Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 244
Filter
2.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): e398-e403, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in pediatric patients has been associated with low risk of concomitant bacterial infection. However, in children with severe disease, it occurs in 22% to 50% of patients. As viral testing becomes routine, bacterial codetections are increasingly identified in patients with non-RSV viruses. We hypothesized, among patients intubated for respiratory failure secondary to suspected infection, there are similar rates of codetection between RSV and non-RSV viral detections. METHODS: This retrospective chart review, conducted over a 5-year period, included all patients younger than 2 years who required intubation secondary to respiratory failure from an infectious etiology in a single pediatric emergency department. Patients intubated for noninfectious causes were excluded. RESULTS: We reviewed 274 patients, of which 181 had positive viral testing. Of these, 48% were RSV-positive and 52% were positive for viruses other than RSV. Codetection of bacteria was found in 76% (n = 65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 66%, 84%) of RSV-positive patients and 66% (n = 63, 95% CI: 57%, 76%) of patients positive with non-RSV viruses. Among patients with negative viral testing, 33% had bacterial growth on lower respiratory culture. Male sex was the only patient-related factor associated with increased odds of codetection (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.08-4.38). The odds of codetection between RSV-positive patients and non-RSV viruses were not significantly different (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.62-2.71). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial codetection is common and not associated with anticipated patient-related factors or with a specific virus. These results suggest consideration of empiric antibiotics in infants with respiratory illness requiring intubation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Bacteria , Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(6)2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765836

ABSTRACT

Detection of bacterial pathogens is significant in the fields of food safety, medicine, and public health, just to name a few. If bacterial pathogens are not properly identified and treated promptly, they can lead to morbidity and mortality, also possibly contribute to antimicrobial resistance. Current bacterial detection methodologies rely solely on laboratory-based techniques, which are limited by long turnaround detection times, expensive costs, and risks of inadequate accuracy; also, the work requires trained specialists. Here, we describe a cost-effective and portable 3D-printed electrochemical biosensor that facilitates rapid detection of certain Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains (DH5α, BL21, TOP10, and JM109) within 15 min using 500 µL of sample, and costs only USD 2.50 per test. The sensor displayed an excellent limit of detection (LOD) of 53 cfu, limit of quantification (LOQ) of 270 cfu, and showed cross-reactivity with strains BL21 and JM109 due to shared epitopes. This advantageous diagnostic device is a strong candidate for frequent testing at point of care; it also has application in various fields and industries where pathogen detection is of interest.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Escherichia coli , Bacteria , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Limit of Detection , Printing, Three-Dimensional
4.
Microb Pathog ; 165: 105506, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763898

ABSTRACT

Since its first appearance, the SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly in the human population, reaching the pandemic scale with >280 million confirmed infections and more than 5 million deaths to date (https://covid19.who.int/). These data justify the urgent need to enhance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 effects in the respiratory system, including those linked to co-infections. The principal aim of our study is to investigate existing correlations in the nasopharynx between the bacterial community, potential pathogens, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The main aim of this study was to provide evidence pointing to possible relationships between components of the bacterial community and SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharynx. Meta-transcriptomic profiling of the nasopharyngeal microbial community was carried out in 89 SARS-Cov-2 positive subjects from the Campania Region in Italy. To this end, RNA extracted from nasopharyngeal swabs collected at different times during the initial phases of the pandemic was analyzed by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). Results show a consistently high presence of members of the Proteobacteria (41.85%), Firmicutes (28.54%), and Actinobacteria (16.10%) phyla, and an inverted correlation between the host microbiome, co-infectious bacteria, and super-potential pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In depth characterization of microbiota composition in the nasopharynx can provide clues to understand its potential contribution to the clinical phenotype of Covid-19, clarifying the interaction between SARS-Cov-2 and the bacterial flora of the host, and highlighting its dysbiosis and the presence of pathogens that could affect the patient's disease progression and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Microbiota , Bacteria/genetics , Coinfection/epidemiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(7): e0214821, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741570

ABSTRACT

UV light is a tool associated with the denaturation of cellular components, DNA damage, and cell disruption. UV treatment is widely used in the decontamination process; however, predicting a sufficient UV dose by using traditional methods is doubtful. In this study, an in-house UVC apparatus was designed to investigate the process of the inactivation of five indicator bacteria when the initial cell concentrations and irradiation intensities varied. Both linear and nonlinear mathematical models were applied to predict the inactivation kinetics. In comparison with the Weibull and modified Chick-Watson models, the Chick-Watson model provided a good fit of the experimental data for five bacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. The specific death rate (kd) significantly increased when the irradiation intensity (I) increased from 1.41 W/m2 to 3.02 W/m2 and 4.83 W/m2 (P < 0.05). Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in the kd values among the groups of tested Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and B. subtilis spores, but the kd values differed among groups (P < 0.05). The death rate coefficient (k) varied from species to species. The k values of the tested Gram-positive bacteria were higher than those of the Gram-negative bacteria. The thick peptidoglycan layer in the Gram-positive membrane was responsible for UVC resistance. The high guanine-cytosine (GC) content in bacteria also contributed to UV resistance due to the less photoreactive sites on the nucleotides. This investigation provides a good understanding of bacterial inactivation induced by UVC treatment. IMPORTANCE Prevention and control measures for microbial pathogens have attracted worldwide attention due to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. UV treatments are used as a commercial control to prevent microbial contamination in diverse applications. Microorganisms exhibit different UV sensitivities, which are often measured by the UV doses required for decreasing the number of microbial contaminants in the logarithmic order. The maximum efficacy of UV is usually observed at 254 nm (residing in the UVC range of the light spectrum). UV technology is a nonthermal physical decontamination measure that does not require any chemicals and consumes low levels of energy while leaving insignificant amounts of chemical residues or toxic compounds. Therefore, obtaining the microbial death kinetics and their intrinsic parameters provided in this study together with the UV photoreaction rate enables advancement in the design of UV treatment systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decontamination , Bacteria/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , Gram-Negative Bacteria/radiation effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/radiation effects , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Ultraviolet Rays
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736942

ABSTRACT

With the growing problem of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the search for alternative ways to combat bacterial infections is extremely urgent. While analyzing the effect of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on immunocompetent cells, their effect on all parts of the immune system, and on humoral and cellular immunity, is revealed. AMPs have direct effects on neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells, T-lymphocytes, and mast cells, participating in innate immunity. They act on B-lymphocytes indirectly, enhancing the induction of antigen-specific immunity, which ultimately leads to the activation of adaptive immunity. The adjuvant activity of AMPs in relation to bacterial and viral antigens was the reason for their inclusion in vaccines and made it possible to formulate the concept of a "defensin vaccine" as an innovative basis for constructing vaccines. The immunomodulatory function of AMPs involves their influence on cells in the nearest microenvironment, recruitment and activation of other cells, supporting the response to pathogenic microorganisms and completing the inflammatory process, thus exhibiting a systemic effect. For the successful use of AMPs in medical practice, it is necessary to study their immunomodulatory activity in detail, taking into account their pleiotropy. The degree of maturity of the immune system and microenvironment can contribute to the prevention of complications and increase the effectiveness of therapy, since AMPs can suppress inflammation in some circumstances, but aggravate the response and damage of organism in others. It should also be taken into account that the real functions of one or another AMP depend on the types of total regulatory effects on the target cell, and not only on properties of an individual peptide. A wide spectrum of biological activity, including direct effects on pathogens, inactivation of bacterial toxins and influence on immunocompetent cells, has attracted the attention of researchers, however, the cytostatic activity of AMPs against normal cells, as well as their allergenic properties and low stability to host proteases, are serious limitations for the medical use of AMPs. In this connection, the tasks of searching for compounds that selectively affect the target and development of an appropriate method of application become critically important. The scope of this review is to summarize the current concepts and newest advances in research of the immunomodulatory activity of natural and synthetic AMPs, and to examine the prospects and limitations of their medical use.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Allergens/pharmacology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , Bacteria , Immunity, Innate , Immunomodulation
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264855, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736511

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 the world has been facing the outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Identification of infected patients and discrimination from other respiratory infections have so far been accomplished by using highly specific real-time PCRs. Here we present a rapid multiplex approach (RespiCoV), combining highly multiplexed PCRs and MinION sequencing suitable for the simultaneous screening for 41 viral and five bacterial agents related to respiratory tract infections, including the human coronaviruses NL63, HKU1, OC43, 229E, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. RespiCoV was applied to 150 patient samples with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared with specific real-time PCR. Additionally, several respiratory tract pathogens were identified in samples tested positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2. Finally, RespiCoV was experimentally compared to the commercial RespiFinder 2SMART multiplex screening assay (PathoFinder, The Netherlands).


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , RNA Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nanopores , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 45, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 is difficult to distinguish from other viral and bacterial etiologies. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are frequently prescribed to patients hospitalized with COVID-19 which potentially acts as a catalyst for the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis during the first 18 months of the pandemic to quantify the prevalence and types of resistant co-infecting organisms in patients with COVID-19 and explore differences across hospital and geographic settings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science (BioSIS), and Scopus from November 1, 2019 to May 28, 2021 to identify relevant articles pertaining to resistant co-infections in patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Patient- and study-level analyses were conducted. We calculated pooled prevalence estimates of co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms using random effects models. Stratified meta-analysis by hospital and geographic setting was also performed to elucidate any differences. RESULTS: Of 1331 articles identified, 38 met inclusion criteria. A total of 1959 unique isolates were identified with 29% (569) resistant organisms identified. Co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms ranged from 0.2 to 100% among included studies. Pooled prevalence of co-infection with resistant bacterial and fungal organisms was 24% (95% CI 8-40%; n = 25 studies: I2 = 99%) and 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.6%; n = 8 studies: I2 = 78%), respectively. Among multi-drug resistant organisms, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multi-drug resistant Candida auris were most commonly reported. Stratified analyses found higher proportions of AMR outside of Europe and in ICU settings, though these results were not statistically significant. Patient-level analysis demonstrated > 50% (n = 58) mortality, whereby all but 6 patients were infected with a resistant organism. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 18 months of the pandemic, AMR prevalence was high in COVID-19 patients and varied by hospital and geography although there was substantial heterogeneity. Given the variation in patient populations within these studies, clinical settings, practice patterns, and definitions of AMR, further research is warranted to quantify AMR in COVID-19 patients to improve surveillance programs, infection prevention and control practices and antimicrobial stewardship programs globally.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mycoses/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Humans , Mycoses/etiology , Mycoses/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
OMICS ; 26(4): 204-217, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730629

ABSTRACT

The advances made by microbiome research call for new vocabulary and expansion of our thinking in microbiology. For example, the life-forms presenting in both unicellular and multicellular formats invite us to rethink microbial existence, organization, growth, pathogenicity, and therapeutics in the 21st century. A view of such populations as parts of single organisms with a loose, distributed multicellular organization, introduced here as a germ-ganism, rather than communities, might open up interesting prospects for diagnostics and therapeutics innovation. This study tested and further contextualized the concept of germ-ganism using solid cultures of bacteria and fungi. Based on our findings and the literature reviewed herein, we propose that germ-ganism has synergy with a systems medicine approach by broadening host-environment interactions from cells and microorganisms to a scale of biological ecosystems. Germ-ganism also brings about the possibility of studying the multilevel impacts of novel therapeutic agents within and across networks of microbial ecosystems. The germ-ganism would lend itself, in the long term, to a veritable biocybernetics system, while in the mid-term, we anticipate it will contribute to new diagnostics and therapeutics. Biosecurity applications would be immensely affected by germ-ganism. Industrial applications of germ-ganism are of interest as a more sustainable alternative to costly solutions such as tampered strains/microorganisms. In conclusion, germ-ganism is informed by lessons from microbiome research and invites rethinking microbial existence, organization, and growth as an organism. Germ-ganism has vast ramifications for understanding pathogenicity, and clinical, biosecurity, and biotechnology applications in the current historical moment of the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Bacteria , Humans , Pandemics , Virulence
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1670-1688, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718413

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is experiencing a second wave of COVID-19 since March 2021, despite the nationwide vaccination drive with ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccine from early February 2021. Here, we characterized 19 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples from COVID-19 suspect patients using genomic and metagenomic approaches. Screening for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed 17 samples of COVID-19 positive (vaccinated = 10, nonvaccinated = 7) and 2 samples of COVID-19 negative. We did not find any significant correlation between associated factors including vaccination status, age or sex of the patients, diversity or abundance of the coinfected organisms/pathogens, and the abundance of SARS-CoV-2. Though the first wave of the pandemic was dominated by clade 20B, Beta, V2 (South African variant) dominated the second wave (January 2021 to May 2021), while the third wave (May 2021 to September 2021) was responsible for Delta variants of the epidemic in Bangladesh including both vaccinated and unvaccinated infections. Noteworthily, the receptor binding domain (RBD) region of S protein of all the isolates harbored similar substitutions including K417N, E484K, and N501Y that signify the Beta, while D614G, D215G, D80A, A67V, L18F, and A701V substitutions were commonly found in the non-RBD region of Spike proteins. ORF7b and ORF3a genes underwent a positive selection (dN/dS ratio 1.77 and 1.24, respectively), while the overall S protein of the Bangladeshi SARS-CoV-2 isolates underwent negative selection pressure (dN/dS = 0.621). Furthermore, we found different bacterial coinfections like Streptococcus agalactiae, Neisseria meningitidis, Elizabethkingia anophelis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, expressing a number of antibiotic resistance genes such as tetA and tetM. Overall, this approach provides valuable insights on the SARS-CoV-2 genomes and microbiome composition from both vaccinated and nonvaccinated patients in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Genome, Bacterial/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Microbiota/genetics , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selection, Genetic , Vaccination , Viral Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709358

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic that is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The severity and mortality rates of COVID-19 are affected by several factors, such as respiratory diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Bacterial coinfections are another factor that could contribute to the severity of COVID-19. Limited studies have investigated morbidity and mortality due to microbial coinfections in COVID-19 patients. Here, we retrospectively studied the effects of bacterial coinfections on intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients with COVID-19 in Asir province, Saudi Arabia. We analyzed electronic medical records of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at Asir Central Hospital. A total of 34 patients were included, and the clinical data of 16 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 only and 18 patients coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and bacterial infections were analyzed in our study. Our data showed that the length of stay at the hospital for patients infected with both SARS-CoV-2 and bacterial infection was 35.2 days, compared to 16.2 days for patients infected with only SARS-CoV-2 (p = 0.0001). In addition, higher mortality rates were associated with patients in the coinfection group compared to the SARS-CoV-2-only infected group (50% vs. 18.7%, respectively). The study also showed that gram-negative bacteria are the most commonly isolated bacteria in COVID-19 patients. To conclude, this study found that individuals with COVID-19 who presented with bacterial infections are at higher risk for a longer stay at the hospital and potentially death. Further studies with a larger population are warranted to better understand the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 with bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Bacteria , Coinfection/microbiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
12.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 151, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708032

ABSTRACT

A large gap remains between sequencing a microbial community and characterizing all of the organisms inside of it. Here we develop a novel method to taxonomically bin metagenomic assemblies through alignment of contigs against a reference database. We show that this workflow, BugSplit, bins metagenome-assembled contigs to species with a 33% absolute improvement in F1-score when compared to alternative tools. We perform nanopore mNGS on patients with COVID-19, and using a reference database predating COVID-19, demonstrate that BugSplit's taxonomic binning enables sensitive and specific detection of a novel coronavirus not possible with other approaches. When applied to nanopore mNGS data from cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, BugSplit's taxonomic binning accurately separates pathogen sequences from those of the host and microbiota, and unlocks the possibility of sequence typing, in silico serotyping, and antimicrobial resistance prediction of each organism within a sample. BugSplit is available at https://bugseq.com/academic .


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Bacteria/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Metagenome/genetics , Metagenomics/methods , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , Bacteria/classification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Internet , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705332

ABSTRACT

Coinfection rates with other pathogens in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varied during the pandemic. We assessed the latest prevalence of coinfection with viruses, bacteria, and fungi in COVID-19 patients for more than one year and its impact on mortality. A total of 436 samples were collected between August 2020 and October 2021. Multiplex real-time PCR, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed to detect pathogens. The coinfection rate of respiratory viruses in COVID-19 patients was 1.4%. Meanwhile, the rates of bacteria and fungi were 52.6% and 10.5% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans were the most commonly detected pathogens. Ninety percent of isolated A. baumannii was non-susceptible to carbapenem. Based on a multivariate analysis, coinfection (odds ratio [OR] = 6.095), older age (OR = 1.089), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 1.006) were risk factors for mortality as a critical outcome. In particular, coinfection with bacteria (OR = 11.250), resistant pathogens (OR = 11.667), and infection with multiple pathogens (OR = 10.667) were significantly related to death. Screening and monitoring of coinfection in COVID-19 patients, especially for hospitalized patients during the pandemic, are beneficial for better management and survival.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Mycoses/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/pathogenicity , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/virology , Female , Fungi/classification , Fungi/pathogenicity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity , Young Adult
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(5-6): 1855-1878, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702010

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms are remarkable producers of a wide diversity of natural products that significantly improve human health and well-being. Currently, these natural products comprise half of all the pharmaceuticals on the market. After the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming 85 years ago, the search for and study of antibiotics began to gain relevance as drugs. Since then, antibiotics have played a valuable role in treating infectious diseases and have saved many human lives. New molecules with anticancer, hypocholesterolemic, and immunosuppressive activity have now been introduced to treat other relevant diseases. Smaller biotechnology companies and academic laboratories generate novel antibiotics and other secondary metabolites that big pharmaceutical companies no longer develop. The purpose of this review is to illustrate some of the recent developments and to show the potential that some modern technologies like metagenomics and genome mining offer for the discovery and development of new molecules, with different functions like therapeutic alternatives needed to overcome current severe problems, such as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, antibiotic resistance, and other emerging diseases. KEY POINTS: • Novel alternatives for the treatment of infections caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses. • Second wave of efforts of microbial origin against SARS-CoV-2 and related variants. • Microbial drugs used in clinical practice as hypocholesterolemic agents, immunosuppressants, and anticancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D387-D390, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705079

ABSTRACT

The Sequence Read Archive (SRA, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/) stores raw sequencing data and alignment information to enhance reproducibility and facilitate new discoveries through data analysis. Here we note changes in storage designed to increase access and highlight analyses that augment metadata with taxonomic insight to help users select data. In addition, we present three unanticipated applications of taxonomic analysis.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Metadata/statistics & numerical data , Software , Viruses/genetics , Bacteria/classification , Base Sequence , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Internet , Phylogeny , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Viruses/classification
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(3): 1020-1027, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Microorganisms present a global public health problem and are the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Therefore, it is essential to study the prevalence of microorganisms in hospital environments. The conclusion from such a study can contribute to identify the areas most likely to be contaminated in a hospital and appropriate measures that can decrease the exposure risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of microorganisms in hospital air was examined in different departments by obtaining air samples with an impactor before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. A total of 2145 microorganisms were identified, and the corresponding data were jointly analyzed by area, sampling period, and concentration. RESULTS: The most frequently detected microorganisms in hospital air were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Neisseria, and fungi, and the more polluted departments were the hemodialysis department, respiratory department, treatment room, and toilet. Significant differences were found between the concentration of bacteria and fungi before and during the pandemic, which could be related to multiple environmental conditions. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all the air samples. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study confirmed the existence and dynamic characteristics of airborne microorganisms in a hospital. The results contribute to the adaptation of specific measures which can decrease the exposure risk of patients, visitors, and staff.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Hospitals , Air Pollution, Indoor , Bacteria/classification , Environmental Monitoring , Epidemiological Monitoring , Fungi/classification , Hospital Departments , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 185, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has had a heavy impact on national health system, especially in the first wave. That impact hit principally the intensive care units (ICUs). The large number of patients requiring hospitalization in ICUs lead to a complete upheaval of intensive wards. The increase in bed, the fewer number of nurses per patient, the constant use of personal protective equipment, the new antimicrobial surveillance protocols could have had deeply effects on microbiological flora of these wards. Moreover, the overconsumption of antimicrobial therapy in COVID-19 patients, like several studies report, could have impact of this aspect. Aim of this study is to evaluate the changing pattern of microbiological respiratory isolates during and before COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary hospital ICUs. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted in ICUs of "ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII", a large tertiary referral hospital in Northern Italy. We have retrospectively collected the microbiological data from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and tracheal aspirate (TA) of patients with COVID-19, hospitalized in ICUs from 22nd February 2020 to 31st May 2020 (Period 1), and without COVID-19, from 22nd February 2019 to 31st May 2019 (Period 2). We compared the prevalence and the antibiotic profile of bacterial and fungal species in the two time periods. RESULTS: The prevalence of Pseudomonas spp. shows a statistically significant increase from patients without COVID-19 compared to COVID-19 positive as well as the prevalence of Enterococcus spp. On the contrary, the prevalence of Gram negative non fermenting bacteria (GN-NFB), Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae showed a significant reduction between two periods. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of Pseudomonas spp. to carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam and Enterobacterales spp. for piperacillin/tazobactam, in COVID-19 positive patients compared to patients without COVID-19. We did not observe significant changing in fungal respiratory isolates. CONCLUSIONS: A changing pattern in prevalence and resistance profiles of bacterial and fungal species was observed during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2031840, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692369

ABSTRACT

There is a growing debate about the involvement of the gut microbiome in COVID-19, although it is not conclusively understood whether the microbiome has an impact on COVID-19, or vice versa, especially as analysis of amplicon data in hospitalized patients requires sophisticated cohort recruitment and integration of clinical parameters. Here, we analyzed fecal and saliva samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected and post COVID-19 patients and controls considering multiple influencing factors during hospitalization. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on fecal and saliva samples from 108 COVID-19 and 22 post COVID-19 patients, 20 pneumonia controls and 26 asymptomatic controls. Patients were recruited over the first and second corona wave in Germany and detailed clinical parameters were considered. Serial samples per individual allowed intra-individual analysis. We found the gut and oral microbiota to be altered depending on number and type of COVID-19-associated complications and disease severity. The occurrence of individual complications was correlated with low-risk (e.g., Faecalibacterium prausznitzii) and high-risk bacteria (e.g., Parabacteroides ssp.). We demonstrated that a stable gut bacterial composition was associated with a favorable disease progression. Based on gut microbial profiles, we identified a model to estimate mortality in COVID-19. Gut microbiota are associated with the occurrence of complications in COVID-19 and may thereby influencing disease severity. A stable gut microbial composition may contribute to a favorable disease progression and using bacterial signatures to estimate mortality could contribute to diagnostic approaches. Importantly, we highlight challenges in the analysis of microbial data in the context of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Aged , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Dysbiosis/etiology , Feces/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Microbiota , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257085, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690808

ABSTRACT

A kiosk-based survey at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in 2016-2018 allowed us to assess public knowledge of antibiotics and public attitudes toward microbes in museum goers. Over 22,000 visitors from 172 countries and territories answered several carefully designed questions about microbes and antibiotics. These visitors also entered age, gender, and country demographic data that allowed for stratification along these demographic and geographic divisions. Because museum goers are likely to be better informed about these and other science-based topics, the results described here can set a potential upper bound for public knowledge on these topics. Surprisingly, the results of our analysis of museum goers' answers about microbes and antibiotics indicate a substantial lack of familiarity with both topics. For example, overall only about 50% of respondents can correctly identify penicillin as an antibiotic and less than 50% of museum visitors view microbes as beneficial. The results described here suggest that we are perhaps off target with our educational efforts in this area and that a major shift in approach toward more basic microbial topics is warranted in our educational efforts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Museums , Natural History , Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Analysis , Humans , Language
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 781968, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686454

ABSTRACT

Background: The upper respiratory tract (URT) is the portal of entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and SARS-CoV-2 likely interacts with the URT microbiome. However, understanding of the associations between the URT microbiome and the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still limited. Objective: Our primary objective was to identify URT microbiome signature/s that consistently changed over a spectrum of COVID-19 severity. Methods: Using data from 103 adult participants from two cities in the United States, we compared the bacterial load and the URT microbiome between five groups: 20 asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-negative participants, 27 participants with mild COVID-19, 28 participants with moderate COVID-19, 15 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, and 13 hospitalized patients in the ICU with very severe COVID-19. Results: URT bacterial load, bacterial richness, and within-group microbiome composition dissimilarity consistently increased as COVID-19 severity increased, while the relative abundance of an amplicon sequence variant (ASV), Corynebacterium_unclassified.ASV0002, consistently decreased as COVID-19 severity increased. Conclusions: We observed that the URT microbiome composition significantly changed as COVID-19 severity increased. The URT microbiome could potentially predict which patients may be more likely to progress to severe disease or be modified to decrease severity. However, further research in additional longitudinal cohorts is needed to better understand how the microbiome affects COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adult , Bacteria , Humans , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL