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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 146, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although cases of respiratory bacterial infections associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have often been reported, their impact on the clinical course remains unclear. Herein, we evaluated and analyzed the complication rates of bacterial infections, causative organisms, patient backgrounds, and clinical outcome in Japanese patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study that included inpatients with COVID-19 from multiple centers participating in the Japan COVID-19 Taskforce (April 2020 to May 2021) and obtained demographic, epidemiological, and microbiological results and the clinical course and analyzed the cases of COVID-19 complicated by respiratory bacterial infections. RESULTS: Of the 1,863 patients with COVID-19 included in the analysis, 140 (7.5%) had respiratory bacterial infections. Community-acquired co-infection at COVID-19 diagnosis was uncommon (55/1,863, 3.0%) and was mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Hospital-acquired bacterial secondary infections, mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, were diagnosed in 86 patients (4.6%). Severity-associated comorbidities were frequently observed in hospital-acquired secondary infection cases, including hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The study results suggest that the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (> 5.28) may be useful in diagnosing complications of respiratory bacterial infections. COVID-19 patients with community-acquired or hospital-acquired secondary infections had significantly increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory bacterial co-infections and secondary infections are uncommon in patients with COVID-19 but may worsen outcomes. Assessment of bacterial complications is important in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and the study findings are meaningful for the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and management strategies.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross Infection , Respiratory Tract Infections , Staphylococcal Infections , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , East Asian People , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Disease Progression
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(4)2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305190

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives. The intensive care unit (ICU), especially in an infectious disease hospital, is both an area with a high consumption of antibiotics (atb) and a "reservoir" of multidrug-resistant bacteria. We proposed the analysis of antibiotic therapy practices in such a department that treated, in conditions of a pandemic wave, patients with COVID-19 and its complications. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective transversal study of 184 COVID-19 patients treated in the ICU of a regional infectious disease hospital of Iasi, Romania, in a 3-month interval of 2020 and 2021. Results. All the included patients (Caucasians, 53% males, with a median age of 68 years, and a Charlton comorbidity index of 3) received at least one antibiotic during their stay in the ICU (43% also had antibiotics prior to hospital admission and 68% in the Infectious Diseases ward). Only 22.3% of the ICU patients had only one antibiotic. A total of 77.7% of them started with an association of two antibiotics, and 19.6% of them received more than three antibiotics. The most-used ones were linezolid (77.2%), imipenem (75.5%), and ceftriaxone (33.7%). The median atb duration was 9 days. No change in the number or type of atb prescription was seen in 2021 (compared to 2020). Only 9.8% of the patients had a microbiological confirmation of bacterial infection. A total of 38.3% of the tested patients had elevated procalcitonin levels at ICU admission. The overall fatality rate was 68.5%, with no significant differences between the two analyzed periods or the number of administered antibiotics. More than half (51.1%) of the patients developed oral candidiasis during their stay in the ICU, but only 5.4% had C. difficile colitis. Conclusion. Antibiotics were widely used in our ICU patients in the presence of a reduced microbiological confirmation of a bacterial co-infection, and were justified by other clinical or biological criteria.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Communicable Diseases , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Romania/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals
3.
Arch Virol ; 168(4): 120, 2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and infection spectrum of viral and bacterial respiratory infections in Western China is unknown. METHODS: We conducted an interrupted time series analysis based on surveillance of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Western China to supplement the available data. RESULTS: The positive rates of influenza virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and viral and bacterial coinfections decreased, but parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human adenovirus, human rhinovirus, human bocavirus, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections increased after the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic. The positive rate for viral infection in outpatients and children aged <5 years increased, but the positive rates of bacterial infection and viral and bacterial coinfections decreased, and the proportion patients with clinical symptoms of ARI decreased after the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic. Non-pharmacological interventions reduced the positive rates of viral and bacterial infections in the short term but did not have a long-term limiting effect. Moreover, the proportion of ARI patients with severe clinical symptoms (dyspnea and pleural effusion) increased in the short term after COVID-19, but in the long-term, it decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and infection spectrum of viral and bacterial infections in Western China have changed, and children will be a high-risk group for ARI after the COVID-19 epidemic. In addition, the reluctance of ARI patients with mild clinical symptoms to seek medical care after COVID-19 should be considered. In the post-COVID-19 era, we need to strengthen the surveillance of respiratory pathogens.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Humans , Infant , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Bacteria , Disease Outbreaks
4.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 20(3): 81-89, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257559

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on reported cases and clusters of select enteric diseases in Canada, for the period of March 2020 to December 2020. Weekly counts of laboratory confirmed cases of Salmonella, Shigella, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and Listeria monocytogenes were obtained from laboratory surveillance data. These data were supplemented with epidemiological information on the suspected source of illness, collected for cases identified within whole genome sequencing clusters. Incidence rate ratios were calculated for each pathogen. All data were compared with a prepandemic reference period. Decreases in the number of reported cases in 2020 compared with the previous 5-year period were noted for Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157, and non-O157 STEC. Reported number of cases for L. monocytogenes in 2020 remained similar to those of the previous 5-year period. There was a considerable decline (59.9%) in the number of cases associated with international travel compared with a 10% decline in the number of domestic cases. Comparison of reported incidence rates of clustered versus sporadic cases for each pathogen showed little variation. This study represents the first formal assessment of the impact of COVID-19 on reported enteric diseases in Canada. Reported case counts across several pathogens saw notable declines in 2020 compared with prepandemic levels, with restrictions on international travel playing a key role. Additional research is needed to understand how limitations on social gatherings, lock downs, and other public health measures have impacted enteric diseases.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Escherichia coli Infections , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Shigella , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Canada/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology
5.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281813, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bacterial infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. Our aim was to assess the incidence of bacterial infections, in particular due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) before and after the introduction of the antimicrobial stewardship program, "Stewardship Antimicrobial in VErona" (SAVE). In addition, we also analysed the liver complications and the crude mortality during the whole follow up. METHODS: We analysed 229 cirrhotic subjects without previous hospitalization for infections enrolled at the University Verona Hospital from 2017 to 2019 and followed up until December 2021 (mean follow-up 42.7 months). RESULTS: 101 infections were recorded and 31.7% were recurrent. The most frequent were sepsis (24.7%), pneumonia (19.8%), spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (17.8%). 14.9% of infections were sustained by MDROs. Liver complications occurred more frequently in infected patients, and in case of MDROs infections with a significantly higher MELD and Child-Pugh score. In Cox regression analysis, mortality was associated with age, diabetes and bacterial infections episodes (OR 3.30, CI 95%: (1.63-6.70). Despite an increase in total infections over the past three years, a decrease in the incidence rate in MDROs infections was documented concurrently with the introduction of SAVE (IRD 28.6; 95% CI: 4.6-52.5, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the burden of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients, especially MDROs, and the strong interconnection with liver complications. The introduction of SAVE decreased MDROs infections. Cirrhotic patients require a closer clinical surveillance to identify colonized patients and avoid the horizontal spread of MDROs in this setting.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections , Humans , Cohort Studies , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 14, 2023 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196083

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the proportion of patients with COVID-19 who have respiratory bacterial co-infections and the responsible pathogens is important for managing COVID-19 effectively while ensuring responsible antibiotic use. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 hospitalized patients and of antibiotic prescribing during the early pandemic period and to appraise the use of antibiotic stewardship criteria. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using major databases up to May 5, 2021. We included studies that reported proportion/prevalence of bacterial co-infection in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and use of antibiotics. Where available, data on duration and type of antibiotics, adverse events, and any information about antibiotic stewardship policies were also collected. RESULTS: We retrieved 6,798 studies and included 85 studies with data from more than 30,000 patients. The overall prevalence of bacterial co-infection was 11% (95% CI 8% to 16%; 70 studies). When only confirmed bacterial co-infections were included the prevalence was 4% (95% CI 3% to 6%; 20 studies). Overall antibiotic use was 60% (95% CI 52% to 68%; 52 studies). Empirical antibiotic use rate was 62% (95% CI 55% to 69%; 11 studies). Few studies described criteria for stopping antibiotics. CONCLUSION: There is currently insufficient evidence to support widespread empirical use of antibiotics in most hospitalised patients with COVID-19, as the overall proportion of bacterial co-infection is low. Furthermore, as the use of antibiotics during the study period appears to have been largely empirical, clinical guidelines to promote and support more targeted administration of antibiotics in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 are required.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy
8.
Acta Paediatr ; 112(7): 1398-1403, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192369

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 omicron variant surge highlighted the evolving impact of COVID-19. Febrile infants <60 days old are high risk for serious bacterial infections (SBI). This study evaluated the rate of SBI based on COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review at an urban, academic paediatric emergency department. The study enrolled infants 60 days old or less with documented fever. The primary outcome was SBI diagnosed by blood, urine, and/or cerebrospinal fluid cultures. We compared the rate of SBI between COVID-19 groups with an omicron variant and 29- to 60-day-old subgroup analyses. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-three (233) infants meet the criteria. The incidence of SBI was 18.7% in the COVID-19 negative and 1.7% in the COVID-19-positive group which is statistically significant (p < 0.001). Omicron subgroup analysis did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.62) while COVID-19-positive infants 29-60 days old had a statistically significant lower rate of SBI (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The omicron variant surge provided an additional understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on these high-risk infants. These results can lead to decreased invasive testing and exposure to antibiotics as well as examine the utility of viral testing for risk stratification.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology
9.
Pediatrics ; 150(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116382

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to describe the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) and invasive bacterial infection (IBI) in febrile infants during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study that included 97 hospitals in the United States and Canada. We included full-term, well-appearing infants 8 to 60 days old with a temperature of ≥38°C and an emergency department visit or hospitalization at a participating site between November 1, 2020 and March 31, 2022. We used logistic regression to determine trends in the odds of an infant having UTI and IBI by study month and to determine the association of COVID-19 prevalence with the odds of an infant having UTI and IBI. RESULTS: We included 9112 infants; 603 (6.6%) had UTI, 163 (1.8%) had bacteremia without meningitis, and 43 (0.5%) had bacterial meningitis. UTI prevalence decreased from 11.2% in November 2020 to 3.0% in January 2022. IBI prevalence was highest in February 2021 (6.1%) and decreased to 0.4% in January 2022. There was a significant downward monthly trend for odds of UTI (odds ratio [OR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-0.94) and IBI (OR 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87-0.93). For every 5% increase in COVID-19 prevalence in the month of presentation, the odds of an infant having UTI (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96-0.98) or bacteremia without meningitis decreased (OR 0.94; 95% CI: 0.88-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of UTI and IBI in eligible febrile infants decreased to previously published, prepandemic levels by early 2022. Higher monthly COVID-19 prevalence was associated with lower odds of UTI and bacteremia.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Meningitis, Bacterial , Urinary Tract Infections , Infant , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fever/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/complications , Retrospective Studies
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e195, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106270

ABSTRACT

Episodes of bacterial superinfections have been well identified for several respiratory viruses, notably influenza. In this retrospective study, we compared the frequency of superinfections in COVID-19 patients to those found in influenza-positive patients, and to controls without viral infection. We included 42 468 patients who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 and 266 261 subjects who had tested COVID-19 negative between 26 February 2020 and 1 May 2021. In addition, 4059 patients were included who had tested positive for the influenza virus between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2019. Bacterial infections in COVID-19 patients were more frequently healthcare-associated, and acquired in ICUs, were associated with longer ICU stays, and occurred in older and male patients when compared to controls and to influenza patients (P < 0.0001 for all). The most common pathogens proved to be less frequent in COVID-19 patients, including fewer cases of bacteraemia involving E. coli (P < 0.0001) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (P = 0.027) when compared to controls. In respiratory specimens Haemophilus influenzae (P < 0.0001) was more frequent in controls, while Streptococcus pneumoniae (P < 0.0001) was more frequent in influenza patients. Likewise, species associated with nosocomial transmission, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were more frequent among COVID-19 patients. Finally, we observed a high frequency of Enterococcus faecalis bacteraemia among COVID-19 patients, which were mainly ICU-acquired and associated with a longer timescale to acquisition.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Superinfection , Humans , Male , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals , Bacteremia/epidemiology
11.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(1): 89-92, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096391
12.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 18, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measuring host gene expression is a promising diagnostic strategy to discriminate bacterial and viral infections. Multiple signatures of varying size, complexity, and target populations have been described. However, there is little information to indicate how the performance of various published signatures compare to one another. METHODS: This systematic comparison of host gene expression signatures evaluated the performance of 28 signatures, validating them in 4589 subjects from 51 publicly available datasets. Thirteen COVID-specific datasets with 1416 subjects were included in a separate analysis. Individual signature performance was evaluated using the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC) value. Overall signature performance was evaluated using median AUCs and accuracies. RESULTS: Signature performance varied widely, with median AUCs ranging from 0.55 to 0.96 for bacterial classification and 0.69-0.97 for viral classification. Signature size varied (1-398 genes), with smaller signatures generally performing more poorly (P < 0.04). Viral infection was easier to diagnose than bacterial infection (84% vs. 79% overall accuracy, respectively; P < .001). Host gene expression classifiers performed more poorly in some pediatric populations (3 months-1 year and 2-11 years) compared to the adult population for both bacterial infection (73% and 70% vs. 82%, respectively; P < .001) and viral infection (80% and 79% vs. 88%, respectively; P < .001). We did not observe classification differences based on illness severity as defined by ICU admission for bacterial or viral infections. The median AUC across all signatures for COVID-19 classification was 0.80 compared to 0.83 for viral classification in the same datasets. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic comparison of 28 host gene expression signatures, we observed differences based on a signature's size and characteristics of the validation population, including age and infection type. However, populations used for signature discovery did not impact performance, underscoring the redundancy among many of these signatures. Furthermore, differential performance in specific populations may only be observable through this type of large-scale validation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Datasets as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Transcriptome , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Adult , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/genetics , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Gene Expression Profiling/statistics & numerical data , Genetic Association Studies/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Publications/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Validation Studies as Topic , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/genetics
13.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(5): 754-759, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056168

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that drastically impacted the United States. The evidence was not clear on how SARS-CoV-2 infection impacted children, given the high prevalence of SAR-CoV-2 infection. Febrile infants less than 60 days old are an ongoing challenge to risk-stratify for serious bacterial infection (SBI), including urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, and meningitis. We hypothesized there would be a lower rate of SBI in SARS-CoV-2 positive febrile infants compared to those SARS-CoV-2 negative. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review with a nested, age-matched, case-control study performed from March 2020-June 2021. Infants less than 60 days old presenting with fever were assigned groups based on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were used as the gold standard to diagnose SBI. We compared overall rate of SBI as well as individual rates of SBI between each group. We performed a subgroup analysis evaluating the age group 29-60 days old. RESULTS: A total of 164 subjects met criteria for analysis: 30 COVID-19 positive and 134 COVID-19 negative subjects. Rate of SBI was 17.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.8-25.5%) in the COVID-19 negative group compared to 0% (95% CI: 0.0%-11.1%) in the COVID-19 group, which demonstrated statistical significance (p = 0.008). In the age-matched data, we found statistical significance for any SBI (p = <0.001). For individual rates of SBI, we found statistical significance for UTI (p = <0.001) and bacteremia (p = <0.001). The 29-60 days-old subgroup analysis did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.11). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the utility of including SARS-CoV-2 infection as part of the risk stratification of febrile infants less than 60 days old. While overall there is a low incidence of bacteremia and meningitis in this age group, these results can contribute to existing literature and potentially help decrease invasive testing and exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Meningitis , Urinary Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Fever/diagnosis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Meningitis/complications , Meningitis/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270770, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk and characteristics of upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial infections (URT-BI) among HIV (+) patients is understudied. We analyzed factors associated with its occurrence and the spectrum of culturable pathogens among patients routinely followed at the HIV Out-Patient Clinic in Warsaw. METHODS: All HIV (+) patients with available URT swab culture were included into analyses. Patients were followed from the day of registration in the clinic until first positive URT swab culture or last clinical visit from January 1, 2007 to July 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with positive URT swabs culture (those with p<0.1 in univariate included into multivariable). RESULTS: In total 474 patients were included into the analyses, 166 with culturable URT swab. In general, 416 (87.8%) patients were male, 342 (72.1%) were infected through MSM contact, 253 (53.4%) were on antiretroviral therapy. Median follow-up time was 3.4 (1.3-5.7) years, age 35.2 (30.6-42.6) years and CD4+ count 528 (400-685) cells/µl. The most common cultured bacteria were S. aureus (40.4%) and S. pyogenes (13.9%) (Table 1). Patients with culturable URT-BI were more likely to be MSM (68.5% vs 78.9%; p<0.016), have detectable viral load (20.9% vs 12.0%; p<0.0001) and CD4+ cell count <500 cells/µl (55.2% vs 39.0%; p = 0.003) (Table 2). In multivariate survival analyses detectable viral load (HR3.13; 95%Cl: 2.34-4.19) and MSM (1.63;1.09-2.42) were increasing, but older age (0.63;0.58-0.69, per 5 years older) and higher CD4+ count (0.90;0.85-0.95, per 100 cells/µl) decreasing the risk of culturable URT-BI (Table 2). CONCLUSIONS: Culturable URT-BI are common among HIV-positive patients with high CD4+ count. Similarly to general population most common cultured bacteria were S. aureus and S. pyogenes. Risk factors identified in multivariate survival analysis indicate that younger MSM patients with detectable HIV viral load are at highest risk. In clinical practice this group of patients requires special attention.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , HIV Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Reinfection , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Staphylococcus aureus , Viral Load
15.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05023, 2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025295

ABSTRACT

Background: Essential health and nutrition services for pregnant women, newborns, and children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), are disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This formative research was conducted at five LMICs to understand the pandemic's impact on barriers to and mitigation for strategies of care-seeking and managing possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) in young infants. Methods: We used a convergent parallel mixed-method design to explore the possible factors influencing PSBI management, barriers, and facilitators at three levels: 1) national and local policy, 2) the health systems, public and private facilities, and 3) community and caregivers. We ascertained trends in service provision and utilisation across pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown periods by examining facility records and community health worker registers. Results: The pandemic aggravated pre-existing challenges in the identification of young infants with PSBI; care-seeking, referral, and treatment due to several factors at the policy level (limited staff and resource reallocation), health facility level (staff quarantine, sub-optimal treatment in facilities, limited duration of service availability, lack of clear guidelines on the management of sick young infants, and inadequate supplies of protective kits and essential medicines) and at the community level (travel restrictions, lack of transportation, and fear of contracting the infection in hospitals). Care-seeking shifted to faith healers, traditional and informal private sources, or home remedies. However, caregivers were willing to admit their sick young infants to the hospital if advised by doctors. A review of facility records showed low attendance (<50%) of sick young infants in the OPD/emergencies during lockdowns in Bangladesh, India (both sites) and Pakistan, but it gradually increased as lockdowns eased. Stakeholders suggested aspirational and pragmatic mitigation strategies. Conclusions: We obtained useful insights on health system preparedness during catastrophes and strategies to strengthen services and improve utilisation regarding PSBI management. The current pandemic provides an opportunity for implementing various mitigation strategies at the policy, health system, and community levels to improve preparedness.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Referral and Consultation
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(8)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023901

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a state in which a patient experiences intraoral burning or a dysesthetic sensation without clinically evident causative lesions in the oropharyngeal area. The disorder is linked to a variety of conditions, including dry mouth, Candida, and bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of oral Candida and/or bacterial infections among patients with BMS and whether they have an effect on pain/burning and salivary flow levels. Objectives: (1) Gather patient data regarding the presence of oral infections, dry mouth, and pain levels in the morning, afternoon, and evening periods; (2) data analysis and assessment to determine medians, means, frequencies, correlations, and statistically significant differences between patient groups. Materials and Methods: Overall, 173 patients (23 males and 150 females) with BMS and 13 controls (five males and eight females) took part in the study. We measured pain/burning levels, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, the percentage of patients infected with Candida species and/or bacterial species, and the said species growth in Petri dishes. Results: Candida albicans was the most commonly found infection among patients with BMS (n = 28, 16.2%). Overall, 21.4% patients with BMS were diagnosed with either C. albicans or another Candida species. Enterobacter had the richest growth among patients with BMS (7.5% out of the infected 10.4% BMS patients). No statistical significance could be noted between the existence of either Candida species or bacterial species infections and changes in pain/burning and salivary flow levels. Negative correlations were noted between age and unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, and positive correlations were noted between age and Candida andspecific bacteria species' growth levels. Conclusions: Although patients with present bacterial or Candida infections showed a marginal increase in pain/burning levels, no direct statistically significant associations could be made between the presence of Candida species or other bacteria and the symptoms among patients with BMS.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Burning Mouth Syndrome , Candidiasis , Xerostomia , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Burning Mouth Syndrome/complications , Burning Mouth Syndrome/epidemiology , Burning Mouth Syndrome/microbiology , Candidiasis/complications , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pain
17.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(5): 463-469, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008657

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, there has been a large increase in the consumption of antimicrobials, both as a form of treatment for viral pneumonia, which has been shown to be ineffective, and in the treatment of secondary infections that arise over the course of the severe presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This increase in consumption, often empirical, ends up causing an increase in the incidence of colonization and secondary infections by multi and pan-resistant germs. RECENT FINDINGS: The presence of a hyperinflammatory condition induced by the primary infection, associated with the structural damage caused by viral pneumonia and by the greater colonization by bacteria, generally multiresistant, are important risk factors for the acquisition of secondary infections in COVID-19. Consequently, there is an increased prevalence of secondary infections, associated with a higher consumption of antimicrobials and a significant increase in the incidence of infections by multi and pan-resistant bacteria. SUMMARY: Antimicrobial stewardship and improvement in diagnostic techniques, improving the accuracy of bacterial infection diagnosis, may impact the antibiotic consumption and the incidence of infections by resistant pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
18.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 54(3): 247-257, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977764

ABSTRACT

Bacterial co-pathogens are commonly identified in viral respiratory infections and are important causes of morbid-mortality. The prevalence of Chlamydia (C.) pneumoniae infection in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 has not been sufficiently studied. The objective of the present review was to describe the prevalence of C. pneumoniae in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A search in MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases for English language literature published between January 2020 and August 2021 was performed. Studies evaluating patients with confirmed COVID-19 and reporting the simultaneous detection of C. pneumoniae were included. Eleven articles were included in the systematic review (5 case cross-sectional studies and 6 retrospective studies). A total of 18450 patients were included in the eleven studies. The detection of laboratory-confirmed C. pneumoniae infection varied between 1.78 and 71.4% of the total number of co-infections. The median age of patients ranged from 35 to 71 years old and 65% were male. Most of the studies reported one or more pre-existing comorbidities and the majority of the patients presented with fever, cough and dyspnea. Lymphopenia and eosinopenia were described in COVID-19 co-infected patients. The main chest CT scan showed a ground glass density shadow, consolidation and bilateral pneumonia. Most patients received empirical antibiotics. Bacterial co-infection was not associated with increased ICU admission and mortality. Despite frequent prescription of broad-spectrum empirical antimicrobials in patients with coronavirus 2-associated respiratory infections, there is a paucity of data to support the association with respiratory bacterial co-infection. Prospective evidence generation to support the development of an antimicrobial policy and appropriate stewardship interventions specific for the COVID-19 pandemic are urgently required.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Coinfection , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Turk J Pediatr ; 64(3): 549-557, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a degenerative disease distinguished by progressive epithelial secretory gland dysfunction associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Despite that bacteria have previously been studied as the main cause of CF airway damage, a strong effect of respiratory viral infections is also now recognized. We aimed to detect the relationship between viral infection and exacerbation in children with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: This is a cross sectional observational study recruiting 60 patients diagnosed as CF following in Cystic Fibrosis Clinic, Children`s Hospital, Cairo University, throughout a period of 7 months. Their age ranged from 6 months to 13 years. Patients had nasal swabs and sputum samples obtained when they developed respiratory exacerbations. Multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) technique was used to detect respiratory viruses from nasal swabs. RESULTS: We detected viruses in 48 patients during exacerbation (80%), the most common virus was rhinovirus in 43.4% of patients, followed by bocavirus in 20%, adenovirus in 13.3%, enterovirus in 10% and human metapneumovirus in 6.7%. Co-infection with double viruses was detected in 10 patients. Bacterial infection was present in 56.7% of patients; the most common organism was Pseudomonas in 20% of patients, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella and Haemophilus influenzae. CRP was positive in 53.3% of patients. There was a significant relationship between sputum positive bacterial culture and each of influenza A virus, enterovirus and human metapneumovirus. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that exacerbation in cystic fibrosis may be exaggerated by viral infections such as influenza A and enterovirus necessitating hospitalization which shows the important protective role of vaccination. Also, a strong relationship was detected between some viruses such as enterovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza and between bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Cystic Fibrosis , Influenza, Human , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(7): 1131-1137, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974973

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Secondary Bacterial Infections (SBIs) of the respiratory system are one of the biggest medical concerns in patients undergoing hospitalization with a diagnosis of COVID-19. This study aims to provide relevant data for the initiation of appropriate empirical treatment after examining the etiology and antimicrobial resistance of SBIs in COVID-19 patients under care in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in the largest pandemic hospital of our country. METHODOLOGY: Between March 16, 2020 and December 31, 2021, 56,993 COVID patients were hospitalized, of which 7684 were admitted to ICUs. A total of 1513 patients diagnosed with SBIs have been included in this study. During the course of the study, demographic data, clinical course, etiology and antimicrobial resistance data of all patients were collected. RESULTS: The most common causative agents of SBIs were inferred as Acinetobacter baumanii (35.1%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.4%). The isolation rates of carbapenem-resistant and colistin-resistant A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were 83.7%; 42.7%, 79.2%, and 5.6%, 42.7%, 1.7%, respectively. Acinetobacter pittii clustering was seen in one of the ICUs in the hospital. Multidrug resistant 92 (5.4%) Corynebacterium striatum isolates were also found as a causative agent with increasing frequency during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: SBI of the respiratory system is one of the major complications in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The antimicrobial resistance rates of the isolated bacteria are generally high, which indicates that more accurate use of antibacterial agents is necessary for SBIs in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Staphylococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Respiratory System , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy
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