Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 31
Filter
1.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35(1): 80-83, 2022 Feb.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We carry out an analysis of the bacteremia diagnosed in the Emergency Department during 2020, coinciding with the period of the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis from March 4, 2020 to December 31, 2020. RESULTS: The number of patients who went to the Emergency Department during the study period and the number of extracted blood cultures decreased by 46.79% and 35.7% compared to the same period in 2019 (p <0.05). 320 bacteremia occurred while 507 occurred in 2019, assuming a decrease of 36.8% (p <0.05). The positivity rate of blood cultures was 7.09% in 2020 and 7.23% in 2019 and the contamination rate was 7.07 % in 2020 and 5.67% in 2019. The most frequently isolated microorganism was Escherichia coli, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. A 6.62% of the isolated E. coli were carriers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). The percentage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 12.9 % and that of K. pneumoniae ESBL was 11.54%. CONCLUSIONS: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic there has been a decrease in the number of bacteremia diagnoses, it is possible that attention was focused especially on COVID, forgetting other diseases, such as bacteremia.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Escherichia coli Infections , Klebsiella Infections , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , beta-Lactamases
3.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(3): 245-249, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact leading to increases in health care-associated infections, particularly bloodstream infections (BSI). METHODS: We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 in 69 US hospitals on BSIs before and during the pandemic. Events associated with 5 pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida sp.) were stratified by community onset (CO) if ≤ 3 days from admission or hospital onset (HO) if > 3 days after admission. We compared pre-pandemic CO and HO rates with pandemic periods and the rates of BSI for those with and without COVID-19. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients were less likely to be admitted with COBSI compared to others (10.85 vs 22.35 per 10,000 patient days; P < .0001). There was a significant increase between pre-pandemic and pandemic HOBSI rates (2.78 vs 3.56 per 10,000 patient days; P < .0001). Also, COVID-19 infected patients were 3.5 times more likely to develop HOBSI compared to those without COVID-19 infection (9.64 vs 2.74 per 10,000 patient-days; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic period was associated with substantial increases in HOBSI and largely attributed to COVID-19 infected patients. Future research should evaluate whether such measures would be beneficial to incorporate in evaluating infection prevention trends.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology
4.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(4): 841-856, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506789

ABSTRACT

Despite a large volume of research in prevention, central line-associated bloodstream infections and catheter-related bloodstream infections continue to cause significant morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. Strategies in prevention, including decision about catheter placement, insertion bundles, adherence to standard of care guidelines, and technologic innovations, shown to decrease rates of catheter-related bloodstream infections and central line-associated bloodstream infections are described in this update. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in increased health care-acquired infections, including central line-associated bloodstream infections.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/standards , Clinical Decision-Making , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Humans , Patient Care Bundles/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 114: 90-96, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474624

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study measured the impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic (COVID-19) (March-April 2020) on the incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) at Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), the largest multisite public healthcare institution in France. METHODS: The number of patient admission blood cultures (BCs) collected, number of positive BCs, and antibiotic resistance and consumption were analysed retrospectively for the first quarter of 2020, and also for the first quarter of 2019 for comparison, in 25 APHP hospitals (ca. 14 000 beds). RESULTS: Up to a fourth of patients admitted in March-April 2020 in these hospitals had COVID-19. The BSI rate per 100 admissions increased overall by 24% in March 2020 and 115% in April 2020, and separately for the major pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeasts). A sharp increase in the rate of BSIs caused by microorganisms resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) was also observed in March-April 2020, particularly in K. pneumoniae, enterobacterial species naturally producing inducible AmpC (Enterobacter cloacae...), and P. aeruginosa. A concomitant increase in 3GC consumption occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a strong impact on hospital management and also unfavourable effects on severe infections, antimicrobial resistance, and laboratory work diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/drug therapy
6.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1779-1786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An unexpected high prevalence of enterococcal bloodstream infection (BSI) has been observed in critically ill patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary objective was to describe the characteristics of ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI in critically ill patients with COVID-19. A secondary objective was to exploratorily assess the predictors of 30-day mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients with ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI. RESULTS: During the study period, 223 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to COVID-19-dedicated ICUs in our centre. Overall, 51 episodes of enterococcal BSI, occurring in 43 patients, were registered. 29 (56.9%) and 22 (43.1%) BSI were caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. The cumulative incidence of ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI was of 229 episodes per 1000 ICU admissions (95% mid-p confidence interval [CI] 172-298). Most patients received an empirical therapy with at least one agent showing in vitro activity against the blood isolate (38/43, 88%). The crude 30-day mortality was 42% (18/43) and 57% (4/7) in the entire series and in patients with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium BSI, respectively. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score showed an independent association with increased mortality (odds ratio 1.32 per one-point increase, with 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.66, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence of enterococcal BSI is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Our results suggest a crucial role of the severity of the acute clinical conditions, to which both the underlying viral pneumonia and the enterococcal BSI may contribute, in majorly influencing the outcome.KEY MESSAGESThe cumulative incidence of enterococcal BSI is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19.The crude 30-day mortality of enterococcal BSI in critically ill patients with COVID-19 may be higher than 40%.There could be a crucial role of the severity of the acute clinical conditions, to which both the underlying viral pneumonia and the enterococcal BSI may contribute, in majorly influencing the outcome.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Mortality , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Critical Illness , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Hosp Infect ; 119: 149-154, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of nosocomial infections including ventilator-associated pneumonia and bacteraemia has been described during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, information regarding the impact of COVID-19 on the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) is very limited. AIM: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the evolution of CR-BSIs in a large hospital. METHODS: This was a retrospective study comparing the incidence, aetiology and outcome of CR-BSIs during the months of March to May 2019 (pre-pandemic) and 2020 (during the pandemic). FINDINGS: The number of patients with one or more CR-BSIs in 2019 and 2020 were 23 and 58, respectively (1.89 vs 5.53/1000 admissions); P<0.001. Median time from catheter implantation to demonstration of CR-BSI was 27.5 days (range 11.75-126.00 days) in the 2019 cases and 16.0 days (range 11.00-23.50 days) in the 2020 population (P=0.032). CONCLUSIONS: A dramatic increase of CR-BSIs was found during the COVID-19 pandemic. Reinforcement of classic and new preventive measures is necessary.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheters , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Intern Med J ; 52(2): 223-227, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing was the predominant strategy used to mitigate the spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. AIMS: To study the impact of social distancing on the incidence of bacteraemia. The number of admitted patients with positive blood cultures in April-May 2020 in one tertiary medical centre was compared with the number during the same period in the previous 3 years (April-May 2017-2019). METHODS: Retrospective review of all positive blood cultures from January to July in the years 2017-2020. RESULTS: There were fewer cases of Streptococcus bacteraemia as well as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus bacteraemia and other possible contaminated blood cultures in April-May 2020. Compared with the previous 3 years, the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia among all bacteraemias was lower in April-May 2020 (5%) than in 2017-2019 (12.0%; 95% confidence interval 10.3-14.1%). In general, fewer cases of bacteraemia caused by oropharynx organisms were observed in April-May 2020; only 6 cases versus 31 (95% confidence interval 10-53) during the same period in 2017-2019. Only one case of S. pneumoniae bacteraemia was observed in April-May 2020 and its percentage among all bacteraemias was lower in April-May 2020 (0.4%) than during the same period in 2017-2019 (3.3%). CONCLUSION: The incidences of streptococcal bacteraemia and bacteraemia of organisms transmitted through respiratory secretions were lower when there were social distancing restrictions. Adopting measures of social distancing may decrease the morbidity from bacteraemia caused by oropharynx and respiratory bacteria.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Hosp Infect ; 119: 175-181, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415561

ABSTRACT

Increases in hospital-onset Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia rates in England were observed between August 2020 and February 2021 to the highest levels recorded since the start of mandatory surveillance in April 2017. Cases were extracted from England's mandatory surveillance database for key Gram-negative bloodstream infections. Incidence rates for hospital-onset bacteraemia cases increased from 8.9 (N=255) to 14.9 (N=394) per 100,000 bed-days for Klebsiella spp. [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.7, P<0.001], and from 4.9 (N=139) to 6.2 (N=164) per 100,000 bed-days for P. aeruginosa (IRR 1.3, P<0.001) (August 2020-February 2021). These incidence rates were higher than the average rates observed during the same period in the previous 3 years. These trends coincided with an increase in the percentage of hospital-onset bacteraemia cases that were also positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Bacteremia/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Klebsiella , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
10.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(3)2021 Aug 11.
Article in Dutch | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410993

ABSTRACT

Periprosthetic joint infections at an advanced age can lead to significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, mostly related to an atypical form of presentation in this population. We describe in this case the delayed diagnostic process of a disseminated invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection in a frail patient with a total hip prosthesis. The detection of Staphylococcus aureus in a urine sample was a supplementary hint towards the possible existence of a Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. The course of this case shows that teleconsultation and ambulatory based diagnostics are not appropriate for frail older patients with (sub)acute bone and joint infections, even in times of pandemic and constrainedly deferred care.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 933, 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an emerging cause of significant morbidity and mortality in severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess the prevalence, clinical profile and outcome of BSIs in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India. All patients (age > 18 years) with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) were included. Hospital electronic records were searched for demographic data, time of bloodstream infection since admission, clinical profile, antimicrobial resistance pattern and clinical outcome of all patients who developed BSIs. RESULTS: Out of 750 patients admitted in COVID ICU, 8.5% developed secondary BSIs. All severe COVID-19 patients who developed BSIs succumbed to illness. A significant proportion of BSIs were Gram-negative pathogens (53/64, 82.8%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the commonest isolate, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (32.8% and 21.9%, respectively). Multidrug-resistance organisms (MDRO) were found in 57.8% of the cases. The majority of MDRO belonged to K. pneumoniae and Enterococcus groups. The proportion of Gram-negative bacteria resistant to carbapenems was 47.2% (25/53). On multivariate analysis, raised total leukocyte counts, mechanical ventilation and presence of comorbidities were significantly associated with the incidence of BSIs. CONCLUSION: We found a significant prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii in COVID-19 associated BSIs. The presence of comorbidities raised leukocyte counts and mechanical ventilation should alarm clinicians for possible BSIs. The timely initiation of empirical antibiotics and rapid de-escalation is vital to improve the outcome. At the same time, strict compliance of infection control practices should be accomplished to reduce the occurrence of MDRO.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Sepsis , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/drug therapy
12.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(11): 1441-1442, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363851

ABSTRACT

We investigated the clinical implications of bacteremia among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Higher rates (52.1%) of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) were noted on hospital admission compared to nosocomial acquisition (25%). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen. Bacteremia with MDRO should be considered in the differential diagnosis among at risk populations especially those admitted from nursing facilities.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(11): 1685-1692, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The effect of the use of immunomodulatory drugs on the risk of developing hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with COVID-19 has not been specifically assessed. We aim to identify risk factors for, and outcomes of, BSI among hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a severity matched case-control study (1:1 ratio) nested in a large multicentre prospective cohort of hospitalized adults with COVID-19. Cases with BSI were identified from the cohort database. Controls were matched for age, sex and acute respiratory distress syndrome. A Cox proportional hazard ratio model was performed. RESULTS: Of 2005 patients, 100 (4.98%) presented 142 episodes of BSI, mainly caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Polymicrobial infection accounted for 23 episodes. The median time from admission to the first episode of BSI was 15 days (IQR 9-20), and the most frequent source was catheter-related infection. The characteristics of patients with and without BSI were similar, including the use of tocilizumab, corticosteroids, and combinations. In the multivariate analysis, the use of these immunomodulatory drugs was not associated with an increased risk of BSI. A Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) model showed that after adjusting for the time factor, BSI was associated with a higher in-hospital mortality risk (HR 2.59; 1.65-4.07; p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Hospital-acquired BSI in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia was uncommon and the use of immunomodulatory drugs was not associated with its development. When adjusting for the time factor, BSI was associated with a higher mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Immunomodulation , Adult , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 556, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated for change in blood stream infections (BSI) with Enterobacterales, coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus during the first UK wave of SARS-CoV-2 across five London hospitals. METHODS: A retrospective multicentre ecological analysis was undertaken evaluating all blood cultures taken from adults from 01 April 2017 to 30 April 2020 across five acute hospitals in London. Linear trend analysis and ARIMA models allowing for seasonality were used to look for significant variation. RESULTS: One hundred nineteen thousand five hundred eighty-four blood cultures were included. At the height of the UK SARS-CoV-2 first wave in April 2020, Enterobacterales bacteraemias were at an historic low across two London trusts (63/3814, 1.65%), whilst all CoNS BSI were at an historic high (173/3814, 4.25%). This differed significantly for both Enterobacterales (p = 0.013), CoNS central line associated BSIs (CLABSI) (p < 0.01) and CoNS non-CLABSI (p < 0.01), when compared with prior periods, even allowing for seasonal variation. S. pneumoniae (p = 0.631) and S. aureus (p = 0.617) BSI did not vary significant throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly fewer than expected Enterobacterales BSI occurred during the UK peak of the COVID-19 pandemic; identifying potential causes, including potential unintended consequences of national self-isolation public health messaging, is essential. High rates of CoNS BSI, with evidence of increased CLABSI, but also likely contamination associated with increased use of personal protective equipment, may result in inappropriate antimicrobial use and indicates a clear area for intervention during further waves.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacteria , COVID-19 , Adult , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care , United Kingdom
15.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(4): 330-336, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151154

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The susceptibility to infection probably increases in COVID-19 patients due to a combination of virusand drug-induced immunosuppression. The reported rate of secondary infections was quite low in previous studies. The objectives of our study were to investigate the rate of secondary infections, risk factors for secondary infections and risk factors for mortality in COVID-19 critically ill patients. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study in mechanically ventilated critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to our Critical Care Unit (CCU). We recorded the patients' demographic data; clinical data; microbiology data and incidence of secondary infection during CCU stay, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and nosocomial bacteremia (primary and secondary). RESULTS: A total of 107 patients with a mean age 62.2 ± 10.6 years were included. Incidence of secondary infection during CCU stay was 43.0% (46 patients), including nosocomial bacteremia (34 patients) and VAP (35 patients). Age was related to development of secondary infection (65.2 ± 7.3 vs. 59.9 ± 12.2 years, p=0.007). Age ≥ 65 years and secondary infection were independent predictors of mortality (OR=2.692, 95% CI 1.068-6.782, p<0.036; and OR=3.658, 95% CI 1.385- 9.660, p=0.009, respectively). The hazard ratio for death within 90 days in the ≥ 65 years group and in patients infected by antimicrobial resistant pathogens was 1.901 (95% CI 1.198- 3.018; p= 0.005 by log-rank test) and 1.787 (95% CI 1.023-3.122; p= 0.036 by log-rank test), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the incidence of secondary infection and infection by antimicrobial resistant pathogens is very high in critically ill patients with COVID-19 with a significant impact on prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/etiology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection , Critical Illness , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Infections/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 199, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Netherlands it was noticed that very few blood cultures from COVID-19 patients turned positive with clinically relevant bacteria. This was particularly evident in comparison to the number of positive blood cultures during previous seasonal epidemics of influenza. This observation raised questions about the occurrence and causative microorganisms of bacteraemia in COVID-19 patients, especially in the perspective of the widely reported overuse of antibiotics and the rising rate of antibiotic resistance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on blood culture results in influenza A, influenza B and COVID-19 patients presenting to two hospitals in the Netherlands. Our main outcome consisted of the percentage of positive blood cultures. The percentage of clinically relevant blood cultures, isolated bacteria and 30-day all-cause mortality served as our secondary outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1331 viral episodes were analysed in 1324 patients. There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.47) in overall occurrence of blood culture positivity in COVID-19 patients (9.0, 95% CI 6.8-11.1) in comparison to influenza A (11.4, 95% CI 7.9-14.8) and influenza B patients (10.4, 95% CI 7.1-13.7,). After correcting for the high rate of contamination, the occurrence of clinically relevant bacteraemia in COVID-19 patients amounted to 1.0% (95% CI 0.3-1.8), which was statistically significantly lower (p = 0.04) compared to influenza A patients (4.0, 95% CI 1.9-6.1) and influenza B patients (3.0, 95% CI 1.2-4.9). The most frequently identified bacterial isolates in COVID-19 patients were Escherichia coli (n = 2) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 2). The overall 30-day all-cause mortality for COVID-19 patients was 28.3% (95% CI 24.9-31.7), which was statistically significantly higher (p = <.001) when compared to patients with influenza A (7.1, 95% CI 4.3-9.9) and patients with influenza B (6.4, 95% CI 3.8-9.1). CONCLUSIONS: We report a very low occurrence of community-acquired bacteraemia amongst COVID-19 patients in comparison to influenza patients. These results reinforce current clinical guidelines on antibiotic management in COVID-19, which only advise utilization of antibiotics when a bacterial co-infection is suspected.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2883-2889, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082475

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The rate of bacterial coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is poorly defined. The decision to administer antibiotics early in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on the likelihood of bacterial coinfection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients admitted through the emergency department with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection over a 6-week period in a large healthcare system in the United States. Blood and respiratory culture results were abstracted and adjudicated by multiple authors. The primary outcome was the rate of bacteremia. We secondarily looked to define clinical or laboratory features associated with bacteremia. RESULTS: There were 542 patients admitted with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an average age of 62.8 years. Of these, 395 had blood cultures performed upon admission, with six true positive results (1.1% of the total population). An additional 14 patients had positive respiratory cultures treated as true pathogens in the first 72 h. Low blood pressure and elevated white blood cell count, neutrophil count, blood urea nitrogen, and lactate were statistically significantly associated with bacteremia. Clinical outcomes were not statistically significantly different between patients with and without bacteremia. CONCLUSIONS: We found a low rate of bacteremia in patients admitted with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. In hemodynamically stable patients, routine antibiotics may not be warranted in this population.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/therapy , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
19.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(2): e13458, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent trials with dexamethasone and hydrocortisone have demonstrated benefit in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Data on methylprednisolone are limited. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of consecutive adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia on high-flow oxygen (FiO2  ≥ 50%) admitted to an academic centre in New York, from 1 March to 15 April 2020. We used inverse probability of treatment weights to estimate the effect of methylprednisolone on clinical outcomes and intensive care resource utilization. RESULTS: Of 447 patients, 153 (34.2%) received methylprednisolone and 294 (65.8%) received no corticosteroids. At 28 days, 102 patients (22.8%) had died and 115 (25.7%) received mechanical ventilation. In weighted analyses, risk for death or mechanical ventilation was 37% lower with methylprednisolone (hazard ratio 0.63; 95% CI 0.47-0.86; P = .003), driven by less frequent mechanical ventilation (subhazard ratio 0.56; 95% CI 0.40-0.79; P = .001); mortality did not differ between groups. The methylprednisolone group had 2.8 more ventilator-free days (95% CI 0.5-5.1; P = .017) and 2.6 more intensive care-free days (95% CI 0.2-4.9; P = .033) during the first 28 days. Complication rates were not higher with methylprednisolone. CONCLUSIONS: In nonintubated patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, methylprednisolone was associated with reduced need for mechanical ventilation and less-intensive care resource utilization without excess complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
20.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 8(3): 327-332, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) blindness, that is, the excessive consideration of the disease in diagnosis, has reportedly led to delayed diagnosis of some diseases. We compared several clinical measures between patients admitted for bacteremia during the two months of the COVID-19 pandemic and those admitted during the same period in 2019. We hypothesized that the pandemic has led to delayed treatment of bacteremia. METHODS: This retrospective observational study compared several measures undertaken for patients who visited the emergency unit in two hospitals between March 1 and May 31, 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic and whose blood cultures tested positive for bacteremia with those for corresponding patients treated during the same period in 2019. The primary measure was time from consultation to blood culture/antimicrobials. RESULTS: We included 29 eligible patients from 2020 and 26 from 2019. In 2020, the time from consultation to antimicrobial administration was significantly longer than in 2019 (mean [range], 222 [145-309] min vs. 139 [102-179] min, p=0.002). The frequency of chest computed tomography (CT) was significantly higher in 2020 (96.6 vs. 73.1%, p=0.021). Significant differences were not observed in the time to blood culture or chest CT preceding the blood culture between the two periods. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that due to the COVID-19 epidemic/pandemic, focusing on the exclusion of its infection using CT scans leads to an overall delay in the diagnosis and treatment of bacteremia. Medical providers must be aware of COVID-19 blindness and evaluate patients objectively based on rational criteria and take appropriate action.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL