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1.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 22(1): 25, 2023 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who develop severe illness due to COVID-19 are more likely to be admitted to hospital and acquire bacterial co-infections, therefore the WHO recommends empiric treatment with antibiotics. Few reports have addressed the impact of COVID-19 management on emergence of nosocomial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in resource constrained settings. This study aimed to ascertain whether being admitted to a COVID-19 ward (with COVID-19 infection) compared to a non-COVID-19 ward (as a COVID-19 negative patient) was associated with a change in the prevalence of bacterial hospital acquired infection (HAI) species or resistance patterns, and whether there were differences in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 wards. The study was conducted in Sudan and Zambia, two resource constrained settings with differing country-wide responses to COVID-19. METHODS: Patients suspected of having hospital acquired infections were recruited from COVID-19 wards and non-COVID-19 wards. Bacteria were isolated from clinical samples using culture and molecular methods and species identified. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance patterns were determined by antibiotic disc diffusion and whole genome sequencing. Infection prevention and control guidelines were analysed for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 wards to identify potential differences. RESULTS: 109 and 66 isolates were collected from Sudan and Zambia respectively. Phenotypic testing revealed significantly more multi-drug resistant isolates on COVID-19 wards in both countries (Sudan p = 0.0087, Zambia p = 0.0154). The total number of patients with hospital acquired infections (both susceptible and resistant) increased significantly on COVID-19 wards in Sudan, but the opposite was observed in Zambia (both p = ≤ 0.0001). Genotypic analysis showed significantly more ß-lactam genes per isolate on COVID-19 wards (Sudan p = 0.0192, Zambia p = ≤ 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in hospital acquired infections and AMR patterns were seen in COVID-19 patients on COVID-19 wards compared to COVID-19 negative patients on non-COVID-19 wards in Sudan and Zambia. These are likely due to a potentially complex combination of causes, including patient factors, but differing emphases on infection prevention and control, and antimicrobial stewardship policies on COVID-19 wards were highlighted.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Hospitals , Cross Infection/microbiology
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(16): e127, 2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to the change in the epidemiology of many infectious diseases. This study aimed to establish the pre-pandemic epidemiology of pediatric invasive bacterial infection (IBI). METHODS: A retrospective multicenter-based surveillance for pediatric IBIs has been maintained from 1996 to 2020 in Korea. IBIs caused by eight bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species) in immunocompetent children > 3 months of age were collected at 29 centers. The annual trend in the proportion of IBIs by each pathogen was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2,195 episodes were identified during the 25-year period between 1996 and 2020. S. pneumoniae (42.4%), S. aureus (22.1%), and Salmonella species (21.0%) were common in children 3 to 59 months of age. In children ≥ 5 years of age, S. aureus (58.1%), followed by Salmonella species (14.8%) and S. pneumoniae (12.2%) were common. Excluding the year 2020, there was a trend toward a decrease in the relative proportions of S. pneumoniae (rs = -0.430, P = 0.036), H. influenzae (rs = -0.922, P < 0.001), while trend toward an increase in the relative proportion of S. aureus (rs = 0.850, P < 0.001), S. agalactiae (rs = 0.615, P = 0.001), and S. pyogenes (rs = 0.554, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: In the proportion of IBIs over a 24-year period between 1996 and 2019, we observed a decreasing trend for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae and an increasing trend for S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and S. pyogenes in children > 3 months of age. These findings can be used as the baseline data to navigate the trend in the epidemiology of pediatric IBI in the post COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Meningitis, Bacterial , Child , Humans , Infant , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteria , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Republic of Korea
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(15): e33488, 2023 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301106

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic, with a high capability of contagious distribution, where national secondary and co-infections characterization are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on infection rates among patients admitted to the intensive care units at King Abdullah University Hospital, profiling the drug resistance rates nationally. This is a cross-sectional study of COVID-19 associated infections that was conducted at a teaching hospital, in the north of Jordan. It included all COVID-19 patients who were admitted to intensive care units during the first and second pandemic waves. Data on age, gender, length of stay, co-morbidities, co-infections and sensitivity to antibiotics were retrospectively collected from the hospital information database. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. A total of 589 COVID-19 patients were included, of whom 20% developed bacterial associated infections. The ratio of bacterial co-infection to secondary infections was 1:8. Gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii (40.1%), Eschericia coli (17.5%), Klebsiella pneumonia (6.8%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.1%) were the most abundant isolated species. The detection rates of E coli (ESBL), K pneumonia (ESBL), A baumannii (CRO), P aeruginosa (CRO), S aureus (MRSA) were 52%, 67%, 97%, 44%, and 67%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Humans , Pandemics , Escherichia coli , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Intensive Care Units
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 146, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although cases of respiratory bacterial infections associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have often been reported, their impact on the clinical course remains unclear. Herein, we evaluated and analyzed the complication rates of bacterial infections, causative organisms, patient backgrounds, and clinical outcome in Japanese patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study that included inpatients with COVID-19 from multiple centers participating in the Japan COVID-19 Taskforce (April 2020 to May 2021) and obtained demographic, epidemiological, and microbiological results and the clinical course and analyzed the cases of COVID-19 complicated by respiratory bacterial infections. RESULTS: Of the 1,863 patients with COVID-19 included in the analysis, 140 (7.5%) had respiratory bacterial infections. Community-acquired co-infection at COVID-19 diagnosis was uncommon (55/1,863, 3.0%) and was mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Hospital-acquired bacterial secondary infections, mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, were diagnosed in 86 patients (4.6%). Severity-associated comorbidities were frequently observed in hospital-acquired secondary infection cases, including hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The study results suggest that the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (> 5.28) may be useful in diagnosing complications of respiratory bacterial infections. COVID-19 patients with community-acquired or hospital-acquired secondary infections had significantly increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory bacterial co-infections and secondary infections are uncommon in patients with COVID-19 but may worsen outcomes. Assessment of bacterial complications is important in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and the study findings are meaningful for the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and management strategies.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross Infection , Respiratory Tract Infections , Staphylococcal Infections , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , East Asian People , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Disease Progression
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(4): 422-426, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the occurrence of non-respiratory bacterial and fungal secondary infections, causative organisms, impact on clinical outcomes, and association between the secondary pathogens and mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that included data from inpatients with COVID-19 from multiple centers participating in the Japan COVID-19 Taskforce (April 2020 to May 2021). We obtained demographic, epidemiological, and microbiological data throughout the course of hospitalization and analyzed the cases of COVID-19 complicated by non-respiratory bacterial infections. RESULTS: Of the 1914 patients included, non-respiratory bacterial infections with COVID-19 were diagnosed in 81 patients (4.2%). Of these, 59 (3.1%) were secondary infections. Bacteremia was the most frequent bacterial infection, occurring in 33 cases (55.9%), followed by urinary tract infections in 16 cases (27.1%). Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common causative organism of bacteremia. Patients with COVID-19 with non-respiratory secondary bacterial infections had significantly higher mortality, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that those with bacteremia (aOdds Ratio = 15.3 [5.97-39.1]) were at higher risk of death. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, male sex, use of steroids to treat COVID-19, and intensive care unit admission increased the risk for nosocomial bacteremia. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary bacteremia is an important complication that may lead to poor prognosis in cases with COVID-19. An appropriate medical management strategy must be established, especially for patients with concomitant predisposing factors.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mycoses , Humans , Male , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Mycoses/microbiology , COVID-19 Testing
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(4): e37, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rate and composition of bacterial co-infection in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were evaluated when microbiological testing was conducted on the majority of patients. We also evaluated whether the use of empirical antibacterials was associated with mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective study, all of the adult patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a single tertiary hospital in South Korea between February 2020 and December 2021 were included. Bacterial co-infection was assessed by sputum cultures, blood cultures, and molecular testing, including polymerase chain reaction sputum testing and urinary antigen tests. Mortality was compared between patients who received empirical antibacterials and those who did not. RESULTS: Of the 367 adult patients admitted during the study period, 300 (81.7%) had sputum culture results and were included in the analysis. Of these 300 patients, 127 (42.3%) had a history of antibiotic exposure. The co-infection rate within 48 hours was 8.3% (25/300): 6.4% (11/173) of patients without prior antibiotic exposure and 11% (14/127) of patients with prior antibacterial exposure. The co-infected bacteria were different according to antibacterial exposure before admission, and multi-drug resistant pathogens were detected exclusively in the antibacterial exposed group. Among the patients without positive results for the microbiological tests, empirical antibacterials were used in 33.3% of cases (100/300). Empirical antibacterial therapy was not significantly related to the 30-day mortality or in-hospital mortality rates in the study cohort before or after the propensity score-matching. CONCLUSION: In this study including only patients underwent microbiological testing, bacterial co-infection was not frequent, and the co-infected organisms varied depending on previous antibacterial exposures. Given the rarity of co-infection and the lack of potential benefits, empiric antibacterial use in COVID-19 should be an important target of antibiotic stewardship.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Adult , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteria , Coinfection/drug therapy
8.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(5): 754-759, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056168

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that drastically impacted the United States. The evidence was not clear on how SARS-CoV-2 infection impacted children, given the high prevalence of SAR-CoV-2 infection. Febrile infants less than 60 days old are an ongoing challenge to risk-stratify for serious bacterial infection (SBI), including urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, and meningitis. We hypothesized there would be a lower rate of SBI in SARS-CoV-2 positive febrile infants compared to those SARS-CoV-2 negative. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review with a nested, age-matched, case-control study performed from March 2020-June 2021. Infants less than 60 days old presenting with fever were assigned groups based on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were used as the gold standard to diagnose SBI. We compared overall rate of SBI as well as individual rates of SBI between each group. We performed a subgroup analysis evaluating the age group 29-60 days old. RESULTS: A total of 164 subjects met criteria for analysis: 30 COVID-19 positive and 134 COVID-19 negative subjects. Rate of SBI was 17.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.8-25.5%) in the COVID-19 negative group compared to 0% (95% CI: 0.0%-11.1%) in the COVID-19 group, which demonstrated statistical significance (p = 0.008). In the age-matched data, we found statistical significance for any SBI (p = <0.001). For individual rates of SBI, we found statistical significance for UTI (p = <0.001) and bacteremia (p = <0.001). The 29-60 days-old subgroup analysis did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.11). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the utility of including SARS-CoV-2 infection as part of the risk stratification of febrile infants less than 60 days old. While overall there is a low incidence of bacteremia and meningitis in this age group, these results can contribute to existing literature and potentially help decrease invasive testing and exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Meningitis , Urinary Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Fever/diagnosis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Meningitis/complications , Meningitis/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
9.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05023, 2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025295

ABSTRACT

Background: Essential health and nutrition services for pregnant women, newborns, and children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), are disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This formative research was conducted at five LMICs to understand the pandemic's impact on barriers to and mitigation for strategies of care-seeking and managing possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) in young infants. Methods: We used a convergent parallel mixed-method design to explore the possible factors influencing PSBI management, barriers, and facilitators at three levels: 1) national and local policy, 2) the health systems, public and private facilities, and 3) community and caregivers. We ascertained trends in service provision and utilisation across pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown periods by examining facility records and community health worker registers. Results: The pandemic aggravated pre-existing challenges in the identification of young infants with PSBI; care-seeking, referral, and treatment due to several factors at the policy level (limited staff and resource reallocation), health facility level (staff quarantine, sub-optimal treatment in facilities, limited duration of service availability, lack of clear guidelines on the management of sick young infants, and inadequate supplies of protective kits and essential medicines) and at the community level (travel restrictions, lack of transportation, and fear of contracting the infection in hospitals). Care-seeking shifted to faith healers, traditional and informal private sources, or home remedies. However, caregivers were willing to admit their sick young infants to the hospital if advised by doctors. A review of facility records showed low attendance (<50%) of sick young infants in the OPD/emergencies during lockdowns in Bangladesh, India (both sites) and Pakistan, but it gradually increased as lockdowns eased. Stakeholders suggested aspirational and pragmatic mitigation strategies. Conclusions: We obtained useful insights on health system preparedness during catastrophes and strategies to strengthen services and improve utilisation regarding PSBI management. The current pandemic provides an opportunity for implementing various mitigation strategies at the policy, health system, and community levels to improve preparedness.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Referral and Consultation
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809915

ABSTRACT

Bacterial co-infections may aggravate COVID-19 disease, and therefore being cognizant of other pathogens is imperative. We studied the types, frequency, antibiogram, case fatality rates (CFR), and clinical profiles of co-infecting-pathogens in 301 COVID-19 patients. Co-infection was 36% (n = 109), while CFR was 31.2% compared to 9.9% in non-co-infected patients (z-value = 3.1). Four bacterial species dominated, namely, multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (37%, n = 48), extremely drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (26%, n = 34), multidrug-resistant Eschericia. coli (18.6%, n = 24), and extremely drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.5%, n = 11), in addition to other bacterial species (9.3%, n = 12). Increased co-infection of K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii was associated with increased death rates of 29% (n = 14) and 32% (n = 11), respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae was equally frequent in respiratory and urinary tract infections (UTI), while E. coli mostly caused UTI (67%), and A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa dominated respiratory infections (38% and 45%, respectively). Co-infections correlated with advance in age: seniors ≥ 50 years (71%), young adults 21-49 years (25.6%), and children 0-20 years (3%). These findings have significant clinical implications in the successful COVID-19 therapies, particularly in geriatric management. Future studies would reveal insights into the potential selective mechanism(s) of Gram-negative bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Female , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy
11.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 45, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 is difficult to distinguish from other viral and bacterial etiologies. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are frequently prescribed to patients hospitalized with COVID-19 which potentially acts as a catalyst for the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis during the first 18 months of the pandemic to quantify the prevalence and types of resistant co-infecting organisms in patients with COVID-19 and explore differences across hospital and geographic settings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science (BioSIS), and Scopus from November 1, 2019 to May 28, 2021 to identify relevant articles pertaining to resistant co-infections in patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Patient- and study-level analyses were conducted. We calculated pooled prevalence estimates of co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms using random effects models. Stratified meta-analysis by hospital and geographic setting was also performed to elucidate any differences. RESULTS: Of 1331 articles identified, 38 met inclusion criteria. A total of 1959 unique isolates were identified with 29% (569) resistant organisms identified. Co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms ranged from 0.2 to 100% among included studies. Pooled prevalence of co-infection with resistant bacterial and fungal organisms was 24% (95% CI 8-40%; n = 25 studies: I2 = 99%) and 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.6%; n = 8 studies: I2 = 78%), respectively. Among multi-drug resistant organisms, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multi-drug resistant Candida auris were most commonly reported. Stratified analyses found higher proportions of AMR outside of Europe and in ICU settings, though these results were not statistically significant. Patient-level analysis demonstrated > 50% (n = 58) mortality, whereby all but 6 patients were infected with a resistant organism. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 18 months of the pandemic, AMR prevalence was high in COVID-19 patients and varied by hospital and geography although there was substantial heterogeneity. Given the variation in patient populations within these studies, clinical settings, practice patterns, and definitions of AMR, further research is warranted to quantify AMR in COVID-19 patients to improve surveillance programs, infection prevention and control practices and antimicrobial stewardship programs globally.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mycoses/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Humans , Mycoses/etiology , Mycoses/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(3): 338-345, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722178

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aims to assess the changes in antimicrobial resistance among some critical and high-priority microorganisms collected previously and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Mexico. Methods: We collected antimicrobial susceptibility data for critical and high-priority microorganisms from blood, urine, respiratory samples, and from all specimens, in which the pathogen may be considered a causative agent. Data were stratified and compared for two periods: 2019 versus 2020 and second semester 2019 (prepandemic) versus the second semester 2020 (pandemic). Results: In the analysis of second semester 2019 versus the second semester 2020, in blood samples, increased resistance to oxacillin (15.2% vs. 36.9%), erythromycin (25.7% vs. 42.8%), and clindamycin (24.8% vs. 43.3%) (p ≤ 0.01) was detected for Staphylococcus aureus, to imipenem (13% vs. 23.4%) and meropenem (11.2% vs. 21.4) (p ≤ 0.01), for Klebsiella pneumoniae. In all specimens, increased ampicillin and tetracycline resistance was detected for Enterococcus faecium (p ≤ 0.01). In cefepime, meropenem, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Escherichia coli; and in piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance increased in Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in oxacillin resistance for S. aureus and carbapenem resistance for K. pneumoniae recovered from blood specimens deserves special attention. In addition, an increase in erythromycin resistance in S. aureus was detected, which may be associated with high azithromycin use. In general, for Acinetobacter baumannii and P. aeruginosa, increasing resistance rates were detected.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1670-1688, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718413

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is experiencing a second wave of COVID-19 since March 2021, despite the nationwide vaccination drive with ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccine from early February 2021. Here, we characterized 19 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples from COVID-19 suspect patients using genomic and metagenomic approaches. Screening for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed 17 samples of COVID-19 positive (vaccinated = 10, nonvaccinated = 7) and 2 samples of COVID-19 negative. We did not find any significant correlation between associated factors including vaccination status, age or sex of the patients, diversity or abundance of the coinfected organisms/pathogens, and the abundance of SARS-CoV-2. Though the first wave of the pandemic was dominated by clade 20B, Beta, V2 (South African variant) dominated the second wave (January 2021 to May 2021), while the third wave (May 2021 to September 2021) was responsible for Delta variants of the epidemic in Bangladesh including both vaccinated and unvaccinated infections. Noteworthily, the receptor binding domain (RBD) region of S protein of all the isolates harbored similar substitutions including K417N, E484K, and N501Y that signify the Beta, while D614G, D215G, D80A, A67V, L18F, and A701V substitutions were commonly found in the non-RBD region of Spike proteins. ORF7b and ORF3a genes underwent a positive selection (dN/dS ratio 1.77 and 1.24, respectively), while the overall S protein of the Bangladeshi SARS-CoV-2 isolates underwent negative selection pressure (dN/dS = 0.621). Furthermore, we found different bacterial coinfections like Streptococcus agalactiae, Neisseria meningitidis, Elizabethkingia anophelis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, expressing a number of antibiotic resistance genes such as tetA and tetM. Overall, this approach provides valuable insights on the SARS-CoV-2 genomes and microbiome composition from both vaccinated and nonvaccinated patients in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/administration & dosage , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Genome, Bacterial/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Microbiota/genetics , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selection, Genetic , Vaccination , Viral Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(7): 8718-8727, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683917

ABSTRACT

Transparent antimicrobial coatings can maintain the aesthetic appeal of surfaces and the functionality of a touch-screen while adding the benefit of reducing disease transmission. We fabricated an antimicrobial coating of silver oxide particles in a silicate matrix on glass. The matrix was grown by a modified Stöber sol-gel process with vapor-phase water and ammonia. A coating on glass with 2.4 mg of Ag2O per mm2 caused a reduction of 99.3% of SARS-CoV-2 and >99.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared to the uncoated glass after 1 h. We envisage that screen protectors with transparent antimicrobial coatings will find particular application to communal touch-screens, such as in supermarkets and other check-out or check-in facilities where a number of individuals utilize the same touch-screen in a short interval.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oxides/chemistry , Silver Compounds/chemistry , Ammonia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Glass/chemistry , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Oxides/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Silicates/chemistry , Silver Compounds/pharmacology , Water/chemistry
16.
Lancet ; 399(10325): 629-655, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to human health around the world. Previous publications have estimated the effect of AMR on incidence, deaths, hospital length of stay, and health-care costs for specific pathogen-drug combinations in select locations. To our knowledge, this study presents the most comprehensive estimates of AMR burden to date. METHODS: We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to and associated with bacterial AMR for 23 pathogens and 88 pathogen-drug combinations in 204 countries and territories in 2019. We obtained data from systematic literature reviews, hospital systems, surveillance systems, and other sources, covering 471 million individual records or isolates and 7585 study-location-years. We used predictive statistical modelling to produce estimates of AMR burden for all locations, including for locations with no data. Our approach can be divided into five broad components: number of deaths where infection played a role, proportion of infectious deaths attributable to a given infectious syndrome, proportion of infectious syndrome deaths attributable to a given pathogen, the percentage of a given pathogen resistant to an antibiotic of interest, and the excess risk of death or duration of an infection associated with this resistance. Using these components, we estimated disease burden based on two counterfactuals: deaths attributable to AMR (based on an alternative scenario in which all drug-resistant infections were replaced by drug-susceptible infections), and deaths associated with AMR (based on an alternative scenario in which all drug-resistant infections were replaced by no infection). We generated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for final estimates as the 25th and 975th ordered values across 1000 posterior draws, and models were cross-validated for out-of-sample predictive validity. We present final estimates aggregated to the global and regional level. FINDINGS: On the basis of our predictive statistical models, there were an estimated 4·95 million (3·62-6·57) deaths associated with bacterial AMR in 2019, including 1·27 million (95% UI 0·911-1·71) deaths attributable to bacterial AMR. At the regional level, we estimated the all-age death rate attributable to resistance to be highest in western sub-Saharan Africa, at 27·3 deaths per 100 000 (20·9-35·3), and lowest in Australasia, at 6·5 deaths (4·3-9·4) per 100 000. Lower respiratory infections accounted for more than 1·5 million deaths associated with resistance in 2019, making it the most burdensome infectious syndrome. The six leading pathogens for deaths associated with resistance (Escherichia coli, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were responsible for 929 000 (660 000-1 270 000) deaths attributable to AMR and 3·57 million (2·62-4·78) deaths associated with AMR in 2019. One pathogen-drug combination, meticillin-resistant S aureus, caused more than 100 000 deaths attributable to AMR in 2019, while six more each caused 50 000-100 000 deaths: multidrug-resistant excluding extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E coli, carbapenem-resistant A baumannii, fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli, carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant K pneumoniae. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive assessment of the global burden of AMR, as well as an evaluation of the availability of data. AMR is a leading cause of death around the world, with the highest burdens in low-resource settings. Understanding the burden of AMR and the leading pathogen-drug combinations contributing to it is crucial to making informed and location-specific policy decisions, particularly about infection prevention and control programmes, access to essential antibiotics, and research and development of new vaccines and antibiotics. There are serious data gaps in many low-income settings, emphasising the need to expand microbiology laboratory capacity and data collection systems to improve our understanding of this important human health threat. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and Department of Health and Social Care using UK aid funding managed by the Fleming Fund.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Global Burden of Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Global Health , Humans , Models, Statistical
17.
Microb Genom ; 8(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662163

ABSTRACT

The eighth Applied Bioinformatics and Public Health Microbiology (ABPHM) conference showcased the recent acceleration of bioinformatic approaches used in public health settings. This included approaches for the surveillance of infectious diseases, understanding microbial evolution and diversity and pathogen interactions. Overall, the meeting highlighted the importance of data-driven approaches used by scientists during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computational Biology/methods , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Public Health/methods , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans
18.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 155, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We defined the frequency of respiratory community-acquired bacterial co-infection in patients with COVID-19, i.e. patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or a COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) score ≥ 4, based on a complete clinical assessment, including prior antibiotic use, clinical characteristics, inflammatory markers, chest computed tomography (CT) results and microbiological test results. METHODS: Our retrospective study was conducted within a cohort of prospectively included patients admitted for COVID-19 in our tertiary medical centres between 1-3-2020 and 1-6-2020. A multidisciplinary study team developed a diagnostic protocol to retrospectively categorize patients as unlikely, possible or probable bacterial co-infection based on clinical, radiological and microbiological parameters in the first 72 h of admission. Within the three categories, we summarized patient characteristics and antibiotic consumption. RESULTS: Among 281 included COVID-19 patients, bacterial co-infection was classified as unlikely in 233 patients (82.9%), possible in 35 patients (12.4%) and probable in 3 patients (1.1%). Ten patients (3.6%) could not be classified due to inconclusive data. Within 72 h of hospital admission, 81% of the total study population and 78% of patients classified as unlikely bacterial co-infection received antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients are unlikely to have a respiratory community-acquired bacterial co-infection. This study underpins recommendations for restrictive use of antibacterial drugs in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453289

ABSTRACT

Bacterial toxins play a key role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. Based on their structural and functional properties, they employ various strategies to modulate lung barrier function and to impair host defense in order to promote infection. Although in general, these toxins target common cellular signaling pathways and host compartments, toxin- and cell-specific effects have also been reported. Toxins can affect resident pulmonary cells involved in alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and barrier function through impairing vectorial Na+ transport and through cytoskeletal collapse, as such, destroying cell-cell adhesions. The resulting loss of alveolar-capillary barrier integrity and fluid clearance capacity will induce capillary leak and foster edema formation, which will in turn impair gas exchange and endanger the survival of the host. Toxins modulate or neutralize protective host cell mechanisms of both the innate and adaptive immunity response during chronic infection. In particular, toxins can either recruit or kill central players of the lung's innate immune responses to pathogenic attacks, i.e., alveolar macrophages (AMs) and neutrophils. Pulmonary disorders resulting from these toxin actions include, e.g., acute lung injury (ALI), the acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), and severe pneumonia. When acute infection converts to persistence, i.e., colonization and chronic infection, lung diseases, such as bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) can arise. The aim of this review is to discuss the impact of bacterial toxins in the lungs and the resulting outcomes for pathogenesis, their roles in promoting bacterial dissemination, and bacterial survival in disease progression.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Bacteria/immunology , Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Signal Transduction
20.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481016

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is an urgent threat to public health and global development; in this scenario, the SARS-CoV2 pandemic has caused a major disruption of healthcare systems and practices. A narrative review was conducted on articles focusing on the impact of COVID-19 on multidrug-resistant gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. We found that, worldwide, multiple studies reported an unexpected high incidence of infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus, carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and C. auris among COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. In this setting, inappropriate antimicrobial exposure, environmental contamination, and discontinuation of infection control measures may have driven selection and diffusion of drug-resistant pathogens.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mycoses/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Fungi/drug effects , Humans , Infection Control , Intensive Care Units , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/epidemiology
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