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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559206

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is a phenomenon characterized by strong elevated circulating cytokines that most often occur after an overreactive immune system is activated by an acute systemic infection. A variety of cells participate in cytokine storm induction and progression, with profiles of cytokines released during cytokine storm varying from disease to disease. This review focuses on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cytokine storm induction and progression induced by pathogenic invasive infectious diseases. Strategies for targeted treatment of various types of infection-induced cytokine storms are described from both host and pathogen perspectives. In summary, current studies indicate that cytokine storm-targeted therapies can effectively alleviate tissue damage while promoting the clearance of invading pathogens. Based on this premise, "multi-omics" immune system profiling should facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic strategies to alleviate cytokine storms caused by various diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Sepsis/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sepsis/microbiology
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748103, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555317

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-specific vaccines are efficient prophylactic weapons against SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, boosting innate responses may represent an innovative way to immediately fight future emerging viral infections or boost vaccines. MV130 is a mucosal immunotherapy, based on a mixture of whole heat-inactivated bacteria, that has shown clinical efficacy against recurrent viral respiratory infections. Herein, we show that the prophylactic intranasal administration of this immunotherapy confers heterologous protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in susceptible K18-hACE2 mice. Furthermore, in C57BL/6 mice, prophylactic administration of MV130 improves the immunogenicity of two different COVID-19 vaccine formulations targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, inoculated either intramuscularly or intranasally. Independently of the vaccine candidate and vaccination route used, intranasal prophylaxis with MV130 boosted S-specific responses, including CD8+-T cell activation and the production of S-specific mucosal IgA antibodies. Therefore, the bacterial mucosal immunotherapy MV130 protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection and improves COVID-19 vaccines immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Mucosal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunity, Innate , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Mice , Vaccination
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 753849, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523705

ABSTRACT

Background: CD14+ monocytes present antigens to adaptive immune cells via monocytic human leukocyte antigen receptor (mHLA-DR), which is described as an immunological synapse. Reduced levels of mHLA-DR can display an acquired immune defect, which is often found in sepsis and predisposes for secondary infections and fatal outcomes. Monocytic HLA-DR expression is reliably induced by interferon- γ (IFNγ) therapy. Case Report: We report a case of multidrug-resistant superinfected COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. The resistance profiles of the detected Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Citrobacter freundii isolates were equipped with resistance to all four antibiotic classes including carbapenems (4MRGN) and Cefiderocol in the case of K. pneumoniae. A causal therapeutic antibiotic strategy was not available. Therefore, we measured the immune status of the patient aiming to identify a potential acquired immune deficiency. Monocyte HLA-DR expression identified by FACS analysis revealed an expression level of 34% positive monocytes and suggested severe immunosuppression. We indicated IFNγ therapy, which resulted in a rapid increase in mHLA-DR expression (96%), rapid resolution of invasive bloodstream infection, and discharge from the hospital on day 70. Discussion: Superinfection is a dangerous complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, and sepsis-induced immunosuppression is a risk factor for it. Immunosuppression is expressed by a disturbed antigen presentation of monocytes to cells of the adaptive immune system. The case presented here is remarkable as no validated antibiotic regimen existed against the detected bacterial pathogens causing bloodstream infection and severe pneumonia in a patient suffering from COVID-19 ARDS. Possible restoration of the patient's own immunity by IFNγ was a plausible option to boost the patient's immune system, eliminate the identified 4MRGNs, and allow for lung recovery. This led to the conclusion that immune status monitoring is useful in complicated COVID-19-ARDS and that concomitant IFNγ therapy may support antibiotic strategies. Conclusion: After a compromised immune system has been detected by suppressed mHLA-DR levels, the immune system can be safely reactivated by IFNγ.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Resistance, Multiple/immunology , HLA Antigens/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Humans , Receptors, Interferon/immunology
4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453289

ABSTRACT

Bacterial toxins play a key role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. Based on their structural and functional properties, they employ various strategies to modulate lung barrier function and to impair host defense in order to promote infection. Although in general, these toxins target common cellular signaling pathways and host compartments, toxin- and cell-specific effects have also been reported. Toxins can affect resident pulmonary cells involved in alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and barrier function through impairing vectorial Na+ transport and through cytoskeletal collapse, as such, destroying cell-cell adhesions. The resulting loss of alveolar-capillary barrier integrity and fluid clearance capacity will induce capillary leak and foster edema formation, which will in turn impair gas exchange and endanger the survival of the host. Toxins modulate or neutralize protective host cell mechanisms of both the innate and adaptive immunity response during chronic infection. In particular, toxins can either recruit or kill central players of the lung's innate immune responses to pathogenic attacks, i.e., alveolar macrophages (AMs) and neutrophils. Pulmonary disorders resulting from these toxin actions include, e.g., acute lung injury (ALI), the acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), and severe pneumonia. When acute infection converts to persistence, i.e., colonization and chronic infection, lung diseases, such as bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) can arise. The aim of this review is to discuss the impact of bacterial toxins in the lungs and the resulting outcomes for pathogenesis, their roles in promoting bacterial dissemination, and bacterial survival in disease progression.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Bacteria/immunology , Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Signal Transduction
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480793

ABSTRACT

The rapid rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria has once again caused bacterial infections to become a global health concern. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides (HDPs), offer a viable solution to these pathogens due to their diverse mechanisms of actions, which include direct killing as well as immunomodulatory properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory activity). HDPs may hence provide a more robust treatment of bacterial infections. In this review, the advent of and the mechanisms that lead to antibiotic resistance will be described. HDP mechanisms of antibacterial and immunomodulatory action will be presented, with specific examples of how the HDP aurein 2.2 and a few of its derivatives, namely peptide 73 and cG4L73, function. Finally, resistance that may arise from a broader use of HDPs in a clinical setting and methods to improve biocompatibility will be briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/immunology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Immunomodulation , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , /pharmacology
6.
Int Immunol ; 33(12): 787-790, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398105

ABSTRACT

Dysbiosis is alterations in the microbial composition compared with a healthy microbiota and often features a reduction in gut microbial diversity and a change in microbial taxa. Dysbiosis, especially in the gut, has also been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. A body of evidence has shown that intestinal polymeric immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies are important to regulate the gut microbiota as well as to exclude pathogenic bacteria or viral infection such as influenza and SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) at mucosal sites. Since the 1970s, trials for oral administration of therapeutic IgA or IgG have been performed mainly to treat infectious enteritis caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli or Clostridium difficile. However, few of them have been successfully developed for clinical application up to now. In addition to the protective function against intestinal pathogens, IgA is well known to modulate the gut commensal microbiota leading to symbiosis. Nevertheless, the development of therapeutic IgA drugs to treat dysbiosis is not progressing. In this review, the advantages of therapeutic IgA antibodies and the problems for their development will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Intestines/drug effects , Animals , Bacteria/immunology , Dysbiosis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/microbiology , Intestines/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Species Specificity
7.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 49(5): 2411-2429, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397910

ABSTRACT

The importance of vaccine-induced protection was repeatedly demonstrated over the last three decades and emphasized during the recent COVID-19 pandemic as the safest and most effective way of preventing infectious diseases. Vaccines have controlled, and in some cases, eradicated global viral and bacterial infections with high efficiency and at a relatively low cost. Carbohydrates form the capsular sugar coat that surrounds the outer surface of human pathogenic bacteria. Specific surface-exposed bacterial carbohydrates serve as potent vaccine targets that broadened our toolbox against bacterial infections. Since first approved for commercial use, antibacterial carbohydrate-based vaccines mostly rely on inherently complex and heterogenous naturally derived polysaccharides, challenging to obtain in a pure, safe, and cost-effective manner. The introduction of synthetic fragments identical with bacterial capsular polysaccharides provided well-defined and homogenous structures that resolved many challenges of purified polysaccharides. The success of semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccines against bacterial infections, now in different phases of clinical trials, opened up new possibilities and encouraged further development towards fully synthetic antibacterial vaccine solutions. In this mini-review, we describe the recent achievements in semi- and fully synthetic carbohydrate vaccines against a range of human pathogenic bacteria, focusing on preclinical and clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Carbohydrates/immunology , Glycoconjugates/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Carbohydrate Sequence , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Glycoconjugates/chemistry , Glycoconjugates/therapeutic use , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 672523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389182

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory infections are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. These potentially deadly infections are further exacerbated due to the growing incidence of antimicrobial resistance. To combat these infections there is a need to better understand immune mechanisms that promote microbial clearance. This need in the context of lung infections has been further heightened with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are a recently discovered tissue resident innate immune cell found at mucosal sites that respond rapidly in the event of an infection. ILC3s have clear roles in regulating mucosal immunity and tissue homeostasis in the intestine, though the immunological functions in lungs remain unclear. It has been demonstrated in both viral and bacterial pneumonia that stimulated ILC3s secrete the cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 to promote both microbial clearance as well as tissue repair. In this review, we will evaluate regulation of ILC3s during inflammation and discuss recent studies that examine ILC3 function in the context of both bacterial and viral pulmonary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology
9.
mBio ; 12(4): e0159821, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360544

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota plays a critical role in the induction of adaptive immune responses to influenza virus infection. However, the role of nasal bacteria in the induction of the virus-specific adaptive immunity is less clear. Here, we found that disruption of nasal bacteria by intranasal application of antibiotics before influenza virus infection enhanced the virus-specific antibody response in a MyD88-dependent manner. Similarly, disruption of nasal bacteria by lysozyme enhanced antibody responses to intranasally administered influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine in a MyD88-dependent manner, suggesting that intranasal application of antibiotics or lysozyme could release bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from disrupted nasal bacteria that act as mucosal adjuvants by activating the MyD88 signaling pathway. Since commensal bacteria in the nasal mucosal surface were significantly lower than those in the oral cavity, intranasal administration of HA vaccine alone was insufficient to induce the vaccine-specific antibody response. However, intranasal supplementation of cultured oral bacteria from a healthy human volunteer enhanced antibody responses to an intranasally administered HA vaccine. Finally, we demonstrated that oral bacteria combined with an intranasal vaccine protect from influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Our results reveal the role of nasal bacteria in the induction of the virus-specific adaptive immunity and provide clues for developing better intranasal vaccines. IMPORTANCE Intranasal vaccination induces the nasal IgA antibody which is protective against respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, understanding how mucosal immune responses are elicited following viral infection is important for developing better vaccines. Here, we focused on the role of nasal commensal bacteria in the induction of immune responses following influenza virus infection. To deplete nasal bacteria, we intranasally administered antibiotics to mice before influenza virus infection and found that antibiotic-induced disruption of nasal bacteria could release bacterial components which stimulate the virus-specific antibody responses. Since commensal bacteria in nasal mucosa were significantly lower than those in the oral cavity, intranasal administration of split virus vaccine alone was insufficient to induce the vaccine-specific antibody response. However, intranasal supplementation of cultured oral bacteria from a healthy human volunteer enhanced antibody responses to the intranasally administered vaccine. Therefore, both integrity and amounts of nasal bacteria may be critical for an effective intranasal vaccine.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/microbiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells
10.
Immunobiology ; 226(5): 152091, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307004

ABSTRACT

The spike protein of coronavirus is key target for drug development and other pharmacological interventions. In current study, we performed an integrative approach to predict antigenic sites in SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain and found nine potential antigenic sites. The predicted antigenic sites were then assessed for possible molecular similarity with other known antigens in different organisms. Out of nine sites, seven sites showed molecular similarity with 54 antigenic determinants found in twelve pathogenic bacterial species (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Bacillus anthracis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, Helicobacter Pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio cholera and Yersinia pestis), two malarial parasites (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi) and influenza virus A. Most of the bacterial antigens that displayed molecular similarity with antigenic sites in SARS-CoV-2 RBD (receptor binding domain) were toxins and virulent factors. Antigens from Mycobacterium that showed similarity were mainly involved in modulating host cell immune response and ensuring persistence and survival of pathogen in host cells. Presence of a large number of antigenic determinants, similar to those in highly pathogenic microorganisms, not merely accounts for complex etiology of the disease but also provides an explanation for observed pathophysiological complications, such as deregulated immune response, unleashed or dysregulated cytokine secretion (cytokine storm), multiple organ failure etc., that are more evident in aged and immune-compromised patients. Over-representation of antigenic determinants from Plasmodium and Mycobacterium in all antigenic sites suggests that anti-malarial and anti-TB drugs can prove to be clinical beneficial for COVID-19 treatment. Besides this, anti-leprosy, anti-lyme, anti-plague, anti-anthrax drugs/vaccine etc. are also expected to be beneficial in COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, individuals previously immunized/vaccinated or had previous history of malaria, tuberculosis or other disease caused by fifteen microorganisms are expected to display a considerable degree of resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Out of the seven antigenic sites predicted in SARS-CoV-2, a part of two antigenic sites were also predicted as potent T-cell epitopes (KVGGNYNYL444-452 and SVLYNSASF366-374) against MHC class I and three (KRISNCVADYSVLYN356-370, DLCFTNVYADSFVI389-402, and YRVVVLSFELLHA508-520) against MHC class II. All epitopes possessed significantly lower predicted IC50 value which is a prerequisite for a preferred vaccine candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Peptides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza A virus/immunology , Plasmodium/immunology , Protein Domains
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299441

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia due to respiratory infection with most prominently bacteria, but also viruses, fungi, or parasites is the leading cause of death worldwide among all infectious disease in both adults and infants. The introduction of modern antibiotic treatment regimens and vaccine strategies has helped to lower the burden of bacterial pneumonia, yet due to the unavailability or refusal of vaccines and antimicrobials in parts of the global population, the rise of multidrug resistant pathogens, and high fatality rates even in patients treated with appropriate antibiotics pneumonia remains a global threat. As such, a better understanding of pathogen virulence on the one, and the development of innovative vaccine strategies on the other hand are once again in dire need in the perennial fight of men against microbes. Recent data show that the secretome of bacteria consists not only of soluble mediators of virulence but also to a significant proportion of extracellular vesicles-lipid bilayer-delimited particles that form integral mediators of intercellular communication. Extracellular vesicles are released from cells of all kinds of organisms, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in which case they are commonly termed outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and membrane vesicles (MVs), respectively. (O)MVs can trigger inflammatory responses to specific pathogens including S. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, and L. pneumophila and as such, mediate bacterial virulence in pneumonia by challenging the host respiratory epithelium and cellular and humoral immunity. In parallel, however, (O)MVs have recently emerged as auspicious vaccine candidates due to their natural antigenicity and favorable biochemical properties. First studies highlight the efficacy of such vaccines in animal models exposed to (O)MVs from B. pertussis, S. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae. An advanced and balanced recognition of both the detrimental effects of (O)MVs and their immunogenic potential could pave the way to novel treatment strategies in pneumonia and effective preventive approaches.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Outer Membrane/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Outer Membrane/immunology , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/prevention & control , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Virulence
12.
Gut ; 70(4): 698-706, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory illness, there is mounting evidence suggesting that the GI tract is involved in this disease. We investigated whether the gut microbiome is linked to disease severity in patients with COVID-19, and whether perturbations in microbiome composition, if any, resolve with clearance of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: In this two-hospital cohort study, we obtained blood, stool and patient records from 100 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Serial stool samples were collected from 27 of the 100 patients up to 30 days after clearance of SARS-CoV-2. Gut microbiome compositions were characterised by shotgun sequencing total DNA extracted from stools. Concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and blood markers were measured from plasma. RESULTS: Gut microbiome composition was significantly altered in patients with COVID-19 compared with non-COVID-19 individuals irrespective of whether patients had received medication (p<0.01). Several gut commensals with known immunomodulatory potential such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Eubacterium rectale and bifidobacteria were underrepresented in patients and remained low in samples collected up to 30 days after disease resolution. Moreover, this perturbed composition exhibited stratification with disease severity concordant with elevated concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and blood markers such as C reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. CONCLUSION: Associations between gut microbiota composition, levels of cytokines and inflammatory markers in patients with COVID-19 suggest that the gut microbiome is involved in the magnitude of COVID-19 severity possibly via modulating host immune responses. Furthermore, the gut microbiota dysbiosis after disease resolution could contribute to persistent symptoms, highlighting a need to understand how gut microorganisms are involved in inflammation and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , COVID-19 , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/immunology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/analysis , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Dysbiosis/epidemiology , Dysbiosis/etiology , Dysbiosis/immunology , Dysbiosis/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Transferases/analysis
13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2192, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868961

ABSTRACT

During the last years probiotics gained the attention of clinicians for their use in the prevention and treatment of multiple diseases. Probiotics main mechanisms of action include enhanced mucosal barrier function, direct antagonism with pathogens, inhibition of bacterial adherence and invasion capacity in the intestinal epithelium, boosting of the immune system and regulation of the central nervous system. It is accepted that there is a mutual communication between the gut microbiota and the liver, the so-called "microbiota-gut-liver axis" as well as a reciprocal communication between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system through the "microbiota-gut-brain axis." Moreover, recently the "gut-lung axis" in bacterial and viral infections is considerably discussed for bacterial and viral infections, as the intestinal microbiota amplifies the alveolar macrophage activity having a protective role in the host defense against pneumonia. The importance of the normal human intestinal microbiota is recognized in the preservation of health. Disease states such as, infections, autoimmune conditions, allergy and other may occur when the intestinal balance is disturbed. Probiotics seem to be a promising approach to prevent and even reduce the symptoms of such clinical states as an adjuvant therapy by preserving the balance of the normal intestinal microbiota and improving the immune system. The present review states globally all different disorders in which probiotics can be given. To date, Stronger data in favor of their clinical use are provided in the prevention of gastrointestinal disorders, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, allergy and respiratory infections. We hereby discuss the role of probiotics in the reduction of the respiratory infection symptoms and we focus on the possibility to use them as an adjuvant to the therapeutic approach of the pandemic COVID-19. Nevertheless, it is accepted by the scientific community that more clinical studies should be undertaken in large samples of diseased populations so that the assessment of their therapeutic potential provide us with strong evidence for their efficacy and safety in clinical use.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Bacterial Adhesion/immunology , Brain/immunology , Brain/microbiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L603-L619, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-817848

ABSTRACT

Respiratory cilia are the driving force of the mucociliary escalator, working in conjunction with secreted airway mucus to clear inhaled debris and pathogens from the conducting airways. Respiratory cilia are also one of the first contact points between host and inhaled pathogens. Impaired ciliary function is a common pathological feature in patients with chronic airway diseases, increasing susceptibility to respiratory infections. Common respiratory pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi, have been shown to target cilia and/or ciliated airway epithelial cells, resulting in a disruption of mucociliary clearance that may facilitate host infection. Despite being an integral component of airway innate immunity, the role of respiratory cilia and their clinical significance during airway infections are still poorly understood. This review examines the expression, structure, and function of respiratory cilia during pathogenic infection of the airways. This review also discusses specific known points of interaction of bacteria, fungi, and viruses with respiratory cilia function. The emerging biological functions of motile cilia relating to intracellular signaling and their potential immunoregulatory roles during infection will also be discussed.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/immunology , Cilia/metabolism , Fungi/immunology , Mucociliary Clearance/physiology , Viruses/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Mucus/metabolism , Respiratory System/immunology
15.
Exp Cell Res ; 396(1): 112276, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752714

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process devoted to the removal of unnecessary and harmful cellular components. In its general form, autophagy governs cellular lifecycle through the formation of double membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes, that enwrap and deliver unwanted intracellular components to lysosomes. In addition to this omniscient role, forms of selective autophagy, relying on specialized receptors for cargo recognition, exert fine-tuned control over cellular homeostasis. In this regard, xenophagy plays a pivotal role in restricting the replication of intracellular pathogens, thus acting as an ancient innate defense system against infections. Recently, selective autophagy of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), more simply ER-phagy, has been uncovered as a critical mechanism governing ER network shape and function. Six ER-resident proteins have been characterized as ER-phagy receptors and their orchestrated function enables ER homeostasis and turnover overtime. Unfortunately, ER is also the preferred site for viral replication and several viruses hijack ER machinery for their needs. Thus, it is not surprising that some ER-phagy receptors can act to counteract viral replication and minimize the spread of infection throughout the organism. On the other hand, evolutionary pressure has armed pathogens with strategies to evade and subvert xenophagy and ER-phagy. Although ER-phagy biology is still in its infancy, the present review aims to summarize recent ER-phagy literature, with a special focus on its role in counteracting viral infections. Moreover, we aim to offer some hints for future targeted approaches to counteract host-pathogen interactions by modulating xenophagy and ER-phagy pathways.


Subject(s)
Autophagosomes/immunology , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Macroautophagy/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Autophagosomes/metabolism , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Infections/genetics , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum/microbiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/immunology , Homeostasis/genetics , Homeostasis/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lysosomes/immunology , Lysosomes/metabolism , Macroautophagy/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/immunology
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