Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21
Filter
1.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2018900, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585291

ABSTRACT

Mounting evidence suggests that the gut-to-lung axis is critical during respiratory viral infections. We herein hypothesized that disruption of gut homeostasis during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may associate with early disease outcomes. To address this question, we took advantage of the Syrian hamster model. Our data confirmed that this model recapitulates some hallmark features of the human disease in the lungs. We further showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with mild intestinal inflammation, relative alteration in intestinal barrier property and liver inflammation and altered lipid metabolism. These changes occurred concomitantly with an alteration of the gut microbiota composition over the course of infection, notably characterized by a higher relative abundance of deleterious bacterial taxa such as Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. Conversely, several members of the Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, including bacteria known to produce the fermentative products short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), had a reduced relative proportion compared to non-infected controls. Accordingly, infection led to a transient decrease in systemic SCFA amounts. SCFA supplementation during infection had no effect on clinical and inflammatory parameters. Lastly, a strong correlation between some gut microbiota taxa and clinical and inflammation indices of SARS-CoV-2 infection severity was evidenced. Collectively, alteration of the gut microbiota correlates with disease severity in hamsters making this experimental model valuable for the design of interventional, gut microbiota-targeted, approaches for the control of COVID-19.Abbreviations: SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids; dpi, day post-infection; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; IL, interleukin. ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme 2; TMPRSS2, transmembrane serine protease 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mesocricetus , Animals , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Fatty Acids, Volatile/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-13, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574011

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is now pandemic. While most Covid-19 patients will experience mild symptoms, a small proportion will develop severe disease, which could be fatal. Clinically, Covid-19 patients manifest fever with dry cough, fatigue and dyspnoea, and in severe cases develop into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis and multi-organ failure. These severe patients are characterized by hyperinflammation with highly increased pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-alpha as well as C-reactive protein, which are accompanied by decreased lymphocyte counts. Clinical evidence supports that gut microbiota dysregulation is common in Covid-19 and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Covid-19. In this narrative review, we summarize the roles of intestinal dysbiosis in Covid-19 pathogenesis and posit that the associated mechanisms are being mediated by gut bacterial metabolites. Based on this premise, we propose possible clinical implications. Various risk factors could be causal for severe Covid-19, and these include advanced age, concomitant chronic disease, SARS-CoV-2 infection of enterocytes, use of antibiotics and psychological distress. Gut dysbiosis is associated with risk factors and severe Covid-19 due to decreased commensal microbial metabolites, which cause reduced anti-inflammatory mechanisms and chronic low-grade inflammation. The preconditioned immune dysregulation enables SARS-CoV-2 infection to progress to an uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response. Thus, a pre-existing gut microbiota that is diverse and abundant could be beneficial for the prevention of severe Covid-19, and supplementation with commensal microbial metabolites may facilitate and augment the treatment of severe Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Animals , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Dysbiosis/genetics , Dysbiosis/immunology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Dysbiosis/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453289

ABSTRACT

Bacterial toxins play a key role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. Based on their structural and functional properties, they employ various strategies to modulate lung barrier function and to impair host defense in order to promote infection. Although in general, these toxins target common cellular signaling pathways and host compartments, toxin- and cell-specific effects have also been reported. Toxins can affect resident pulmonary cells involved in alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and barrier function through impairing vectorial Na+ transport and through cytoskeletal collapse, as such, destroying cell-cell adhesions. The resulting loss of alveolar-capillary barrier integrity and fluid clearance capacity will induce capillary leak and foster edema formation, which will in turn impair gas exchange and endanger the survival of the host. Toxins modulate or neutralize protective host cell mechanisms of both the innate and adaptive immunity response during chronic infection. In particular, toxins can either recruit or kill central players of the lung's innate immune responses to pathogenic attacks, i.e., alveolar macrophages (AMs) and neutrophils. Pulmonary disorders resulting from these toxin actions include, e.g., acute lung injury (ALI), the acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), and severe pneumonia. When acute infection converts to persistence, i.e., colonization and chronic infection, lung diseases, such as bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) can arise. The aim of this review is to discuss the impact of bacterial toxins in the lungs and the resulting outcomes for pathogenesis, their roles in promoting bacterial dissemination, and bacterial survival in disease progression.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Bacteria/immunology , Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Signal Transduction
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7880448, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455779

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated neuropsychiatric complications are soaring. There is an urgent need to understand the link between COVID-19 and neuropsychiatric disorders. To that end, this article addresses the premise that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in gut dysbiosis and an altered microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis that in turn contributes to the neuropsychiatric ramifications of COVID-19. Altered MGB axis activity has been implicated independently as a risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. A review of the changes in gut microbiota composition in individual psychiatric and neurological disorders and gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients revealed a shared "microbial signature" characterized by a lower microbial diversity and richness and a decrease in health-promoting anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria accompanied by an increase in opportunistic proinflammatory pathogens. Notably, there was a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria. SCFAs are key bioactive microbial metabolites with anti-inflammatory functions and have been recognized as a critical signaling pathway in the MGB axis. SCFA deficiency is associated with brain inflammation, considered a cardinal feature of neuropsychiatric disorders. The link between SARS-CoV-2 infection, gut dysbiosis, and altered MGB axis is further supported by COVID-19-associated gastrointestinal symptoms, a high number of SARS-CoV-2 receptors, angiotensin-cleaving enzyme-2 (ACE-2) in the gut, and viral presence in the fecal matter. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the receptor results in ACE-2 deficiency that leads to decreased transport of vital dietary components, gut dysbiosis, proinflammatory gut status, increased permeability of the gut-blood barrier (GBB), and systemic inflammation. More clinical research is needed to substantiate further the linkages described above and evaluate the potential significance of gut microbiota as a diagnostic tool. Meanwhile, it is prudent to propose changes in dietary recommendations in favor of a high fiber diet or supplementation with SCFAs or probiotics to prevent or alleviate the neuropsychiatric ramifications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Bacteria/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Diet , Dysbiosis , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , Inflammation , Probiotics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 714177, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444042

ABSTRACT

Sepsis continues to be a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and post-recovery disability in patients with a wide range of non-infectious and infectious inflammatory disorders, including COVID-19. The clinical onset of sepsis is often marked by the explosive release into the extracellular fluids of a multiplicity of host-derived cytokines and other pro-inflammatory hormone-like messengers from endogenous sources ("cytokine storm"). In patients with sepsis, therapies to counter the pro-inflammatory torrent, even when administered early, typically fall short. The major focus of our proposed essay is to promote pre-clinical studies with hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy for sepsis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Chorionic Gonadotropin/therapeutic use , Peptides/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Chorionic Gonadotropin/chemistry , Chorionic Gonadotropin/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism
6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 890: 173648, 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385504

ABSTRACT

In an attempt to search for selective inhibitors against the SARS-CoV-2 which caused devastating of lives and livelihoods across the globe, 415 natural metabolites isolated from several plants, fungi and bacteria, belonging to different classes, were investigated. The drug metabolism and safety profiles were computed in silico and the results showed seven compounds namely fusaric acid, jasmonic acid, jasmonic acid methyl ester, putaminoxin, putaminoxin B and D, and stagonolide K were predicted to having considerable absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion parameters (ADME) and safety indices. Molecular docking against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein (S1) and the main protease (Mpro) exposed the compounds having better binding affinity to main protease as compared to the S1 receptor binding domain. The docking results were compared to an antiviral drug penciclovir reportedly of clinical significance in treating the SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The results demonstrated the test compounds jasmonic acid, putaminoxins B and D bound to the HIS-CYS catalytic dyad as well as to other residues within the MPro active site with much greater affinity than penciclovir. The findings of the study suggest that these compounds could be explored as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors, and could further be combined with the experimental investigations to develop effective therapeutics to deal with the present pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Biological Products/pharmacokinetics , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cyclopentanes/pharmacokinetics , Cyclopentanes/pharmacology , Fungi/metabolism , Humans , Intestinal Absorption , Lactones/pharmacokinetics , Lactones/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Oxylipins/pharmacokinetics , Oxylipins/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacokinetics , Plants/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369767

ABSTRACT

According to Darwin's theory, endless evolution leads to a revolution. One such example is the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system, an adaptive immunity system in most archaea and many bacteria. Gene editing technology possesses a crucial potential to dramatically impact miscellaneous areas of life, and CRISPR-Cas represents the most suitable strategy. The system has ignited a revolution in the field of genetic engineering. The ease, precision, affordability of this system is akin to a Midas touch for researchers editing genomes. Undoubtedly, the applications of this system are endless. The CRISPR-Cas system is extensively employed in the treatment of infectious and genetic diseases, in metabolic disorders, in curing cancer, in developing sustainable methods for fuel production and chemicals, in improving the quality and quantity of food crops, and thus in catering to global food demands. Future applications of CRISPR-Cas will provide benefits for everyone and will save countless lives. The technology is evolving rapidly; therefore, an overview of continuous improvement is important. In this review, we aim to elucidate the current state of the CRISPR-Cas revolution in a tailor-made format from its discovery to exciting breakthroughs at the application level and further upcoming trends related to opportunities and challenges including ethical concerns.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Genetic Engineering/methods , Animals , Archaea/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Genetic Engineering/history , Genome , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Livestock
8.
Chembiochem ; 22(20): 2946-2950, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310453

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, little attention has been paid to the interplay between the interaction of virus and commensal microbiota. Here, we used molecular docking and dynamics simulations to study the interaction of some of the known metabolites and natural products (NPs) produced by commensal microbiota with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. The results predict that NPs of commensal microbiota such as bile acids and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), of which some are siderophores, bind to the wild-type RBD and interfere with its binding to the ACE2 receptor. N501Y mutation, which is present in many of the emerging variants of the virus, abolishes the predicted binding pocket of bile acids and NRPs. Based on these findings, available experimental data showing that bile acids reduce the binding affinity of wild-type RBD to the ACE2 receptor, and the data suggesting that the respiratory tract microbiota affect viral infection we put forward the following proposal: mutations such as N501Y enable the RBD to bind to the ACE2 receptor more effectively in the presence of NPs produced by the respiratory tract bacteria thereby, increasing the infectivity rate of the virus. We hope our data stimulate future works to better understand the interactions of NPs produced by commensal microbiota with respiratory viruses like SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Microbiota , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Bacteria/metabolism , Biological Products/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Humans , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299441

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia due to respiratory infection with most prominently bacteria, but also viruses, fungi, or parasites is the leading cause of death worldwide among all infectious disease in both adults and infants. The introduction of modern antibiotic treatment regimens and vaccine strategies has helped to lower the burden of bacterial pneumonia, yet due to the unavailability or refusal of vaccines and antimicrobials in parts of the global population, the rise of multidrug resistant pathogens, and high fatality rates even in patients treated with appropriate antibiotics pneumonia remains a global threat. As such, a better understanding of pathogen virulence on the one, and the development of innovative vaccine strategies on the other hand are once again in dire need in the perennial fight of men against microbes. Recent data show that the secretome of bacteria consists not only of soluble mediators of virulence but also to a significant proportion of extracellular vesicles-lipid bilayer-delimited particles that form integral mediators of intercellular communication. Extracellular vesicles are released from cells of all kinds of organisms, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in which case they are commonly termed outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and membrane vesicles (MVs), respectively. (O)MVs can trigger inflammatory responses to specific pathogens including S. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, and L. pneumophila and as such, mediate bacterial virulence in pneumonia by challenging the host respiratory epithelium and cellular and humoral immunity. In parallel, however, (O)MVs have recently emerged as auspicious vaccine candidates due to their natural antigenicity and favorable biochemical properties. First studies highlight the efficacy of such vaccines in animal models exposed to (O)MVs from B. pertussis, S. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae. An advanced and balanced recognition of both the detrimental effects of (O)MVs and their immunogenic potential could pave the way to novel treatment strategies in pneumonia and effective preventive approaches.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Outer Membrane/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Outer Membrane/immunology , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/prevention & control , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Virulence
10.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257986

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrates have long been known to mediate intracellular interactions, whether within one organism or between different organisms. Sialic acids (Sias) are carbohydrates that usually occupy the terminal positions in longer carbohydrate chains, which makes them common recognition targets mediating these interactions. In this review, we summarize the knowledge about animal disease-causing agents such as viruses, bacteria and protozoa (including the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum) in which Sias play a role in infection biology. While Sias may promote binding of, e.g., influenza viruses and SV40, they act as decoys for betacoronaviruses. The presence of two common forms of Sias, Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc, is species-specific, and in humans, the enzyme converting Neu5Ac to Neu5Gc (CMAH, CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase) is lost, most likely due to adaptation to pathogen regimes; we discuss the research about the influence of malaria on this trait. In addition, we present data suggesting the CMAH gene was probably present in the ancestor of animals, shedding light on its glycobiology. We predict that a better understanding of the role of Sias in disease vectors would lead to more effective clinical interventions.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Viruses/metabolism , Animals , Humans
11.
Curr Opin Virol ; 49: 151-156, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271612

ABSTRACT

Intestinal microbiota have profound effects on viral infections locally and systemically. While they can directly influence enteric virus infections, there is also an increasing appreciation for the role of microbiota-derived metabolites in regulating virus infections. Because metabolites diffuse across the intestinal epithelium and enter circulation, they can influence host response to pathogens at extraintestinal sites. In this review, we summarize the effects of three types of microbiota-derived metabolites on virus infections. While short-chain fatty acids serve to regulate the extent of inflammation associated with viral infections, the flavonoid desaminotyrosine and bile acids generally regulate interferon responses. A common theme that emerges is that microbiota-derived metabolites can have proviral and antiviral effects depending on the virus in question. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which microbiota-derived metabolites impact viral infections and the highly conditional nature of these responses should pave the way to developing novel rational antivirals.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Virus Diseases/microbiology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology
12.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(6): 135-148, 2021 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281062

ABSTRACT

The human body is colonized from the birth by a large number of microorganisms. This will constitute a real "functional microbial organ" that is fundamental for homeostasis and therefore for health in humans. Those microorganisms. The microbial populations that colonize humans creating a specific ecosystem they have been collectively referred to as "human microbiota" or "human normal microflora". The microbiota play an important pathophysiological role in the various locations of the human body. This article focuses on one of the most important, that is the enteric microbiota. The composition (quantitative and qualitative) of microbes is analyzed in relation to age and environment during the course of human life. It also highlights eubiosis and dysbiosis as key terms for its role in health and disease. Finally, it analyzes its bi-directional relationship with the microbiota of the lungs, skin and that of the brain, and consequently for the whole central and peripheral nervous system for the maintenance of health in the human body.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Health Status , Homeostasis/physiology , Bacteria/classification , Brain/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiology , Humans , Lung/physiology , Population Dynamics
13.
Pharmazie ; 76(5): 195-201, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219141

ABSTRACT

The effects of eight oral anti-coronavirus drugs (lopinavir, ritonavir, chloroquine, darunavir, ribavirin, arbidol, favipiravir, oseltamivir) on the metabolism of four specific glycosides (polydatin, geniposide, quercitrin, glycyrrhizin) and on the activities of three major glycosidases (ß-glucosidase, α-rhamnosidase, ß-glucuronidase) from gut microflora were explored in vitro and determined by LC-MS/MS. The metabolism of polydatin, geniposide, quercitrin and glycyrrhizin was significantly inhibited by one or several anti-coronavirus drugs of 100 µM around 1 h and 4 h (P<0.05), among which darunavir could strongly reduce the production of genipin (70.6% reduction), quercitin (80.6% reduction) and glycyrrhetinic acid (37.9% reduction), which may cause a high risk of herb-drug interactions (HDI). Additionally, chloroquine reduced the production of genipin and quercitin by more than 75% (P<0.05), whereas arbidol had no significant influence on the metabolism of polydatin, quercitrin and glycyrrhizin (P>0.05) so that its risk may be lower. The inhibition of darunavir on ß-glucosidase was relatively strong (IC50 = 193±23 µM), and the inhibition became weaker on ß-glucuronidase and α-rhamnosidase (IC50>500 µM). The consistency between gut microflora and glycosidase system indicated that the inhibition of darunavir on the activity of ß-glucosidase and ß-glucuronidase may be the main reason for affecting the metabolism of geniposide, glycyrrhizin and polydatin in gut microflora. However, for the inhibition of darunavir and chloroquine on the metabolism of quercetrin, there was no correlation between gut microflora and α-rhamnosidase system. Assessing the risk of HDI mediated by glycosidases in gut microflora may be conducive to the safety and efficacy of combining traditional herbal and Western medicine for the treatment of patients with Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Glycosides/metabolism , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Darunavir/pharmacology , Humans , Patient Safety , Plant Preparations/adverse effects , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 590874, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158345

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiome alterations may play a paramount role in determining the clinical outcome of clinical COVID-19 with underlying comorbid conditions like T2D, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, etc. Research is warranted to manipulate the profile of gut microbiota in COVID-19 by employing combinatorial approaches such as the use of prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics. Prediction of gut microbiome alterations in SARS-CoV-2 infection may likely permit the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Novel and targeted interventions by manipulating gut microbiota indeed represent a promising therapeutic approach against COVID-19 immunopathogenesis and associated co-morbidities. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host innate immune responses associated with gut microbiome profiling is likely to contribute to the development of key strategies for application and has seldom been attempted, especially in the context of symptomatic as well as asymptomatic COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Gene Expression/genetics , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/biosynthesis , Obesity/pathology , Probiotics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1152: 338267, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056120

ABSTRACT

Although SARS-CoV-2 can invade the intestine, though its effect on digestion and absorption is not fully understood. In the present study, 56 COVID-19 patients and 47 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were divided into a discovery cohort and a validation cohort. Blood, faeces and clinical information were collected from the patients in the hospital and at discharge. The faecal metabolome was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and Spearman's correlation analyses of clinical features, the serum metabolome, and the faecal micro- and mycobiota were conducted. The results showed that, the faeces of COVID-19 patients were enriched with important nutrients that should be metabolized or absorbed, such as sucrose and 2-palmitoyl-glycerol; diet-related components that cannot be synthesized by humans, such as 1,5-anhydroglucitol and D-pinitol; and harmful metabolites, such as oxalate, were also detected. In contrast, purine metabolites such as deoxyinosine and hypoxanthine, low-water-soluble long-chain fatty alcohols/acids such as behenic acid, compounds rarely occurring in nature such as D-allose and D-arabinose, and microbe-related compounds such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol were depleted in the faeces of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, these metabolites significantly correlated with altered serum metabolites such as oxalate and gut microbesincluding Ruminococcaceae, Actinomyces, Sphingomonas and Aspergillus. Although levels of several faecal metabolites, such as sucrose, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and D-pinitol, of discharged patients were not different from those of healthy controls (HCs), those of oxalate and 2-palmitoyl-glycerol did differ. Therefore, alterations in the faecal metabolome of COVID-19 patients may reflect malnutrition and intestinal inflammation and warrant greater attention. The results of present study provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysbiosis/diagnosis , Feces/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Metabolome/physiology , Adult , Bacteria/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Feces/microbiology , Female , Fungi/metabolism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Mar Drugs ; 18(12)2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977761

ABSTRACT

The mucus layer of the nasopharynx and bronchial epithelium has a barrier function against inhaled pathogens such as the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We recently found that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a physiological, metabolic energy (ATP)-providing polymer released from blood platelets, blocks the binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) to the cellular ACE2 receptor in vitro. PolyP is a marine natural product and is abundantly present in marine bacteria. Now, we have approached the in vivo situation by studying the effect of polyP on the human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells in a mucus-like mucin environment. These cells express mucins as well as the ectoenzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and adenylate kinase (ADK), which are involved in the extracellular production of ATP from polyP. Mucin, integrated into a collagen-based hydrogel, stimulated cell growth and attachment. The addition of polyP to the hydrogel significantly increased cell attachment and also the expression of the membrane-tethered mucin MUC1 and the secreted mucin MUC5AC. The increased synthesis of MUC1 was also confirmed by immunostaining. This morphogenetic effect of polyP was associated with a rise in extracellular ATP level. We conclude that the nontoxic and non-immunogenic polymer polyP could possibly also exert a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2-cell attachment; first, by stimulating the innate antiviral response by strengthening the mucin barrier with its antimicrobial proteins, and second, by inhibiting virus attachment to the cells, as deduced from the reduction in the strength of binding between the viral RBD and the cellular ACE2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Aquatic Organisms/metabolism , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , A549 Cells , Bacteria/metabolism , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Mucin 5AC/metabolism , Mucin-1/metabolism , Polyphosphates/metabolism , Polyphosphates/therapeutic use , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Metabolism , Virus Attachment/drug effects
19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D192-D200, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934919

ABSTRACT

Rfam is a database of RNA families where each of the 3444 families is represented by a multiple sequence alignment of known RNA sequences and a covariance model that can be used to search for additional members of the family. Recent developments have involved expert collaborations to improve the quality and coverage of Rfam data, focusing on microRNAs, viral and bacterial RNAs. We have completed the first phase of synchronising microRNA families in Rfam and miRBase, creating 356 new Rfam families and updating 40. We established a procedure for comprehensive annotation of viral RNA families starting with Flavivirus and Coronaviridae RNAs. We have also increased the coverage of bacterial and metagenome-based RNA families from the ZWD database. These developments have enabled a significant growth of the database, with the addition of 759 new families in Rfam 14. To facilitate further community contribution to Rfam, expert users are now able to build and submit new families using the newly developed Rfam Cloud family curation system. New Rfam website features include a new sequence similarity search powered by RNAcentral, as well as search and visualisation of families with pseudoknots. Rfam is freely available at https://rfam.org.


Subject(s)
Databases, Nucleic Acid , Metagenome , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Base Pairing , Base Sequence , Humans , Internet , MicroRNAs/classification , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Bacterial/classification , RNA, Bacterial/metabolism , RNA, Untranslated/classification , RNA, Untranslated/metabolism , RNA, Viral/classification , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Software , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...