Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
1.
J Mol Biol ; 434(4): 167409, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587212

ABSTRACT

The discovery of pyroptosis and its subsequent implications in infection and immunity has uncovered a new angle of host-defence against pathogen assault. At its most simple, gasdermin-mediated pyroptosis in bacterial infection would be expected to remove pathogens from the relative safety of the cytosol or pathogen containing vacuole/phagosome whilst inducing a rapid and effective immune response. Differences in gasdermin-mediated pyroptosis between cell types, stimulation conditions, pathogen and even animal species, however, make things more complex. The excessive inflammation associated with the pathogen-induced gasdermin-mediated pyroptosis contributes to a downward spiral in sepsis. With no currently approved effective treatment options for sepsis understanding how gasdermin-mediated pyroptotic pathways are regulated provides an opportunity to identify novel therapeutic candidates against this complex disease. In this review we cover recent advances in the field of gasdermin-mediated pyroptosis with a focus on bacterial infection and sepsis models in the context of humans and other animal species. Importantly we also consider why there is considerable redundancy set into these ancient immune pathways.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Phosphate-Binding Proteins , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins , Pyroptosis , Sepsis , Animals , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Humans , Inflammasomes , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins/metabolism , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/pathology
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559206

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is a phenomenon characterized by strong elevated circulating cytokines that most often occur after an overreactive immune system is activated by an acute systemic infection. A variety of cells participate in cytokine storm induction and progression, with profiles of cytokines released during cytokine storm varying from disease to disease. This review focuses on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cytokine storm induction and progression induced by pathogenic invasive infectious diseases. Strategies for targeted treatment of various types of infection-induced cytokine storms are described from both host and pathogen perspectives. In summary, current studies indicate that cytokine storm-targeted therapies can effectively alleviate tissue damage while promoting the clearance of invading pathogens. Based on this premise, "multi-omics" immune system profiling should facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic strategies to alleviate cytokine storms caused by various diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Sepsis/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sepsis/microbiology
3.
JCI Insight ; 7(1)2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523122

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are recognized as important circulating effector cells in the pathophysiology of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, their role within the inflamed lungs is incompletely understood. Here, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and parallel blood samples of critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and compared BAL fluid parameters with those of mechanically ventilated patients with influenza, as a non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia cohort. Compared with those of patients with influenza, BAL fluids of patients with COVID-19 contained increased numbers of hyperactivated degranulating neutrophils and elevated concentrations of the cytokines IL-1ß, IL-1RA, IL-17A, TNF-α, and G-CSF; the chemokines CCL7, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL11, and CXCL12α; and the protease inhibitors elafin, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1. In contrast, α-1 antitrypsin levels and net proteolytic activity were comparable in COVID-19 and influenza BAL fluids. During antibiotic treatment for bacterial coinfections, increased BAL fluid levels of several activating and chemotactic factors for monocytes, lymphocytes, and NK cells were detected in patients with COVID-19 whereas concentrations tended to decrease in patients with influenza, highlighting the persistent immunological response to coinfections in COVID-19. Finally, the high proteolytic activity in COVID-19 lungs suggests considering protease inhibitors as a treatment option.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/metabolism , Coinfection/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453289

ABSTRACT

Bacterial toxins play a key role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. Based on their structural and functional properties, they employ various strategies to modulate lung barrier function and to impair host defense in order to promote infection. Although in general, these toxins target common cellular signaling pathways and host compartments, toxin- and cell-specific effects have also been reported. Toxins can affect resident pulmonary cells involved in alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and barrier function through impairing vectorial Na+ transport and through cytoskeletal collapse, as such, destroying cell-cell adhesions. The resulting loss of alveolar-capillary barrier integrity and fluid clearance capacity will induce capillary leak and foster edema formation, which will in turn impair gas exchange and endanger the survival of the host. Toxins modulate or neutralize protective host cell mechanisms of both the innate and adaptive immunity response during chronic infection. In particular, toxins can either recruit or kill central players of the lung's innate immune responses to pathogenic attacks, i.e., alveolar macrophages (AMs) and neutrophils. Pulmonary disorders resulting from these toxin actions include, e.g., acute lung injury (ALI), the acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), and severe pneumonia. When acute infection converts to persistence, i.e., colonization and chronic infection, lung diseases, such as bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) can arise. The aim of this review is to discuss the impact of bacterial toxins in the lungs and the resulting outcomes for pathogenesis, their roles in promoting bacterial dissemination, and bacterial survival in disease progression.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Bacteria/immunology , Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Signal Transduction
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480797

ABSTRACT

The intestinal barrier plays an extremely important role in maintaining the immune homeostasis of the gut and the entire body. It is made up of an intricate system of cells, mucus and intestinal microbiota. A complex system of proteins allows the selective permeability of elements that are safe and necessary for the proper nutrition of the body. Disturbances in the tightness of this barrier result in the penetration of toxins and other harmful antigens into the system. Such events lead to various digestive tract dysfunctions, systemic infections, food intolerances and autoimmune diseases. Pathogenic and probiotic bacteria, and the compounds they secrete, undoubtedly affect the properties of the intestinal barrier. The discovery of zonulin, a protein with tight junction regulatory activity in the epithelia, sheds new light on the understanding of the role of the gut barrier in promoting health, as well as the formation of diseases. Coincidentally, there is an increasing number of reports on treatment methods that target gut microbiota, which suggests that the prevention of gut-barrier defects may be a viable approach for improving the condition of COVID-19 patients. Various bacteria-intestinal barrier interactions are the subject of this review, aiming to show the current state of knowledge on this topic and its potential therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/therapy , Haptoglobins/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Protein Precursors/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Mucus/metabolism , Tight Junctions/metabolism
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 687534, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295639

ABSTRACT

The clinical significance of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in the context of infections has attracted attention since their first discovery in patients with syphilis. In fact, the recognition of aPL in patients with infections has been described in parallel to the understating of the syndrome. Since the first description of aPL-positive tests in three patients with COVID-19 diagnosed in January 2020 in Wuhan, China, a large number of studies took part in the ongoing debate on SARS-2-Cov 2 induced coagulopathy, and many following reports speculated a potential role for aPL. In order to get further insights on the effective role of detectable aPL in the pro-thrombotic status observed in COVID-19 patients, we performed an observational age-sex controlled study to compare the aPL profile of hospitalized patients with COVID with those observed in a) patients with thrombotic APS and b) patients with cultural/serologically-proved infections. Our data showed positive aPL testing in about half of the patients (53%) with COVID-19 and patients with other viral/bacterial infections (49%). However, aPL profile was different when comparing patients with overt APS and patients with aPL detected in the contest of infections. Caution is therefore required in the interpretation and generalization of the role of aPL s in the management of patients with COVID-19. Before introducing aPL testing as a part of the routine testing in patients with COVID-19, larger well-designed clinical studies are required. While the pro-thrombotic status in patients with COVID-19 is now unquestionable, different mechanisms other than aPL should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/pathology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Virus Diseases/pathology , Aged , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/immunology , Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Diseases/complications
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 691879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282387

ABSTRACT

Increasing human Adenovirus (HAdV) infections complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) even fatal outcome were reported in immunocompetent adolescent and adult patients. Here, we characterized the cytokine/chemokine expression profiles of immunocompetent patients complicated with ARDS during HAdV infection and identified biomarkers for disease severity/progression. Forty-eight cytokines/chemokines in the plasma samples from 19 HAdV-infected immunocompetent adolescent and adult patients (ten complicated with ARDS) were measured and analyzed in combination with clinical indices. Immunocompetent patients with ARDS caused by severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (panH1N1) or bacteria were included for comparative analyses. Similar indices of disease course/progression were found in immunocompetent patients with ARDS caused by HAdV, SARS-CoV-2 or panH1N infections, whereas the HAdV-infected group showed a higher prevalence of viremia, as well as increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK). Expression levels of 33 cytokines/chemokines were increased significantly in HAdV-infected patients with ARDS compared with that in healthy controls, and many of them were also significantly higher than those in SARS-CoV-2-infected and panH1N1-infected patients. Expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1ß, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), IL-6, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), IL-10, IL-1α and IL-2Ra was significantly higher in HAdV-infected patients with ARDS than that in those without ARDS, and negatively associated with the ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2). Analyses of the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) showed that expression of IL-10, M-CSF, MIG, HGF, IL-1ß, IFN-γ and IL-2Ra could predict the progression of HAdV infection, with the highest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.944 obtained for IL-10. Of note, the AUC value for the combination of IL-10, IFN-γ, and M-CSF reached 1. In conclusion, the "cytokine storm" occurred during HAdV infection in immunocompetent patients, and expression of IL-10, M-CSF, MIG, HGF, IL-1ß, IFN-γ and IL-2Ra was closely associated with disease severity and could predict disease progression.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/blood , Cytokines/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Adenovirus Infections, Human/complications , Adenovirus Infections, Human/pathology , Adenoviruses, Human , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/pathology , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Viremia/blood , Viremia/complications , Viremia/pathology , Young Adult
8.
Virol J ; 18(1): 127, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implications of viral and bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 48 COVID-19 patients (29% ICU and 71% non-ICU) and screened for the presence of 24 respiratory pathogens using six multiplex PCR panels. RESULTS: We found evidence of co-infection in 34 COVID-19 patients (71%). Influenza A H1N1 (n = 17), Chlamydia pneumoniae (n = 13) and human adenovirus (n = 10) were the most commonly detected pathogens. Viral co-infection was associated with increased ICU admission (r = 0.1) and higher mortality (OR 1.78, CI = 0.38-8.28) compared to bacterial co-infections (OR 0.44, CI = 0.08-2.45). Two thirds of COVID-19 critically ill patients who died, had a co-infection; and Influenza A H1N1 was the only pathogen for which a direct relationship with mortality was seen (r = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of screening for co-infecting viruses in COVID-19 patients, that could be the leading cause of disease severity and death. Given the high prevalence of Influenza co-infection in our study, increased coverage of flu vaccination is encouraged to mitigate the transmission of influenza virus during the on-going COVID-19 pandemic and reduce the risk of severe outcome and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Influenza, Human/mortality , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027278

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases represent a relevant issue in lung cancer patients. Bacterial and viral infections might influence the patients' prognosis, both directly affecting the immune system and indirectly impairing the outcome of anticancer treatments, mainly immunotherapy. In this analysis, we aimed to review the current evidence in order to clarify the complex correlation between infections and lung cancer. In detail, we mainly explored the potential impact on immunotherapy outcome/safety of (1) bacterial infections, with a detailed focus on antibiotics; and (2) viral infections, discriminating among (a) human immune-deficiency virus (HIV), (b) hepatitis B/C virus (HBV-HCV), and (c) Sars-Cov-2. A series of studies suggested the prognostic impact of antibiotic therapy administration, timing, and exposure ratio in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, probably through an antibiotic-related microbiota dysbiosis. Although cancer patients with HIV, HBV, and HCV were usually excluded from clinical trials evaluating immunotherapy, some retrospective and prospective trials performed in these patient subgroups reported similar results compared to those described in not-infected patients, with a favorable safety profile. Moreover, patients with thoracic cancers are particularly at risk of COVID-19 severe outcomes and mortality. Few reports speculated about the prognostic implications of anticancer therapy, including immunotherapy, in lung cancer patients with concomitant Sars-Cov-2 infection, showing, to date, inconsistent results. The correlation between infectious diseases and immunotherapy remains to be further explored and clarified in the context of dedicated trials. In clinical practice, the accurate and prompt multidisciplinary management of lung cancer patients with infections should be encouraged in order to select the best treatment options for these patients, avoiding unexpected toxicities, while maintaining the anticancer effect.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Virus Diseases/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/microbiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/virology , HIV/drug effects , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/pathology , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/pathology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/microbiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Microbiota/drug effects , Microbiota/immunology
10.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e39-e41, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889613

ABSTRACT

A significant drop was found in the number of hospitalizations due to bacterial infections among children during the first peak period of COVID-19 in Israel. There was a 77% decrease in serious bacterial infections, and ≥50% decrease in most types of bacterial infections, especially osteoarticular and skin infections, followed by pneumonia and ENT infections.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Hospitalization/trends , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Incidence , Israel/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1958-1964, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725886

ABSTRACT

Objectives Severe or critical COVID-19 is associated with intensive care unit admission, increased secondary infection rate, and would lead to significant worsened prognosis. Risks and characteristics relating to secondary infections in severe COVID-19 have not been described. Methods Severe and critical COVID-19 patients from Shanghai were included. We collected lower respiratory, urine, catheters, and blood samples according to clinical necessity and culture and mNGS were performed. Clinical and laboratory data were archived. Results We found 57.89% (22/38) patients developed secondary infections. The patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or in critical state has a higher chance of secondary infections (P<0.0001). The most common infections were respiratory, blood-stream and urinary infections, and in respiratory infections, the most detected pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (26, 50.00%), following by gram-positive bacteria (14, 26.92%), virus (6, 11.54%), fungi (4, 7.69%), and others (2, 3.85%). Respiratory Infection rate post high flow, tracheal intubation, and tracheotomy were 12.90% (4/31), 30.43% (7/23), and 92.31% (12/13) respectively. Secondary infections would lead to lower discharge rate and higher mortality rate. Conclusion Our study originally illustrated secondary infection proportion in severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Culture accompanied with metagenomics sequencing increased pathogen diagnostic rate. Secondary infections risks increased after receiving invasive respiratory ventilations and intravascular devices, and would lead to a lower discharge rate and a higher mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/pathology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Fungemia/pathology , Mycoses/pathology , Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Urinary Tract Infections/pathology , Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Bacteremia/virology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bacterial Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/mortality , Fungemia/virology , Fungi/pathogenicity , Gram-Negative Bacteria/pathogenicity , Gram-Positive Bacteria/pathogenicity , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/mortality , Mycoses/virology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/mortality , Urinary Tract Infections/virology
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-699380

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) has been attracting much attention these days because of the close linkage to adverse outcomes. LC can be related to secondary sarcopenia due to protein metabolic disorders and energy metabolic disorders. LC is associated with profound alterations in gut microbiota and injuries at the different levels of defensive mechanisms of the intestinal barrier. Dysbiosis refers to a state in which the diversity of gut microbiota is decreased by decreasing the bacterial species and the number of bacteria that compose the gut microbiota. The severe disturbance of intestinal barrier in LC can result in dysbiosis, several bacterial infections, LC-related complications, and sarcopenia. Here in this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the relationship between sarcopenia and dysbiosis in patients with LC.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Liver Cirrhosis , Sarcopenia , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Dysbiosis/etiology , Dysbiosis/metabolism , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Dysbiosis/pathology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/microbiology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Sarcopenia/etiology , Sarcopenia/metabolism , Sarcopenia/microbiology , Sarcopenia/pathology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL