diagnosis , Salmonella Infections/drug therapy , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology
7.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1812119

ABSTRACT

From 1 January to 31 December 2020, forty-nine institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Enterococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (AESOP). The aims of AESOP 2020 were to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteraemia isolates in Australia that were antimicrobial-resistant, and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the E. faecium isolates. Of the 1,230 unique episodes of enterococcal bacteraemia investigated, 93.9% were caused by either E. faecalis (54.2%) or E. faecium (39.7%). Ampicillin resistance was not detected in E. faecalis but was detected in 88.2% of E. faecium . Vancomycin non-susceptibility was detected in 0.2% of E. faecalis and 32.6% of E. faecium . Overall, 35.2% of E. faecium harboured vanA and/or vanB genes. For the vanA/B positive E. faecium isolates, 38.8% harboured the vanA gene, 60.6% the vanB gene, and 0.6% harboured both vanA and vanB . Although the percentage of E. faecium bacteraemia isolates was significantly lower than that detected in the 2019 AESOP (presumably due to the COVID-19 elective surgery restrictions placed on hospitals), it remains substantially higher than that recorded in most European countries. The E. faecium isolates detected consisted of 71 multilocus sequence types (STs), with 81.7% of these isolates classified into eight major STs each containing ten or more isolates. All major STs belonged to clonal cluster 17 (CC17), a major hospital-adapted polyclonal E. faecium cluster. The major STs (ST17, ST1424, ST80, ST796, ST78, ST1421, ST555 and ST117) were found across most regions of Australia. The predominant clone was ST17, which was identified in all regions except the Northern Territory. Overall, 40.9% of isolates belonging to the eight major STs harboured the vanA or vanB gene. The AESOP 2020 has shown enterococcal bacteraemia episodes in Australia are frequently caused by polyclonal ampicillin-resistant high-level gentamicin-resistant vanA - or vanB -positive E. faecium which have limited treatment options.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Sepsis , Agar , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterococcus/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Northern Territory , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/epidemiology
8.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(3): 465-468, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778294

ABSTRACT

Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic used off-label to treat serious gram-positive infections, including infections secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Dalbavancin has unique pharmacokinetic parameters and has a role in therapy for treating vulnerable patients, including intravenous drug users, who have challenges complying with typical care plans for serious infections. While there is data indicating successful clinical use of dalbavancin in patients with history of intravenous drug use as well as pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data assessing dalbavancin in obesity, there is a lack of information regarding clinical effects of dalbavancin in patients with extreme obesity, especially in patients with concomitant drug use. This case report describes a 40-year-old morbidly obese female actively using intravenous drugs who developed prolonged MRSA bacteremia without a recognizable focus. Despite partial treatment with dalbavancin, the patient developed osteomyelitis and discitis of the spine with associated epidural phlegmon, likely complications of the MRSA bacteremia.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Obesity, Morbid , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/adverse effects , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives
9.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096221084513, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753092

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including a hypercoagulable state leading to both arterial and venous thrombosis. Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in the setting of COVID-19 has rarely been reported in the medical literature. Pylephlebitis with concomitant liver abscess is a rare complication of intra-abdominal infection. Here, we present the case of a 49-year-old man who initially presented with intermittent fevers and generalized weakness of 1-month duration and was subsequently found to have COVID-19 infection, PVT, and Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia with associated pyogenic liver abscess. The patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics and oral anticoagulation with plan to follow up outpatient with gastroenterology in 3 months to ensure resolution of PVT and liver abscess.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic , Venous Thrombosis , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteroides , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/complications , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/diagnosis , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Portal Vein , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
11.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(1): 53-62, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616163

ABSTRACT

There is relatively little contemporary information regarding clinical characteristics of patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia (PAB) in the community hospital setting. This was a retrospective, observational cohort study examining the clinical characteristics of patients with PAB across several community hospitals in the USA with a focus on the appropriateness of initial empirical therapy and impact on patient outcomes. Cases of PAB occurring between 2016 and 2019 were pulled from 8 community medical centers. Patients were classified as having either positive or negative outcome at hospital discharge. Several variables including receipt of active empiric therapy (AET) and the time to receiving AET were collected. Variables with a p value of < 0.05 in univariate analyses were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. Two hundred and eleven episodes of PAB were included in the analysis. AET was given to 81.5% of patients and there was no difference in regard to outcome (p = 0.62). There was no difference in the median time to AET in patients with a positive or negative outcome (p = 0.53). After controlling for other variables, age, Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4, and septic shock were independently associated with a negative outcome. A high proportion of patients received timely, active antimicrobial therapy for PAB and time to AET did not have a significant impact on patient outcome.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Female , Hospitals, Community/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/physiology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35(1): 80-83, 2022 Feb.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We carry out an analysis of the bacteremia diagnosed in the Emergency Department during 2020, coinciding with the period of the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis from March 4, 2020 to December 31, 2020. RESULTS: The number of patients who went to the Emergency Department during the study period and the number of extracted blood cultures decreased by 46.79% and 35.7% compared to the same period in 2019 (p <0.05). 320 bacteremia occurred while 507 occurred in 2019, assuming a decrease of 36.8% (p <0.05). The positivity rate of blood cultures was 7.09% in 2020 and 7.23% in 2019 and the contamination rate was 7.07 % in 2020 and 5.67% in 2019. The most frequently isolated microorganism was Escherichia coli, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. A 6.62% of the isolated E. coli were carriers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). The percentage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 12.9 % and that of K. pneumoniae ESBL was 11.54%. CONCLUSIONS: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic there has been a decrease in the number of bacteremia diagnoses, it is possible that attention was focused especially on COVID, forgetting other diseases, such as bacteremia.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Escherichia coli Infections , Klebsiella Infections , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , beta-Lactamases
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 114: 90-96, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474624

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study measured the impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic (COVID-19) (March-April 2020) on the incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) at Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), the largest multisite public healthcare institution in France. METHODS: The number of patient admission blood cultures (BCs) collected, number of positive BCs, and antibiotic resistance and consumption were analysed retrospectively for the first quarter of 2020, and also for the first quarter of 2019 for comparison, in 25 APHP hospitals (ca. 14 000 beds). RESULTS: Up to a fourth of patients admitted in March-April 2020 in these hospitals had COVID-19. The BSI rate per 100 admissions increased overall by 24% in March 2020 and 115% in April 2020, and separately for the major pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeasts). A sharp increase in the rate of BSIs caused by microorganisms resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) was also observed in March-April 2020, particularly in K. pneumoniae, enterobacterial species naturally producing inducible AmpC (Enterobacter cloacae...), and P. aeruginosa. A concomitant increase in 3GC consumption occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a strong impact on hospital management and also unfavourable effects on severe infections, antimicrobial resistance, and laboratory work diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/drug therapy
14.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(3)2021 Aug 11.
Article in Dutch | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410993

ABSTRACT

Periprosthetic joint infections at an advanced age can lead to significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, mostly related to an atypical form of presentation in this population. We describe in this case the delayed diagnostic process of a disseminated invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection in a frail patient with a total hip prosthesis. The detection of Staphylococcus aureus in a urine sample was a supplementary hint towards the possible existence of a Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. The course of this case shows that teleconsultation and ambulatory based diagnostics are not appropriate for frail older patients with (sub)acute bone and joint infections, even in times of pandemic and constrainedly deferred care.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 933, 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an emerging cause of significant morbidity and mortality in severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess the prevalence, clinical profile and outcome of BSIs in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India. All patients (age > 18 years) with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) were included. Hospital electronic records were searched for demographic data, time of bloodstream infection since admission, clinical profile, antimicrobial resistance pattern and clinical outcome of all patients who developed BSIs. RESULTS: Out of 750 patients admitted in COVID ICU, 8.5% developed secondary BSIs. All severe COVID-19 patients who developed BSIs succumbed to illness. A significant proportion of BSIs were Gram-negative pathogens (53/64, 82.8%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the commonest isolate, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (32.8% and 21.9%, respectively). Multidrug-resistance organisms (MDRO) were found in 57.8% of the cases. The majority of MDRO belonged to K. pneumoniae and Enterococcus groups. The proportion of Gram-negative bacteria resistant to carbapenems was 47.2% (25/53). On multivariate analysis, raised total leukocyte counts, mechanical ventilation and presence of comorbidities were significantly associated with the incidence of BSIs. CONCLUSION: We found a significant prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii in COVID-19 associated BSIs. The presence of comorbidities raised leukocyte counts and mechanical ventilation should alarm clinicians for possible BSIs. The timely initiation of empirical antibiotics and rapid de-escalation is vital to improve the outcome. At the same time, strict compliance of infection control practices should be accomplished to reduce the occurrence of MDRO.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Sepsis , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/drug therapy
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e051208, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346066

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia is a frequent condition, with high mortality rates. There is a growing interest in identifying new therapeutic regimens able to reduce therapeutic failure and mortality observed with the standard of care of beta-lactam monotherapy. In vitro and small-scale studies have found synergy between cloxacillin and fosfomycin against S. aureus. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that cloxacillin plus fosfomycin achieves higher treatment success than cloxacillin alone in patients with MSSA bacteraemia. METHODS: We will perform a superiority, randomised, open-label, phase IV-III, two-armed parallel group (1:1) clinical trial at 20 Spanish tertiary hospitals. Adults (≥18 years) with isolation of MSSA from at least one blood culture ≤72 hours before inclusion with evidence of infection, will be randomly allocated to receive either cloxacillin 2 g/4-hour intravenous plus fosfomycin 3 g/6-hour intravenous or cloxacillin 2 g/4-hour intravenous alone for 7 days. After the first week, sequential treatment and total duration of antibiotic therapy will be determined according to clinical criteria by the attending physician.Primary endpoints: (1) Treatment success at day 7, a composite endpoint comprising all the following criteria: patient alive, stable or with improved quick-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, afebrile and with negative blood cultures for MSSA at day 7. (2) Treatment success at test of cure (TOC) visit: patient alive and no isolation of MSSA in blood culture or at another sterile site from day 8 until TOC (12 weeks after randomisation).We assume a rate of treatment success of 74% in the cloxacillin group. Accepting alpha risk of 0.05 and beta risk of 0.2 in a two-sided test, 183 subjects will be required in each of the control and experimental groups to obtain statistically significant difference of 12% (considered clinically significant). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of Bellvitge University Hospital (AC069/18) and from the Spanish Medicines and Healthcare Product Regulatory Agency (AEMPS, AC069/18), and is valid for all participating centres under existing Spanish legislation. The results will be presented at international meetings and will be made available to patients and funders. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The protocol has been approved by AEMPS with the Trial Registration Number EudraCT 2018-001207-37. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03959345; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Fosfomycin , Staphylococcal Infections , Adult , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Cloxacillin/therapeutic use , Fosfomycin/therapeutic use , Humans , Methicillin , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Safrole/analogs & derivatives , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus , Treatment Outcome
17.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(11): 1685-1692, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The effect of the use of immunomodulatory drugs on the risk of developing hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with COVID-19 has not been specifically assessed. We aim to identify risk factors for, and outcomes of, BSI among hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a severity matched case-control study (1:1 ratio) nested in a large multicentre prospective cohort of hospitalized adults with COVID-19. Cases with BSI were identified from the cohort database. Controls were matched for age, sex and acute respiratory distress syndrome. A Cox proportional hazard ratio model was performed. RESULTS: Of 2005 patients, 100 (4.98%) presented 142 episodes of BSI, mainly caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Polymicrobial infection accounted for 23 episodes. The median time from admission to the first episode of BSI was 15 days (IQR 9-20), and the most frequent source was catheter-related infection. The characteristics of patients with and without BSI were similar, including the use of tocilizumab, corticosteroids, and combinations. In the multivariate analysis, the use of these immunomodulatory drugs was not associated with an increased risk of BSI. A Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) model showed that after adjusting for the time factor, BSI was associated with a higher in-hospital mortality risk (HR 2.59; 1.65-4.07; p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Hospital-acquired BSI in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia was uncommon and the use of immunomodulatory drugs was not associated with its development. When adjusting for the time factor, BSI was associated with a higher mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Immunomodulation , Adult , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320438

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of an immunocompetent 75-year-old man with Capnocytophaga canimorsus bacteraemia and meningitis. C. canimorsus is commonly found in the oral flora of dogs with human infection typically occurring following a bite. Unusually, while our patient was a dog owner, there was no history of bite nor scratch mark. Admission blood cultures flagged positive for Gram-negative bacilli, but prolonged molecular analysis was required before C. canimorsus was isolated in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. There is a high mortality rate in invasive infection, and in our patient's case, antibiotic therapy was commenced prior to laboratory confirmation with our patient making a complete recovery. This case highlights the importance of including C. canimorsus in the differential diagnosis of unwell patients who keep dogs, even without a bite. This case occurred amid heightened awareness of COVID-19, which may represent predisposition for zoonoses during social isolation and increased human-pet contact.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bites and Stings , COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Meningitis , Animals , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bites and Stings/complications , Capnocytophaga , Dogs , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Anaerobe ; 70: 102405, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274154

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to report 10 episodes of clinically significant bacteremia caused by species of the genus Anaerococcus isolated between July 2018 and February 2021 from the microbiology laboratory of a tertiary hospital in Granada (Spain). None of the isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, and the definitive species identification was performed by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. No reference spectra of the Anaerococcus species were present in the MALDI-TOF MS database. Eight isolates were finally identified as A. octavius, one isolate as A. tetradius and the other as A. urinomassiliensis. The majority of these infections were seen in patients aged >70 years. Risk factors for anaerobic infection were observed in eight patients, especially diabetes mellitus, surgery, and the presence of cancer. Fever was present in all patients. Three patients died, but only one death was attributed to the infection. Mean detection time of positive blood cultures was 47.5 h (range 24-92 h). Antimicrobial susceptibility to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam was tested using the gradient diffusion technique and EUCAST breakpoints (except for moxifloxacin). No resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate, metronidazole, imipenem, or piperacillin-tazobactam was detected; however, the majority of isolates were resistant to clindamycin. When MALDI-TOF MS does not provide a correct identification at genus or species level, as in some isolates of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci, microbiologists should perform an additional confirmatory technique, such as gene sequencing analysis, to obtain a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/microbiology , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacterial Typing Techniques , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Firmicutes/classification , Firmicutes/drug effects , Firmicutes/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Spain
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266368

ABSTRACT

We describe a unique case of a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), with recurring infections during chemotherapy from chronic nasal carriage of non-diphtherial Corynebacterium, who was eventually diagnosed as she presented with neutropaenic sepsis. Identifying (often multiple) sources of infection in immunocompromised patients is crucial but deciding whether multiple organisms, which in health are considered as commensals, are actually pathogenic during vulnerable states-can be clinically difficult. Our case highlights the efforts to correctly identify the actual source of this rare organism and the recognition of its pathogenic potential when other illnesses present. We also review the literature of Corynebacteria in patients with haematological malignancies but believe this is the first case of AML to be infected with Corynebacterium presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic with a probable incidental positive swab for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Corynebacterium , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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